Dr. Shamanthakamani Narendran M.D. (Pead), Ph.D. (Yoga Science) Indian Heritage
<ul><li>Deep devotion to truth and ingrained honesty. </li></ul><ul><li>This had been possible solely because the ancient ...
<ul><li>Modern saints like Ramakrishna, Vivekananda, Aurobindo and Ramana Maharsi.  </li></ul><ul><li>Their life and teach...
<ul><li>All the dreadful vices of theirs like consumerism, alcoholism, addiction to drugs and profligate promiscuity are –...
<ul><li>Product of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Fredrick Max Muller    influenced by Bishop Ussher </li></ul><ul><li>World wa...
<ul><li>The ancient race of the Indus Valley was indigenous to India </li></ul><ul><li>No Aryan Invasion and no separate D...
<ul><li>Division of labour in the Society </li></ul><ul><li>Brahmana  Custodian of Scriptures </li></ul><ul><li>Kshatriya ...
<ul><li>A block of stone is ‘ prakrti ,’ the basic raw material.  When it is sculptured into a beautiful image, it becomes...
<ul><li>Training in the gurukulas (forest academies) the masses were educated by the wise elders of the society through su...
<ul><li>Has been the primary basis of Hindu culture, all other aspects of life here and now, that contribute to the attain...
<ul><li>‘ Adhyatmavidya’ or the science of the Self within.   </li></ul>RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY   The two aspects – the Da...
<ul><li>The well-known schools of Hindu philosophy are six.  Hence the name ‘sad-darsanas’ (sad – six; darsana – philosoph...
<ul><li>The shape of things is directly related to the adrsta (unseen deserts) of the jivas (individual souls) left over u...
<ul><li>He attains moksa or liberation (a state of absolute negation of all pain and suffering) through tattvajnana (knowl...
<ul><li>In fact, the whole process of creation is for the benefit of the purusas, for their spiritual upliftment, resultin...
<ul><li>The Mimamsa system of Jaimini advocates the theory that prakrti or insentient nature evolves by itself into this u...
<ul><li>According to the Vedanta system of Badarayana (also known as Vyasa), Brahman the Absolute, projects this universe ...
<ul><li>Coming to Yoga, the practical aspect, there are four of them: Karma yoga , Bhakti yoga, Jnana yoga and Raja yoga. ...
<ul><li>Raja yoga (based mainly on Patanjali Yoga system) prescribes an eightfold path leading finally to samadhi or super...
<ul><li>Artha (wealth) and kama (instinctive desires of the flesh).  </li></ul><ul><li>These can be earned and enjoyed onl...
<ul><li>Never ignored the social aspects of life even while constantly stressing the ultimate spiritual goal.   </li></ul>...
NYAYA LOGIC Gautama VAISESIKA ATOMISM Kanada SAMKHYA Kapila YOGA Patanjali PURVA MIMAMSA Jaimini UTTARA MIMAMSA Badarayana...
<ul><li>The purusartha principle, the varna system and the asrama scheme of life are the three legs of the tripod that gav...
<ul><li>As for the ksattriyas, many of them were not only good kings but also experts in the field of Vedic lore and saint...
<ul><li>They have successfully built huge corporations and had also established trade links with foreign countries such as...
<ul><li>They could learn and teach religious truths except the Vedas.  </li></ul><ul><li>They could adopt various professi...
<ul><li>We can dilate a little, on the status and condition of women in India.  </li></ul><ul><li>During the Vedic age the...
<ul><li>The other who did not pursue this path but chose to enter into the married life straight-away, were called ‘sadyov...
<ul><li>The wife know as ‘grhini’ was considered as ‘half’ of the husband and constituted the real ‘graha’ or home.  </li>...
<ul><li>Pakasastra (the culinary art) was well-developed, Nala and Bhima being the legendary experts in this field. </li><...
<ul><li>All fields of vidya or knowledge were divided into two broad streams; the paravidya (the higher knowledge, the spi...
<ul><li>It is very interesting to note that even an ancient Upanisad – the Chandogya Upanisad – assigned to the period 400...
<ul><li>The teacher kept their students in their own houses.  </li></ul><ul><li>When the number of students became large, ...
<ul><li>Some cities like Pataliputra, Vidisa and Kancipuram were called ‘ghatikasthanas,’ centres capable of measuring the...
<ul><li>These universities had several mahapathasalas (collages) and each of these again comprised several lecture halls. ...
<ul><li>The art of writing was known even during the Vedic age though memorization was preferred and encouraged.  </li></u...
<ul><li>Sanskrit works existed even as early as 600-100 BC.  </li></ul><ul><li>Apart from the Vedas, the epics – the Ramay...
<ul><li>Democracy was not at all an unknown system in ancient and medieval India.  </li></ul><ul><li>The various public in...
<ul><li>A sound economic philosophy, expansive trade and commerce, well-organized trade-guilds, a good coinage system, sen...
<ul><li>The Arthasastra of Kautilya (300 BC) being the oldest among the best organized works on secular codes of law, can ...
<ul><li>‘ Sabhas’ were known to have existed even from the Vedic times.  </li></ul><ul><li>They were judicial assemblies c...
