Indian Heritage-Pride of India.ppt


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Indian Heritage-Pride of India.ppt

  1. 1. PRIDE OF INDIA By, Dr. Shamanthakamani Narendran M.D.(Pead), Ph.D. (Yoga Science) I N D I A N H E R I T A G E
  2. 2. <ul><li>Vedas: From the root Vid, to know, meaning the text to be learnt. There are 4 of them Rig, Yajus, Sama, and Atharva. </li></ul><ul><li>Vishvamitra: A vedic sage to whom the Gayatri-mantra was revealed. </li></ul><ul><li>Vyasa: The sage who classified and categorized the entire Vedic literature. He is also known as Krishna Dvaipayana. The word Vyasa means dividing and organizing and would suggest an editor. He lived around 3110 BC. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Yahnavalkya: A sage to whom the Shukla Yajur-veda is attributed. His supplementary work cover various branches of knowledge including Yoga, Dharma-shastra and phonetics. </li></ul><ul><li>Yajur-veda: Literally the Veda for worship or sacrifices. The Yajus that make the Veda-samhita are in prose form. It is the 2 nd of the four Vedas. It is in vogue in two forms, Krishna Yajur-veda and Shukla Yajur-veda. </li></ul><ul><li>Yuga: An era. Traditionally there are four yugas – Krita, Treta, Dvapara, and Kali, spanning thousands of years. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Upangas <ul><li>Shiksha (phonetics) </li></ul><ul><li>Vyakarna (grammer) </li></ul><ul><li>Chandas (prosody) </li></ul><ul><li>Nirukta (etymology) </li></ul><ul><li>Jyotisha (astrology) </li></ul><ul><li>Kalpa (rules for rituals) </li></ul><ul><li>Meemamsa (rituals and philosophy) </li></ul><ul><li>Nyaya (logic) </li></ul><ul><li>Purana (history) </li></ul><ul><li>Dharmashastra (law and ethics) </li></ul>Aids for rituals Language tools Vedangas The 4 Vedas Chaturdasa Vidyas Tools to understand the Vedas
  5. 5. MANUSCRIPT WEALTH OF INDIA Source: Discussion paper, National Mission for Manuscripts, June 2002 Sampurnananda Samskrit University Library of Tibetan Works and Archives Government Oriental Manuscript Library Oriental Institute & Manuscript Library TMSSM Library Adyar Library and Research Society Asiatic Society Orrisa state Museum Khuda Baksh Oriental Library State Central Library Name Varanasi Dharmashala Chennai Trivandrum Thanjavur Chennai Kolkata Orissa Patna Hyderabad 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Location Sl.
  6. 6. MYTHOLOGY TO SCIENCE <ul><li>Mythology  Science </li></ul><ul><li>Myth is a commonly held belief that is untrue. </li></ul><ul><li>Mythology refers to stories of ancient legends and heroes and the study of such stories. </li></ul><ul><li>Mythologies are expected to have veiled meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>The Samskrit equivalent of myth is Purana, which interestingly means that which was old and is relevant now. (Pura + Navam) </li></ul><ul><li>Hindu mythology which contain very interesting science in Cosmology and Evolution. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Very unfortunately, the only way of recognising the science in ancient texts has been after the rediscovery of the truth in the west. </li></ul><ul><li>Mythological stories contain a series of assertions, some of which have now been discovered as science. </li></ul><ul><li>The as yet unverified truth could be postulates for future research and validation, which would go beyond merely establishing the superior wisdom of the civilisation. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Age of Brahma <ul><li>15 twinkles of eye = 1 kashta </li></ul><ul><li>30 kashta = 1 kala </li></ul><ul><li>30 kalas = 1 muhurta </li></ul><ul><li>30 muhurtas = 1 day and night </li></ul><ul><li>30 day and nights = 1 month </li></ul><ul><li>6 months = 1 ayana </li></ul><ul><li>2 ayanas = 1 year </li></ul><ul><li>12,000 divine years = 4 yugas </li></ul><ul><li>(1 day of Brahma) </li></ul>Source: Visnu-puranam, Book 1, Chapter 3, Slokah 8-11 and 15 (Post-vedic period)
  9. 9. Notes: 1 divine year = 360 human years  12,000 divine years = 43,20,000 human years = 1 day of Brahma, the creator of this Universe. Western Reference The big bang is the biggest budget universe ever, with mind-boggling numbers to dazzle us – a technique pioneered by 5th century AD Indian cosmologists, the first to estimate the age of the earth at more than 4 billion years ( Lost Discoveries, Dick Teresi, pg 159 ).
