HIV and AIDS.ppt
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HIV and AIDS.ppt HIV and AIDS.ppt Presentation Transcript

  • HIV, AIDS, & Pregnancy
  • What are HIV and AIDS?
    • Human immunodeficiency virus .
    • HIV is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a life-threatening disease.
    • Attacks the body's immune system.
    • Destroys infection-fighting cells.
    • When these cells are destroyed, the immune system can no longer defend the body against infections and cancers.
    • HIV infection becomes AIDS when patient lose the ability to fight off serious infections or tumors.
    • These infections, called opportunistic infections, might not normally cause severe or fatal health problems.
    • If pregnant woman infected with HIV, baby may be infected by the virus before or during birth.
    • The baby can also get the virus from breast milk.
    • Babies who are infected may become very sick and die.
    • Without treatment, about one third of babies born to HIV-infected mothers become infected with the virus.
    • HIV should be tested at first prenatal visit.
    • If infected with HIV, treatment can help prevent spread of the infection to the baby.
  • How does HIV infection occur?
    • Unprotected sex with an infected partner
    • Shared needles
    • Contact with infected body fluids (for example, blood, semen, or breast milk)
    • Transfusion with infected blood.
    • HIV can be passed to an unborn baby through the placenta, by exposure to blood and body fluids during labor and at delivery, or through breast-feeding.
  • What are the symptoms?
    • Fever that lasts from a few days to longer than a month
    • Unexplained weight loss
    • Loss of appetite
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Tiredness
    • Prolonged swelling of the lymph nodes
    • Sore throat
    • Long-lasting or multiple viral skin problems, such as herpes sores or plantar warts
    • Repeated, severe yeast infections in mouth or vagina despite treatment
    • Chronic muscle and joint pain
    • Diarrhea, especially if it lasts longer than a month
    • Headache
    • Enlarged spleen and liver.
  • How is HIV infection diagnosed?
    • The screening test for HIV is usually a blood test called the ELISA test.
    • When this test is positive, another more specific blood test, usually the Western blot test, is done to confirm the diagnosis.
    • If both tests are positive, AIDS is confirmed.
    • Tests can usually detect HIV infection within several weeks of exposure to the virus.
    • HIV tests are always strictly confidential whether the results are positive or negative
    • Tests for other sexually transmitted diseases
    • Test for tuberculosis (TB)
    • Ultrasound scans to check for normal growth of the baby
    • Nonstress tests during the latter part of the pregnancy to check the baby's heartbeat for signs of stress
    • Tests for immune system every 2 to 3 months.
  • How is it treated?
    • If pregnant and have tested positively for HIV, antiviral drug zidovudine (also called ZDV or AZT) is necessary.
    • Having a cesarean section (C-section) instead of a vaginal delivery also reduces the risk of infecting the baby.
    • For opportunistic infections such as pneumonia, TB, yeast infection, or toxoplasmosis medicine is necessary.
    • During labor and delivery no need to be isolated.
    • All hospital personnel use special precautions when they handle blood or other body fluids to prevent the spread of AIDS.
    • Baby to be treated with ZDV for at least the first 6 weeks of life to help prevent infection.
    • Should not breast-feed the baby. Give formula to the baby instead of breast milk to help prevent spread of the virus to the baby.
    • If a baby is born infected with HIV infection, the baby will be treated with antiviral drugs.
    • Baby will be tested for HIV after birth.
    • Lab tests to see how well the immune system is working, to measure the amount of HIV in the blood, and to screen for infections or other medical problems
    • Antiviral medicines, such as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI's), nucleoside analogues (NRTI's), and protease inhibitors
    • Regular dental exams because people who are HIV positive often have mouth problems, including gum disease
    • Preventive treatment for such diseases as:
      • Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)
      • Tuberculosis
      • Toxoplasmosis (be sure to avoid raw meat and cat litter boxes)
      • Tetanus
      • Hepatitis B
      • Pneumococcal infections
      • Influenza (by getting flu shots)
    • Treatments for other opportunistic infections and tumors as they develop.
    • CD4+ T-cell count is below 350 cells per cubic millimeter, or
    • Viral load is over 30,000 copies per milliliter (mL) when using the branched DNA test, or more than 55,000 copies/mL when using the RT-PCR test.
  • How long do the effects last?
    • The full effects of AIDS may not appear until 5 to 10 years after first infected with HIV.
    • AIDS is a fatal disease, life expectancy has increased greatly as new treatments are developed.
  • What can be done to help prevent HIV infection during pregnancy?
    • Intravenous (IV) drug abusers, cocaine addicts, etc.
    • Sexual partners of HIV-infected men or men in high-risk groups (such as drug abusers or bisexual men) if they do not always use a latex or polyurethane condom
    • Women who have lived for a long time in an area where a lot of people are infected with HIV or who have given birth in such an area
    • Prostitutes
    • Women with more than 1 sexual partner or whose sexual partner is sexually active outside the relationship (especially women who live in areas where there is a high occurrence of HIV infection)
    • Women given transfusions of blood or blood products in countries where the blood is not rigorously tested
    • Women who have cancer of the cervix
    • Women from areas with many cases of AIDS (such as Haiti and east central Africa).
  • How to prevent spreading the HIV virus?
    • Practice safer sex: Do not share sexual secretions and blood in any way.
    • Ask sexual partners to be tested for HIV
    • Do not share needles for drug use, tattooing, or body piercing.
    • Do not donate blood, plasma, semen, or body parts.
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