<ul><li>Full records of the proceedings were kept.  Justice was administered openly.   </li></ul>The Court  <ul><li>The Ch...
<ul><li>The contribution of Hindu India to the field of science is no less significant than its contribution to the field ...
<ul><li>Vasistha and Vyasa were rsis in the field of spiritual wisdom, Dhanvantari, Varahamihira and Bhaskara were rsis in...
<ul><li>Drawing and Painting </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><li>Dance </li></ul>HINDU F...
<ul><li>Another speciality of Indian music is that specific ragas are assigned to specific periods of the day or night.  <...
<ul><li>If symphony is the heart of Western music, sruti (drone or basic musical sound as the one produced by the tanpura)...
<ul><li>There are many similarities as also notable distinctions between the two schools.  </li></ul><ul><li>The uttaradi ...
<ul><li>Apart from vocal music, Indian music system is rich in instruments tool.  </li></ul><ul><li>Even in the Vedic and ...
a.      Bharata-natya – South India b.      Kathak – Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh  c.      Kathakkali - Kerala d.      Kuci...
<ul><li>Bhangra (Punjab) </li></ul><ul><li>Garba (Gujarat) </li></ul><ul><li>Holi (Manipur) </li></ul><ul><li>Kolata (Karn...
<ul><li>Item of social education and entertainment.  Dramas of Kalidasa, Bhavabhuti (8 th  cent.), Sudraka (3 rd  cent.) a...
<ul><li>Max Muller wrote to his wife in 1886 his intention to undermine Hinduism as, The translation of vedas will hereaft...
<ul><li>MAX MULLER : (1823 – 1900). BASED HIS THEORY SOLELY ON GHOST STORIES OF “KATHA SARITSAGARA” </li></ul><ul><li>Pare...
<ul><li>Thus Max Muller was successful in, </li></ul><ul><li>Providing precedence for subjugating India </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Carbon 14 dating </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery of Indus Valley cities </li></ul><ul><li>Saraswathy River findings </...
<ul><li>500,000 Stone hand axes etc tools were made in India </li></ul><ul><li>300,000 Homosapiens with same brain size th...
<ul><li>6,500 Rig Veda versus indicate winter solstice – composed early vedic hymns – David Frawley </li></ul><ul><li>6,00...
<ul><li>1,500 Indus valley civilization is abandoned due to floods </li></ul><ul><li>950 First Jewish settlement in India ...
INDIAN CULTURE VEDA MANTRA SAMHITA BRAHMANA ARANYAKA UPANISHAD KARMA KANDA JNANA KANDA UPASANA KANDA
 
<ul><li>RG </li></ul><ul><li>1020 sukthas laudatory in nature </li></ul><ul><li>10 mandalas with anuvak & sukthas </li></u...
<ul><li>SAMA </li></ul><ul><li>15 prts, 32 chps </li></ul><ul><li>Statras sung in Musical form </li></ul><ul><li>Origin of...
<ul><li>The basic Knowledge texts of the culture </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with the most fundamental questions of ma </li></...
PRSTHANATRAYA OTHER TEXTS VEDANGAS (UPAVEDAS) OTHER VEDANGAS ITIHASA OR EPICS PURANAS OR MYTHOLOGY Upanishads (srouta)  Br...
<ul><li>The foregoing brief survey of the spread of Hindu culture in various parts of the world confirms the observations ...
<ul><li>The response should have been very severe retaliation ‘in their own coin’ as Lord Krishna has taught in the  Mahab...
<ul><li>Proclaim her to all the world with the voice of peace and benediction. </li></ul><ul><li>It is up to the modern ge...
<ul><li>The National Emblem of India is a replica of the Lion of Sarnath, near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh.  </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>The National emblem is thus symbolic of contemporary India's reaffirmation of its ancient commitment to world peac...
<ul><li>The abacus rests on a lotus in full bloom, exemplifying the fountainhead of life and creative inspiration. The mot...
NATIONAL SONG OF INDIA
<ul><li>The Indian flag was designed as a symbol of freedom.  </li></ul><ul><li>The late Prime Minister Nehru called it a ...
<ul><li>In the centre of the white band, there is a wheel in navy blue to indicate the Dharma Chakra, the wheel of law in ...
NATIONAL ANTHEM
eÉlÉaÉhÉqÉlÉ-AÍkÉlÉÉrÉMü eÉrÉ Wåû pÉÉUiÉ pÉarÉ ÌuÉkÉÉiÉÉ | mÉÇeÉÉoÉ-ÍxÉlkÉÑ-aÉÑeÉUÉiÉ-qÉUÉPûÉ SìÉÌuÉQû-EiMüsÉ oÉXûaÉ | ÌuÉ...