  10. 10. Creation From the Atman (Supreme soul) space came into being, from space wind, from wind  fire, from fire  water, from water  earth, from earth  plants, from plants  food, from food  man (came into being). <ul><li>Source </li></ul><ul><li>Yajur-vedah </li></ul><ul><li>Taittiriyopanisad </li></ul><ul><li>Brahmananda-valli </li></ul><ul><li>Anuvakah I (Vedic period). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Notes The above hierarchy is well appreciated when one takes into consideration the nature of the 5 elements, each inheriting the characteristics of its parent-element The commonality of fundamental thoughts across disciplines in the Indian Knowledge System is known Space Wind Fire Water Earth Elements Sound Sound + touch Sound + touch + form Sound + touch + form + taste Sound + touch + form + taste + smell 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Attributes Sl.
  12. 12. Dasavataras <ul><li>The 10 avataras of Lord Vishnu are </li></ul><ul><li>Matsya (the fish), </li></ul><ul><li>Kurma (the tortoise), </li></ul><ul><li>Varaha (the boar), </li></ul><ul><li>Narashima (the man-lion), </li></ul><ul><li>Vamana (the dwarf), </li></ul><ul><li>Parashurama (the axe-wielder), </li></ul><ul><li>Rama (the king Rama), </li></ul><ul><li>Balarama (the plough-wielder), </li></ul><ul><li>Krishna (the flute-player one), and </li></ul><ul><li>Kalki(the evil-destroyer). </li></ul>
  13. 13. The first 6 incarnations represent physical evolution on the human form <ul><li>Fish Water dwelling </li></ul><ul><li>Tortoise Amphibian </li></ul><ul><li>Boar Animal – land </li></ul><ul><li>Narasimha Man – Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Vamana Dwarf </li></ul><ul><li>Parashurama Fully grown man </li></ul>
  14. 14. 6 th Parashurama ------ Axe <ul><li>7 th to 9 th deal with the social and cultural evolution of man. </li></ul><ul><li>The evolution is evidenced by the weapons that these incarnations carry even without reference to the story. </li></ul><ul><li>Though having evolved physically, Parashurama through his life wsa spent in persecuting kings. </li></ul><ul><li>Only physically the form has become human </li></ul>
  15. 15. 7 th Rama------ Bow <ul><li>Rama was the quint essential evolved human-being, who had completely overcome animal-like passions. </li></ul>8 th Balarama------ Plough <ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul>9 th Krishna------ Flute <ul><li>Fine art. </li></ul>10 th Kalki <ul><li>Kalki is a warning about the destruction the human race is capable of brining upon itself. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The tenth avatar - The Kalki Avatar (The slayer) is yet to be born.
