Indian Heritage-Veda.ppt


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Indian Heritage-Veda.ppt

  1. 1. VEDA I N D I A N H E R I T A G E
  2. 2. I hail Thee, Vyasa, again and again, Thou, God in human frame, Thou, scion of Vasistha’s ancient race, It is from Thee that all knowledge springs. urÉÉxÉÉrÉ ÌuÉwhÉÑÃmÉÉrÉ urÉÉxÉÃmÉÉrÉ ÌuÉwhÉuÉå | lÉqÉÉå uÉæ oÉë¼ÌlÉkÉrÉå uÉÉÍxÉ·ÉrÉ lÉqÉÉå lÉqÉÈ ||
  3. 3. <ul><li>The four Vedas, Rig, Yajur, Sama, and Atharva, which are believed to be vibrations in space and synthesized 5,000 years ago at the beginning of this Kali Yuga, by Bhagwan Veda Vyasa, consisted of 1,131 sakhas (recensions) </li></ul>21 in Rik 101 in Yajus 1000 in Sama 9 in Atharva
  4. 4. <ul><li>They were preserved in the Parampara (line) of Rishis (seers), viz., Paila, Vaishampayana, Jaimini and Sumanthu, by oral tradition, from father to son and guru (teacher) to sishya (disciple). </li></ul>
  5. 5. AlÉliÉÉ uÉæ uÉåSÉÈ | mÉëqÉÉhÉÇ uÉåSÉvcÉ | uÉåSævcÉ xÉuÉæ AWûqÉåuÉ uÉåbÉÉå | Infinite are the Vedas - Veda The Vedas are the proof of all Dharma - Apasthmba I am known through all the Vedas - Gita
  6. 6. <ul><li>The word ‘ Veda’ , derived from the root vid (to know), indicates a vast body of sacred and esoteric knowledge concerning the eternal spiritual values revealed to the great ones called rsis (men of wisdom, sages) in the depths of their meditation. </li></ul><ul><li>They are revered as the basic scriptures of Hinduism. </li></ul><ul><li>The dates assigned by the various scholars vary as widely as 25,000 B.C. to 1000 B.C. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Harappa-Mohenjodaro culture (c. 4000 B.C.) later phase of the Vedic culture. </li></ul><ul><li>This places the date of the Rg-Veda, the earliest of the Vedas, around 10,000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Vedas have been handed down to the posterity by oral tradition. Hence the name Shruti, ‘what is heard’. </li></ul><ul><li>They have been mainly utilized in the performance of yajnas and yagas. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>A compilation of all the hymns used by the Hota-priest to invite the various deities to the sacrifice became the Rg-Veda. </li></ul><ul><li>All the liturgical parts of the Vedas, useful to the Adhvaryu-priest, the chief executor of the sacrificial rites, brought together, formed the Yahurur-Veda. </li></ul><ul><li>All the musical chants. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Udgatr-priest, the singer, was named as Sama-Veda. </li></ul><ul><li>The rest, a sort of miscellaneous, became the Atharva-Veda and was assigned to the Brahma-priest, considered as the supervisor over the whole sacrificial process. </li></ul><ul><li>The great sage Krishna Dvaipayana Vyasa effected this division by collecting all the Mantras extant during his time and editing them into four groups. </li></ul>
  10. 10. rÉxrÉ ÌlÉvuÉÍxÉiÉÇ uÉåSÉÈ | uÉåSÉãÎZÉsÉÉã kÉqÉåqÉÑsÉÇ xqÉÔÌiÉvÉÏsÉå cÉ iÉ̲SÉqÉç | AÉcÉÉUvcÉæuÉ xÉÉkÉÔlÉÉqÉÉiqÉlÉxiÉÑÌwOûUåuÉ cÉ || uÉåSÉã ÌlÉirÉÇ AkÉÏrÉiÉÉÇ | iÉSè EÌSiÉÇ MüqÉå xuÉlÉÑwPÏrÉiÉÉÇ || Practice the Vedas daily Practice well their prescriptions - Adi Sankara He whose breath are the Vedas - Vidyaranya The entire corpus of the Veda, Smriti or the secondary remembered texts and the virtuous acts of the knowers of the Veda, the actions of holy men and what produces contentment to oneself are all rooted in dharma. - Manusmriti
  11. 11. Mantra Vedas are divided in another way Brahmana Samhita is the name given to the collection of the mantras Brahmana includes in itself two more sections, the Aranyaka and the Upanisad. Aranyaka teach about meditations based on symbolical interpretations liturgical rites. The Upanishad classified as philosophical treatises dealing with the ultimate problems of life.
  12. 12. Rgveda-Samhita is the oldest and has a preeminent place in the Vedic literature. Rgveda-Samhita 8 Astakas 64 Adhyayas 2,024 Vargas 10,552 Mantras 10 Mandalas 85 Anuvakas 1,028 Suktas 10,552 Mantras
  13. 13. <ul><li>Deities like Agni, Indra, Varuna, and others. </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophical speculations like the origin of the universe and the real nature of human beings. </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage, wars of kings, eulogy of generosity. </li></ul>Rgveda-Samhita
  14. 14. The Vedic deities are usually enumerated as 33 8 Vasus 11 Rudras 12 Adityas, Indra, and Prajapati These deities are assigned to the 3 regions of the earth (prthvi), heavens (dyaus) and the intermediary space (antariksa). Ekam sat, viprah bahudha vadanti | Truth is one; sages call it by various names.   Eka-devata-vada or monotheism and not polytheism, as is often mistakenly assumed.