 
 
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Indian Heritage.ppt

  1. 1. Dr. Shamanthakamani Narendran M.D. (Pead), Ph.D. (Yoga Science) Indian Heritage
  2. 2. <ul><li>Deep devotion to truth and ingrained honesty. </li></ul><ul><li>This had been possible solely because the ancient and the medieval Hindus of India never forgot that drama (ethical values) and adhyatmavidya (spirituality) were the centre of gravity of their life. </li></ul>INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. <ul><li>Modern saints like Ramakrishna, Vivekananda, Aurobindo and Ramana Maharsi. </li></ul><ul><li>Their life and teachings have shown us the moderns, not only the need for and utility of a higher degree of civilization but also its limitations and dangers, thereby showing where to draw the borderline. </li></ul><ul><li>While they have taught us to be rightfully proud of our past history and culture, they have also reminded us very forcefully that we should take only the best from other nations and integrate it with out basic culture. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>All the dreadful vices of theirs like consumerism, alcoholism, addiction to drugs and profligate promiscuity are – fast catching us. </li></ul><ul><li>If we do not wake up immediately to these dangers and try vigorously to tread the path blazed by our religiospiritual heritage, the future generations – if at all they come into existence – can never forgive us! </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Product of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Fredrick Max Muller  influenced by Bishop Ussher </li></ul><ul><li>World was created at 3 p.m. on October 26 th 4004 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Last Ice Age ended c 10,000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Continental drift ended c 8000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Great Indus Valley civilization C7000-3000 B.C. </li></ul>HISTORY OF INDIAN CULTURE INDOLOGY : science of the study of ancient India --- mid nineteenth century
  6. 6. <ul><li>The ancient race of the Indus Valley was indigenous to India </li></ul><ul><li>No Aryan Invasion and no separate Dravidian Race </li></ul><ul><li>Vedas come from this civilization and not from central Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Deciphering of the seals and tablets and the Vedic Mantras. </li></ul>Indus Valley civilization flourished along the banks of the river Saraswathi of Rg-Veda
  7. 7. <ul><li>Division of labour in the Society </li></ul><ul><li>Brahmana Custodian of Scriptures </li></ul><ul><li>Kshatriya Protector of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Vaisya Trade and Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Sudra Service </li></ul><ul><li>[Based not on Birth but on Gunas and Karmas] </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>A block of stone is ‘ prakrti ,’ the basic raw material. When it is sculptured into a beautiful image, it becomes ‘ samskrti .’ </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>A lump of gold is ‘ prakriti .’ An elegant ornament made out of it is ‘ samskrti .’ </li></ul><ul><li>Raw food articles like rice and sugar are ‘ prakrti ,’ whereas a delicious pudding prepared out of them is ‘ samskrti .’ </li></ul>SAMSKRUTI OR CULTURE
  9. 9. <ul><li>Training in the gurukulas (forest academies) the masses were educated by the wise elders of the society through such popular devices as harikathas (musical discourses with ethico-religious themes), devotional music, folklore, folk-songs and folk-drams, recitation of mythological works and so on. </li></ul>Training in culture
  10. 10. <ul><li>Has been the primary basis of Hindu culture, all other aspects of life here and now, that contribute to the attainment of peace and joy, have also been given their due place. For instance: social values; political institutions including the judiciary; economic ideas; educational system; physical, chemical, biological and health sciences; engineering sciences, arts like music, dance, drama, drawing, painting and sculpture and so on. </li></ul>Religion and philosophy
  11. 11. <ul><li>‘ Adhyatmavidya’ or the science of the Self within. </li></ul>RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY The two aspects – the Darsanas and the Yogas <ul><li>This adhyatmavidya has two aspects: theory and practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical speculations have lead to the evolution of several schools of philosophy. </li></ul><ul><li>The practical application of their findings has led to formation of several systems of sadhanas or spiritual exercises called ‘yogas.’ </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The well-known schools of Hindu philosophy are six. Hence the name ‘sad-darsanas’ (sad – six; darsana – philosophy). </li></ul><ul><li>They are: Nyaya of Gautama, Vaisesika of Kanada, Sankhya of Kapila, Yoga of Patanjali, Mimamsa of Jaimini and Vedanta of Badarayana. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nyaya system of Gautama and the Vaisesika system of Kanada envisage creation by Paramatman (God) out of anus (atmos) which are eternal. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The shape of things is directly related to the adrsta (unseen deserts) of the jivas (individual souls) left over unredeemed, from the previous cycle of creation. </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of these atoms causes creation and their disintegration results in the dissolution of this universe. </li></ul><ul><li>The jiva has got into the bondage of transmigration due to ignorance of its real nature as an eternal entity different from the body, the senses and the mind. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>He attains moksa or liberation (a state of absolute negation of all pain and suffering) through tattvajnana (knowledge of the realities) by listening (sravana) to the truths mentioned in the scriptures, by reflecting on the same (manana) and by meditation on his true nature (nididhyasana). </li></ul><ul><li>The Sankhya system of Kapila and the Yoga system of Patanjali are complementary to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>They advance the theory that prakrti (the fundamental matrix of matter) evolves into this universe in the presence of the purusas (the individual souls) who act as catalytic agents. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>In fact, the whole process of creation is for the benefit of the purusas, for their spiritual upliftment, resulting finally in their emancipation. </li></ul><ul><li>The pancabhutas (the five elements like earth, water, and fire) are evolutes of this prakrti. </li></ul><ul><li>The universe is permutation and combination of purusa involves himself in bondage by getting attached to it and its products. This leads to repeated transmigration. </li></ul><ul><li>Detachment from it through vivekakhyati (discrimination and wisdom) aided by the eight steps of yoga leads him finally to emancipation. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>The Mimamsa system of Jaimini advocates the theory that prakrti or insentient nature evolves by itself into this universe, impelled by the prarabdha karma (actions done by the individual souls in the previous lives and about to be fructified) of the jivas. </li></ul><ul><li>Their liberation (described as total cessation of pain and suffering) is achieved by strictly following all the directions given in the Mimamsa works with regard to karmas (Vedic rituals and other actions). </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>According to the Vedanta system of Badarayana (also known as Vyasa), Brahman the Absolute, projects this universe out of itself, sustains it and withdraws it into itself in each cycle of creation. </li></ul><ul><li>It is something akin to a web coming out of the spider’s mouth or sparks emitted out of fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, everything that exists is really Brahman and there is nothing that is not Brahman. </li></ul><ul><li>The jiva gets liberated through jnana (knowledge of his real naure) and bhakti (devotion to Brahman) regaining his original state of infinite bliss. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Coming to Yoga, the practical aspect, there are four of them: Karma yoga , Bhakti yoga, Jnana yoga and Raja yoga. </li></ul><ul><li>All these yogas cleanse the mind and make it so pure that the atman within (Self or God) is automatically revealed. </li></ul><ul><li>If Karma yoga advocates the performance of all ordained actions with a desireless and selfless attitude, Bhakti yoga teaches devotion to God and attaining him through his grace. </li></ul><ul><li>Jnana yoga advises constant reflection and meditation of the true nature of oneself as the atman, ultimately resulting in its experience. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Raja yoga (based mainly on Patanjali Yoga system) prescribes an eightfold path leading finally to samadhi or super-conscious experience of the Self within. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic scriptures of Hinduism, viz., the Vedas, the Upanishads, the Bhagavadgita and allied works. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Artha (wealth) and kama (instinctive desires of the flesh). </li></ul><ul><li>These can be earned and enjoyed only they are in conformity with dharma (righteousness) and do not transgress it. </li></ul><ul><li>What dharma is and what it is not, can be known only through the holy books and the holy persons. Of course, moksa as the final goal of life is never omitted from such lists. </li></ul><ul><li>These four together – dharma, artha, kama and moksa – are called purusarthas (the four ends of life desired by all human beings). </li></ul>Samanya Dharmas or basic moral values The four purusarthas
  21. 21. <ul><li>Never ignored the social aspects of life even while constantly stressing the ultimate spiritual goal. </li></ul>The guru
  22. 22. NYAYA LOGIC Gautama VAISESIKA ATOMISM Kanada SAMKHYA Kapila YOGA Patanjali PURVA MIMAMSA Jaimini UTTARA MIMAMSA Badarayana SIX SYSTEMS OF PHILOSOPHY Buddha Buddhism 7 or 6 century bc Emperor Ashoka 3 century bc Islam 7 century bc Adi Shankara 7 century bc Ramanuja 11 century ad (1017-1137) Madhwa 13 century ad (1238-1317) Vallabha, Nimbarka, Chaitanya
  23. 23. <ul><li>The purusartha principle, the varna system and the asrama scheme of life are the three legs of the tripod that gave stability and vigor. </li></ul>HINDU SOCIETY <ul><li>Performing Vedic sacrifices was an integral part of the brahmana’s professional life </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence is not wanting to show that many brahmanas went to foreign countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mexico as also the South-East Asian countries to preach religion, philosophy and various aspects of Hindu culture. </li></ul>The Varna System
  24. 24. <ul><li>As for the ksattriyas, many of them were not only good kings but also experts in the field of Vedic lore and saintly in their personal life. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian ksattriya soldiers are said to have participated in the Marothon and Plataea battles (in Greece) in 490 BC. </li></ul><ul><li>The vaisyas were generally divided into two groups; the grhapatis and the sresthis. </li></ul><ul><li>The former lived by agriculture and dairy-farming. </li></ul><ul><li>The latter were devoted to trade and commerce. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>They have successfully built huge corporations and had also established trade links with foreign countries such as China and Java in the east, and Egypt, Greece and Rome in the West. </li></ul><ul><li>The sudras were divided into two classes; the sacchudras (the good) and the asacchudras (the not-so-good). </li></ul><ul><li>The former who led a good life – honoring the general moral principles – had been permitted even to undergo the upanayana ceremony and perform certain kinds of yajnas or sacrifices. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>They could learn and teach religious truths except the Vedas. </li></ul><ul><li>They could adopt various professions such as fighting, agriculture, mat-making, fishing, laundry, haircutting, and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>The life of an individual was divided into four asramas or stages of life. </li></ul><ul><li>They are; brahmacarya (studenthood), garhasthya (married state), vanaprastha (the state of forest recluse) and sannyasa (monkhood). </li></ul>The Asrama Scheme