  17. 17. EMBRYOLOGY & OBSTETRICS <ul><li>One of the three streams of medical education in ancient India was Obstetrics (the science of mid-wifery) and Pediatrics, which had as its original teachers Kashyapa, Vasishta, Atri and Bhrigu. </li></ul><ul><li>The codification of the practices of this school was made by Vagbhata (6 th century AD), who in addition to capturing the knowledge of Obstetrics and Pediatrics, documented facets of the other six segments of Ayurveds also, in his Astanga-sangraha. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>The Astanga-sangraha was updated by Vagbhata II in the seventh century AD. </li></ul><ul><li>The updated version is known as Ashtanga-hridaya. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to these specialized secular texts, the Atharva-veda and the assocaited Garbhopanishad (800 BCE) are repositories of knowledge in this field of medicine. </li></ul><ul><li>The knowledge found in this ancient Sanskrit literature is presented in two sections </li></ul><ul><li>Embryology Obstetrics </li></ul>
  19. 19. Does the fetus in the mother’s womb eat or not? <ul><li>It is said here that it does not ear. </li></ul><ul><li>If it were to eat, later (there would be) fecal matter. </li></ul><ul><li>That does not exist. Then how? </li></ul><ul><li>In the navel (of the child) a tubular vessel is fixed. In that (vessel) another (vessel) sheltering in mother’s heart, carrying the digested food of the mother the tubular vessel satisfies and grows the fetus just as canals pervading the fields nourish them. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Source <ul><li>Bhela-samhita, Sarirasthanam, Adhyayah 4, Paragraph 31 (Vedic period) </li></ul>Etymology <ul><li>Nadi  Tubular vessel </li></ul>Western Reference <ul><li>In the year 1604, an Italian physician Heironymus Fabricius published a book ‘Defornata foetu’ (On the formation of the fetus). </li></ul><ul><li>It is the first important study of embryology in the west and describes blood circulation in the umbilical cord. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Fetus in utero
  22. 22. INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION <ul><li>The Indus Valley civilization was stumbled upon as late as the early 20 th century by a British officer in India. </li></ul><ul><li>The civilisation spread across parts of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Baluchistan and Sind. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the main centers of the civilisation have been discovered at Harappa, Mohenjo Daro, Lothal, Ropar, and Kalibangan. </li></ul><ul><li>The primary reason why the Indus Valley civilisation has been widely acclaimed is that it was an urban civilisation. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>The civilisation was town based and there were granaries tha stored the grain that was believed to have been brought in from the adjoining agricultural lands. </li></ul><ul><li>Most city dwellers may have been traders or artisans, reflecting a high degree of occupational specialisation for a culture that developed so early. </li></ul><ul><li>Art and culture were fairly well developed, as may be judged from the exquisite sculpture of the bronze dancing girl of Mohenjo Daro. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Carving of a Naga and Nagini
  25. 25. <ul><li>Town planning was one of the key achievements of the Indus Valley people. </li></ul><ul><li>Roads were straight and cut at right angles, something that is a rare sight even in cities of today. </li></ul><ul><li>Cities were planned systematically, with residential, governance and administrative quarters clearly demarcated. </li></ul><ul><li>All houses, offices, granaries, etc. were built with baked bricks of the same size. </li></ul><ul><li>Sophisticated sewerage systems were in place, with an elaborate system of covered drains. </li></ul>
  26. 26. WHEEL
  27. 27. <ul><li>The Indus civilisation is home to the world's first urban sanitation system, again one that is far superior to what is seen in most parts of the country today. </li></ul><ul><li>A second astounding aspect of the Indus Civilisation was the standardisation of weights and measures. </li></ul><ul><li>The much spoken of seals are a striking achievement of the Indus people that allowed for authentication of goods that were traded. </li></ul><ul><li>The sheer quantity of seals discovered suggests that each merchant or mercantile family owned its own seal. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>These seals are in various quadrangular shapes and sizes, each with a human or an animal figure carved on it. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade was extensive, and Indus seals have been found in Persian Gulf and Sumer. </li></ul><ul><li>The fact that the script used by the Indus people has still not been deciphered would imply that there is a lot more to the civilisation that remains unknown to us. </li></ul>
  29. 29. SAPTA RUSHI
  30. 30. Sapta Rishis (Seven Sages) The Seven Spirits of The Elohim Virtues of the Sapta Rishis and the Elohim Seven Chakras Seven Heavens   Jamadagni God Alignment Crown Chakra Seventh Heaven   Vishvamitra Holy Spirit Humility Third Eye Chakra Sixth Heaven   Kashyapa Christ Compassion Throat Chakra Fifth Heaven Bharadvaj   OM Balance Heart Chakra Fourth Heaven   Atri Love Acceptance Third Chakra Third Heaven   Vashishtha Faith Sharing Second Chakra Second Heaven   Gautama Hope Grounding Root Chakra First Heaven Universal Plane
  31. 32. Thank You