  15. 15. <ul><li>Process of creation, we find 2 streams of thought, creation and evolution, both of which have been found in the later Vedantic literature. </li></ul><ul><li>Hindu tradition strongly advocates a knowledge of the Rsi, the Devata and the Chandas of any Mantra before using it in the religious rites. </li></ul><ul><li>Rsi is the sage to whom the Mantra was revealed; Devata is the deity to whom the Mantra is addressed; and Chandas is the metre in which is composed. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>800 Rsis exceeds. </li></ul><ul><li>19 Chandas including the minor variations. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Aitareya and Kausitaki Brahmanas, </li></ul><ul><li>2. Aitareya and Sankhayana Aranyakas, </li></ul><ul><li>3. Aitareya and Kausitaki Upanisads. </li></ul>Rgveda- samhita
  17. 17. 1. Krishna 2. Sukla Meaning the Black and the White. Yajurveda-samhita <ul><li>85 Sakhas or recensions only 4 are available now </li></ul><ul><li>Taittiriya </li></ul><ul><li>Maitrayaniya </li></ul><ul><li>Katha </li></ul><ul><li>Kapisthala </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Sukla-Yahurveda-samhita also known as Vajsaneyi-samhita, is said to have been collected and edited by the famous sage Yajnavalkya. </li></ul><ul><li>Isovasyopanisad & Brhadaranyakopanisad are the Upanishads of this Veda. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>‘ Sa’ means Rk, a Mantra of the Rgveda, ‘Ama’ means various kinds of musical notes. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence a ‘Saman’ is a Mantra of the Rgveda-samhita set to music. </li></ul><ul><li>All such mantras of the Rgveda which are useful to the Udgatr-priest, have been brought together in this work. </li></ul>Samaveda-samhita
  20. 20. <ul><li>Unlike the Mantras of the other 3 Vedas, the Mantras of the Samaveda, known simply as Samans, have 7 Svaras or musical scales, identical with the 7 scales of classical music. </li></ul><ul><li>It can thus be inferred that the origin of Indian classical music lies in the Samaveda. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Chandogya, and </li></ul><ul><li>Kena </li></ul><ul><li>Also called Talavakaropanisad are also attached to the Samaveda </li></ul>Two well-known Upanishads
  22. 22. <ul><li>Also known as Brahmaveda, since it is assigned to the Brahma-priest. </li></ul><ul><li>It deals more with the things here are now, than the hereafter, and with the sacrifices which are means to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Major part of this Veda is concerned with diseases and their cure, rites for prolonging life, rites for fulfilling one’s desires, building construction, trade and commerce, state craft, penances and propitiatory rites, as also black magic, though high philosophical ideas much nearer to those of the Upanishads. </li></ul>Athrvaveda-samhita
  23. 23. <ul><li>This Veda designates God the Absolute not only as Brahman but also by some interesting names like Skambha, Ucchista and Vratya. </li></ul><ul><li>This Veda also refers to heaven and hell, as also virtue and sin. The qualities like satya (truth), diksa (discipline) and tapas (austerity) that help man to attain perfection. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>This work gives us an interesting picture of the society of its times. </li></ul><ul><li>The land in which the people lived, extended from Gandhara (Afghanistan) to Magadha (Bihar) and Anga (Bengal). </li></ul><ul><li>The Varna system had been well-established. The first 3 Varnas were powerful. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Trade and commerce were prosperous though agriculture was the mainstay of the people. Sometimes the Brahmanas were harassed by the powerful Ksattriya kings. </li></ul><ul><li>The cow was highly venerated and godana (gift of a cow) was considered meritorious. </li></ul><ul><li>The institution of marriage was similar to that in the Rgvedic times. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Unique system of chanting that had been evolved, consisting of pada-patha, karma-patha, japa-patha, and ghana-patha, which are all various chanting modes. </li></ul>Epilogue
  27. 27. <ul><li>Siksa – deals with the modes of chanting. </li></ul><ul><li>Vyakarana – is Vedic grammar. </li></ul><ul><li>Chandas – is concerned with the details of the metres of Vedic poetry. </li></ul><ul><li>Nirukta – gives the meanings and explanations of Vedic words. </li></ul>The 6 Vedangas (limbs of Veda), 6 subsidiary sciences that help unfold the Vedic wisdom, came into existence. They are:
  28. 28. <ul><li>Jyotisa – though a work of astronomy, is more directly concerned with the times and periods suitable for the performance of the Vedic sacrifices. </li></ul><ul><li>Kalpa – in the form of sutras or aphorisms, has 4 branches srauta, grhya, dharma, and sulba. It deals with all aspects of sacrificial rites and smaller religious rites performed at home. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>In understanding the Vedic literature, Bhasyas or commentaries have done yeomen service. </li></ul><ul><li>There have been a galaxy of commentator over the centuries, among whom Sayanacarya (14th cent) holds a unique place, not only because of sheer volume of work, but also because of the quality. </li></ul>