  27. 27. <ul><li>We can dilate a little, on the status and condition of women in India. </li></ul><ul><li>During the Vedic age they were given a high place in the society. </li></ul><ul><li>The mention of women sages like Vac, Ambhrni, Romasa and Gargi in the Vedic lore corroborates this view. </li></ul><ul><li>Women could undergo the upanayana sacrament and pursue Vedic studies. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who chose this path were called ‘brahmavadinis.’ </li></ul>Status of Women
  28. 28. <ul><li>The other who did not pursue this path but chose to enter into the married life straight-away, were called ‘sadyovadhus.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Co-education seems to have existed in the earlier period. </li></ul><ul><li>Ksattriya ladies got training in the use of arms and other martial arts. </li></ul><ul><li>Both kanyavivaha (marriage of pre-puberty girl arranged by her parents) and praudhavivaha (marriage after attaining puberty) were prevalent. </li></ul><ul><li>Under certain circumstances, the girl had the freedom to choose her husband. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>The wife know as ‘grhini’ was considered as ‘half’ of the husband and constituted the real ‘graha’ or home. </li></ul><ul><li>She was called ‘samrajni (the queen or the mistress of the home) and had an equal share in the performance of religious rites. </li></ul><ul><li>The devadasi-system (devadasi  a girl or a woman ‘married’ to the God in a temple and expected to spend her lief as his servant-maid) seems to be a later development. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Pakasastra (the culinary art) was well-developed, Nala and Bhima being the legendary experts in this field. </li></ul><ul><li>Several attractive styles of dressing hair and wearing of ornaments (by both men and women) existed, reflecting the zest for life. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrestling, polo, playing of cards had their origin in India and were quite popular. </li></ul><ul><li>Life is not a curse but a great gift of God. It must be lived well. </li></ul>Some More Aspects of Social Life
  31. 31. <ul><li>All fields of vidya or knowledge were divided into two broad streams; the paravidya (the higher knowledge, the spiritual wisdom) and the aparavidya (the lower knowledge, the secular sciences). </li></ul><ul><li>The latter is needed to live a comfortable life here. The former helps one to be fully prepared for the hereafter. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence a balanced combination of both, is advocated so that both civilization and culture are imparted. </li></ul>HINDU EDUCATION SYSTEM
  32. 32. <ul><li>It is very interesting to note that even an ancient Upanisad – the Chandogya Upanisad – assigned to the period 4000 BC to 2500 BC, mentions as many as fifteen branches of knowledge apart from the four Vedas! </li></ul><ul><li>Some of them are; Vyakarana (grammer), Pitrya (science of obsequial rites), Ganita (mathematics), Daiva (knowledge of the portents), Tarka (logic), Ekayana (ethics), Bhutavidya (science of the spirits), Dhanurveda (martial arts and sciences), Jyautisa (astrology) and Devajanavidya (the art of preparing perfumes, music, dancing and sculpture). </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>The teacher kept their students in their own houses. </li></ul><ul><li>When the number of students became large, these houses would grow into institutions called ‘gurukulas,’ established by the society, the kings and the rich endowing them with sufficient property and funds so that they could provide quality education, free of cost, to all the students. </li></ul><ul><li>Varanasi or Kasi and Taksasila were well-known as great centres of learning even from the 8 th century BC. </li></ul>Gurukulas
  34. 34. <ul><li>Some cities like Pataliputra, Vidisa and Kancipuram were called ‘ghatikasthanas,’ centres capable of measuring the scholarship of the savants. </li></ul><ul><li>In such centres there were provision to get training in 14 to 18 branches of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>* Students were free to acquire a deep knowledge of their religion without any hindrance from the followers of other religions. </li></ul><ul><li>The universities of Taksasila (400 BC), Vikramasila (800 AD) and Nalanda (600 AD) had attained phenomenal growth and fame. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>These universities had several mahapathasalas (collages) and each of these again comprised several lecture halls. There were three huge buildings housing big libraties of invaluable manuscripts. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Nalanda University along there were 8500 students, taught by 1500 teachers with at least 100 lectures delivered per day! </li></ul><ul><li>Professors like Nagarjuna, Vasubandhu and Dinnaga were internationally reputed scholars attracting a large number of students from many foreign countries likes China, Japan, Korea, Turkestan, Burma, Gandhara (Afghanisthan), Sumatra and Persia. </li></ul><ul><li>Though education was mostly residential and free, studenst who could afford to pay, did so. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>The art of writing was known even during the Vedic age though memorization was preferred and encouraged. </li></ul><ul><li>The two scripts – Brahmi and Kharosthi are known to have existed even in 600 BC. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the Devangari and some of the South Indian scripts are its evolutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Talapatra (palm-lead), Bhurjapatra (brich-bark), wooden plates, cloth (of cotton or silk), leather, stone and bricks were used for writing. </li></ul>Script, Language and Literature
  37. 37. <ul><li>Sanskrit works existed even as early as 600-100 BC. </li></ul><ul><li>Apart from the Vedas, the epics – the Ramayana and the Mahabharata – stand out as monuments of exquisitely beautiful literature of a very high standard. </li></ul><ul><li>The ease and facility with which the Sanskrit language has been used even in the composition of technical subjects bearing on liturgy, medical and health sciences, ethics or linguistics, is astounding. </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Democracy was not at all an unknown system in ancient and medieval India. </li></ul><ul><li>The various public institutions such as the gramapancayats, sabhas and samitis, parisads and mahanadus practised it fairly extensively. </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed instructions regarding elections to such institutions are to be found in some works and stone edicts. </li></ul>POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS Generalities
  39. 39. <ul><li>A sound economic philosophy, expansive trade and commerce, well-organized trade-guilds, a good coinage system, sensible taxation laws, building up reserves for emergencies – which have characterized out political and social administration, should instill righteous pride in the mind and heart of every true Indian. </li></ul>HINDU ECONOMICS Epilogue
  40. 40. <ul><li>The Arthasastra of Kautilya (300 BC) being the oldest among the best organized works on secular codes of law, can throw a lot of light on Hindu jurisprudence. </li></ul><ul><li>It refers to mor than 12 authors of the earlier period. </li></ul>THE HINDU JUDICIAL SYSTEM
  41. 41. <ul><li>‘ Sabhas’ were known to have existed even from the Vedic times. </li></ul><ul><li>They were judicial assemblies consisting of good people –called Vrddhas or the wise ones – who were experts in the observance of satya (truth) and dharma (righteous conduct). </li></ul><ul><li>The qualifications generally insisted upon were; self-control, reputation of the family (from which he comes) for satya and dharma, impartiality, absence of excitement, steadfastness and energy in the performance of duties. </li></ul>Origin of the Hindu Judicial System
  42. 42. <ul><li>Full records of the proceedings were kept. Justice was administered openly. </li></ul>The Court <ul><li>The Chief Justice (called pradvivaka) and Minister of Justice (known as dharmadhikarana) formed the core of the judicial system and of the judicial administration. </li></ul>System of Judiciary and Judicial Administration <ul><li>In Conclusion The Hindu judicial system, many of whose features are found even in the modern days, offers a good field of research. Its findings can certainly enrich our field of jurisprudence helping us further towards the goal of ideal justice through human agencies. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>The contribution of Hindu India to the field of science is no less significant than its contribution to the field of spiritual wisdom. </li></ul><ul><li>The sages of India never considered religion and science as two conflicting areas of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>To them both were equally important, one being the quest for the truth within and the other, without. </li></ul><ul><li>Paravidya (higher knowledge) and aparavidya (lower knowledge). </li></ul>CONTRIBUTION OF THE HINDUS TO SCIENCE
  44. 44. <ul><li>Vasistha and Vyasa were rsis in the field of spiritual wisdom, Dhanvantari, Varahamihira and Bhaskara were rsis in the fields of medicine, astronomy and mathematics. </li></ul>1.      Architecture and Town Planning 2.      Astronomy 3.      Botany 4.      Chemistry 5.      Mathematics 6.      Medicine and surgery 7.      Military science and Mining and Metallurgy 8.      Veterinary Sciences 9.      Zoology
  45. 45. <ul><li>Drawing and Painting </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><li>Dance </li></ul>HINDU FINE ARTS AND MUSIC
  46. 46. <ul><li>Another speciality of Indian music is that specific ragas are assigned to specific periods of the day or night. </li></ul><ul><li>If certain ragas like Mayamalava-gaula (or Bhairav) are to be sung early in the morning, Kalyani (or Yaman) is to be sung in the nigh. </li></ul><ul><li>The very atmosphere at that time is said to enhance its power to rouse the particular sentiment to which it is tuned. </li></ul>HINDU FINE ARTS AND MUSIC Music
  47. 47. <ul><li>If symphony is the heart of Western music, sruti (drone or basic musical sound as the one produced by the tanpura), raga (tune), tala (fixed number of beats for each unit), laya (uniform speed for the beats) are the basics for Indian music. </li></ul><ul><li>Thirty-five varieties of talas have been evolved. </li></ul><ul><li>Though Indian music had been one for several centuries, due to Persian influence exerted during the Mughal period, there was a gradual branching into two schools: the uttaradi or the North Indian and the daksinadi or the South Indian (also called Carnatic). </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>There are many similarities as also notable distinctions between the two schools. </li></ul><ul><li>The uttaradi school further got subdivided into gharanas or traditions which are alive and active even today. </li></ul><ul><li>In the North Indian classical music performances, the vocalist is generally accompanied by the harmonium and the tabala (a percussion instrument in two pieces) players. </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally stringed instruments (similar to the violin) like the sarangi or the dilruba are also used. Tanpura is a must. </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Apart from vocal music, Indian music system is rich in instruments tool. </li></ul><ul><li>Even in the Vedic and allied literature there are references to vina (lute), vana (an instrument with 100 strings), dhanurvina, dundubhi (drum), adambara and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>The dhanurvina is said to be precursor of the violin now imported from the West. </li></ul><ul><li>Many other instruments like bansuri, flute, sitar, sarod, gotuvadyam, pakhvaj, khol, clarionet, nadasvaram and shehanai have also come into use over the years. </li></ul>
  50. 50. a.      Bharata-natya – South India b.      Kathak – Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh c.      Kathakkali - Kerala d.      Kucipudi – Andhra Pradesh e.      Manipuri – Manipur f.        Odissi-natya – Oriya style of music g.      Sattriya-natya – Assam h.      Yaksagana – Karnataka i.        Folk-Dances Dance
  51. 51. <ul><li>Bhangra (Punjab) </li></ul><ul><li>Garba (Gujarat) </li></ul><ul><li>Holi (Manipur) </li></ul><ul><li>Kolata (Karnataka) </li></ul><ul><li>Ludi (Punjab) </li></ul><ul><li>Pangi (Himachal Pradesh) </li></ul><ul><li>Suggi-kunita (Karnataka) </li></ul><ul><li>Tabal Congbi (Manipur) </li></ul><ul><li>Tiyan-baghi (Punjab) </li></ul>Folk-Dances
  52. 52. <ul><li>Item of social education and entertainment. Dramas of Kalidasa, Bhavabhuti (8 th cent.), Sudraka (3 rd cent.) and others. </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatics was a well-developed art in India. </li></ul>Drama
  53. 53. <ul><li>Max Muller wrote to his wife in 1886 his intention to undermine Hinduism as, The translation of vedas will hereafter tell to a great extent the fate of India and on the growth of millions of souls in that country. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the root of their religion, and to show them what the root is, I feel sure, is the only way of uprooting all that has sprung from it during the last 3000 years. </li></ul>ARYAN INVASION THEORY – A FICTION NOT A FACT
  54. 54. <ul><li>MAX MULLER : (1823 – 1900). BASED HIS THEORY SOLELY ON GHOST STORIES OF “KATHA SARITSAGARA” </li></ul><ul><li>Parent language of Greek, Sanskrit, German, Latin </li></ul><ul><li>Aryan migration from Central Asia, West to Europe, South to India, and East to China, founded world’s greatest civilizations </li></ul><ul><li>Aryans moved to India conquering & displacing dravidians </li></ul><ul><li>Vedas are brought by these outsiders to India </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>Thus Max Muller was successful in, </li></ul><ul><li>Providing precedence for subjugating India </li></ul><ul><li>Reconciled ancient Indian civilization with 4000 BCE. Biblical date of creation </li></ul><ul><li>Divided Indian people as Aryans and Dravidians </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>Carbon 14 dating </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery of Indus Valley cities </li></ul><ul><li>Saraswathy River findings </li></ul>NEW THEORY BASIS As a result it is found that  There was never an Aryan invasion,  The civilization was much ancient that stated this is the oldest civilization living on the earth
  57. 57. <ul><li>500,000 Stone hand axes etc tools were made in India </li></ul><ul><li>300,000 Homosapiens with same brain size that of humans </li></ul><ul><li>75,000 Last ice age began </li></ul><ul><li>40,000 Group of hunters living in painted rock shelters </li></ul><ul><li>7,000 Farming village Mehrgarh at the edge of Indus Valley, grew barley, raised sheep and goats, stored grains and constructed sun baked bricks. </li></ul>HISTORY BASED ON SCIENTIFIC FACTS
  58. 58. <ul><li>6,500 Rig Veda versus indicate winter solstice – composed early vedic hymns – David Frawley </li></ul><ul><li>6,000 Baked pottery small clay female figurines, long distance trade in precious stones and shells </li></ul><ul><li>5,000 Harappa Mohanjedaro cities were flourishing </li></ul><ul><li>4,000 Date of creation of world according to genealogy of Old Testament </li></ul><ul><li>2,393 Bharatha was born </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>1,500 Indus valley civilization is abandoned due to floods </li></ul><ul><li>950 First Jewish settlement in India </li></ul><ul><li>624 Siddhartha Gouthama Buddha was born in shaivite Hindu family. </li></ul>These are scientific evidences accepted by international archeological bodies
  60. 60. INDIAN CULTURE VEDA MANTRA SAMHITA BRAHMANA ARANYAKA UPANISHAD KARMA KANDA JNANA KANDA UPASANA KANDA
  61. 62. <ul><li>RG </li></ul><ul><li>1020 sukthas laudatory in nature </li></ul><ul><li>10 mandalas with anuvak & sukthas </li></ul><ul><li>8 ashtakas with 8 chapters </li></ul>VEDAS <ul><li>YAJUR </li></ul><ul><li>40 chapters </li></ul><ul><li>Krishna & Shukla </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with rites & rituals, Yajna </li></ul>
  62. 63. <ul><li>SAMA </li></ul><ul><li>15 prts, 32 chps </li></ul><ul><li>Statras sung in Musical form </li></ul><ul><li>Origin of Indian Classical music </li></ul><ul><li>ATHARVA </li></ul><ul><li>20 kandas </li></ul><ul><li>760 suktas </li></ul><ul><li>6000 mantras </li></ul><ul><li>Social code of Conduct Cermonies </li></ul><ul><li>Also called as Brahma Veda </li></ul>
  63. 64. <ul><li>The basic Knowledge texts of the culture </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with the most fundamental questions of ma </li></ul><ul><li>Hey encourage dialogue followed by contemplation and finally to realize and live the truths </li></ul>UPANISHADS NUMBER OF UPANISHADS ARE 220 known 108 published 10+1 well known ISA(SY) KENA(S) KATHA(KY) PRASNA(A) MUNDAKA(A) MANDUKYA(A) AITAREYA(R) TAITTIRIYA(KY) CHANDOGYA(S) BRIHADARANYAKA(SY) SVETASVATARA(KY)
  64. 65. PRSTHANATRAYA OTHER TEXTS VEDANGAS (UPAVEDAS) OTHER VEDANGAS ITIHASA OR EPICS PURANAS OR MYTHOLOGY Upanishads (srouta) Brahmasutra (sutra) Gita(smarta) Ayurveda(R) Dhanurveda(Y) Gandharvaveda(S) Sthapatyaveda(A) Siksha-phonetics Vyakarana-grammer Chandas-prosody Nirukta-etimology Jyotisha-astrology Kalpa-rituals Ramanyana Mahabharata 18 major 18 minor Bhagavatha, Padma, Garuda, Vishnu, Shiva, Devi, etc.
  65. 66. <ul><li>The foregoing brief survey of the spread of Hindu culture in various parts of the world confirms the observations made in the beginning of this chapter, viz., that it spread not by the power of the Sword and the Book of Crusaders, but by the power of life and wisdom of the great men of this country, fired by the missionary zeal of the spirit of ‘vasudhaiva kutumbakam’ (the whole world is your family!’) </li></ul>INDIAN CULTURE OUTSIDE INDIA
  66. 67. <ul><li>The response should have been very severe retaliation ‘in their own coin’ as Lord Krishna has taught in the Mahabharata (Karnaparva, 90.1 to 14) </li></ul><ul><li>Vivekanada, the patriot-prophet of the resurgent India foresaw it even a century ago and boldly proclaimed. </li></ul><ul><li>But one vision I see clear as life before me; that the ancient Mother has awakened once more, sitting on Her throne rejuvenated, more glorious than ever. </li></ul>EPILOGUE
  67. 68. <ul><li>Proclaim her to all the world with the voice of peace and benediction. </li></ul><ul><li>It is up to the modern generation of India to rise from being a ‘ small people of a great country ’ to becoming a really ‘ great people of a great country .’ </li></ul>
  68. 69. <ul><li>The National Emblem of India is a replica of the Lion of Sarnath, near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. </li></ul><ul><li>The Lion Capital was erected </li></ul><ul><li>in the third century BC by </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor Ashoka to mark </li></ul><ul><li>the spot where Buddha first </li></ul><ul><li>proclaimed his gospel of </li></ul><ul><li>peace and emancipation to the </li></ul><ul><li>four quarters of the universe. </li></ul>INDIA's NATIONAL EMBLEM
  69. 70. <ul><li>The National emblem is thus symbolic of contemporary India's reaffirmation of its ancient commitment to world peace and goodwill. </li></ul><ul><li>The four lions (one hidden from view) - symbolizing power, courage and confidence - rest on a circular abacus. </li></ul><ul><li>The abacus is girded by four smaller animals - guardians of the four directions: the lion of the north, the elephant of the east, the horse of the south and the bull of the west. </li></ul>
  70. 71. <ul><li>The abacus rests on a lotus in full bloom, exemplifying the fountainhead of life and creative inspiration. The motto 'Satyameva Jayate' inscribed below the emblem in Devanagari script means 'truth alone triumphs'. </li></ul>
  71. 72. NATIONAL SONG OF INDIA
  72. 73. <ul><li>The Indian flag was designed as a symbol of freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>The late Prime Minister Nehru called it a flag not only of freedom for ourselves, but a symbol of freedom to all people. </li></ul><ul><li>The flag is a horizontal tricolour in equal proportion of deep saffron (kesaria) on the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom. </li></ul><ul><li>The ratio of the width to the </li></ul><ul><li>length of the flag is 2:3. </li></ul>INDIA's NATIONAL FLAG
  73. 74. <ul><li>In the centre of the white band, there is a wheel in navy blue to indicate the Dharma Chakra, the wheel of law in the Sarnath Lion Capital. </li></ul><ul><li>Its diameter approximates the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes. </li></ul><ul><li>The saffron stands for courage, sacrifice and the spirit of renunciation; the white, for purity and truth; the green for faith and fertility. </li></ul>INDIA's NATIONAL FLAG
  74. 75. NATIONAL ANTHEM
  75. 76. eÉlÉaÉhÉqÉlÉ-AÍkÉlÉÉrÉMü eÉrÉ Wåû pÉÉUiÉ pÉarÉ ÌuÉkÉÉiÉÉ | mÉÇeÉÉoÉ-ÍxÉlkÉÑ-aÉÑeÉUÉiÉ-qÉUÉPûÉ SìÉÌuÉQû-EiMüsÉ oÉXûaÉ | ÌuÉlkrÉ-ÌWûqÉÉcÉsÉ-rÉqÉÑlÉÉ-aÉXûaÉÉ EcNûsÉ-eÉsÉÍkÉiÉUXûaÉ | iÉuÉ zÉÑpÉ lÉÉqÉå eÉÉaÉå | iÉuÉ zÉÑpÉ AÉÍzÉwÉ-qÉÉaÉå | aÉÉWåû iÉuÉ eÉrÉ-aÉÉjÉÉ | eÉlÉaÉhÉ-qÉXûaÉsÉ-SÉrÉMü eÉrÉ Wåû, pÉÉUiÉ pÉarÉ-ÌuÉkÉÉiÉÉ | eÉrÉ Wåû, eÉrÉ Wåû, eÉrÉ Wåû, eÉrÉ eÉrÉ eÉrÉ eÉrÉ Wåû || NATIONAL ANTHEM
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