HIV and AIDS.ppt
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HIV and AIDS.ppt






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    HIV and AIDS.ppt HIV and AIDS.ppt Presentation Transcript

    • HIV, AIDS, & Pregnancy
    • What are HIV and AIDS?
      • Human immunodeficiency virus .
      • HIV is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a life-threatening disease.
      • Attacks the body's immune system.
      • Destroys infection-fighting cells.
      • When these cells are destroyed, the immune system can no longer defend the body against infections and cancers.
      • HIV infection becomes AIDS when patient lose the ability to fight off serious infections or tumors.
      • These infections, called opportunistic infections, might not normally cause severe or fatal health problems.
      • If pregnant woman infected with HIV, baby may be infected by the virus before or during birth.
      • The baby can also get the virus from breast milk.
      • Babies who are infected may become very sick and die.
      • Without treatment, about one third of babies born to HIV-infected mothers become infected with the virus.
      • HIV should be tested at first prenatal visit.
      • If infected with HIV, treatment can help prevent spread of the infection to the baby.
    • How does HIV infection occur?
      • Unprotected sex with an infected partner
      • Shared needles
      • Contact with infected body fluids (for example, blood, semen, or breast milk)
      • Transfusion with infected blood.
      • HIV can be passed to an unborn baby through the placenta, by exposure to blood and body fluids during labor and at delivery, or through breast-feeding.
    • What are the symptoms?
      • Fever that lasts from a few days to longer than a month
      • Unexplained weight loss
      • Loss of appetite
      • Nausea and vomiting
      • Tiredness
      • Prolonged swelling of the lymph nodes
      • Sore throat
      • Long-lasting or multiple viral skin problems, such as herpes sores or plantar warts
      • Repeated, severe yeast infections in mouth or vagina despite treatment
      • Chronic muscle and joint pain
      • Diarrhea, especially if it lasts longer than a month
      • Headache
      • Enlarged spleen and liver.
    • How is HIV infection diagnosed?
      • The screening test for HIV is usually a blood test called the ELISA test.
      • When this test is positive, another more specific blood test, usually the Western blot test, is done to confirm the diagnosis.
      • If both tests are positive, AIDS is confirmed.
      • Tests can usually detect HIV infection within several weeks of exposure to the virus.
      • HIV tests are always strictly confidential whether the results are positive or negative
      • Tests for other sexually transmitted diseases
      • Test for tuberculosis (TB)
      • Ultrasound scans to check for normal growth of the baby
      • Nonstress tests during the latter part of the pregnancy to check the baby's heartbeat for signs of stress
      • Tests for immune system every 2 to 3 months.
    • How is it treated?
      • If pregnant and have tested positively for HIV, antiviral drug zidovudine (also called ZDV or AZT) is necessary.
      • Having a cesarean section (C-section) instead of a vaginal delivery also reduces the risk of infecting the baby.
      • For opportunistic infections such as pneumonia, TB, yeast infection, or toxoplasmosis medicine is necessary.
      • During labor and delivery no need to be isolated.
      • All hospital personnel use special precautions when they handle blood or other body fluids to prevent the spread of AIDS.
      • Baby to be treated with ZDV for at least the first 6 weeks of life to help prevent infection.
      • Should not breast-feed the baby. Give formula to the baby instead of breast milk to help prevent spread of the virus to the baby.
      • If a baby is born infected with HIV infection, the baby will be treated with antiviral drugs.
      • Baby will be tested for HIV after birth.
      • Lab tests to see how well the immune system is working, to measure the amount of HIV in the blood, and to screen for infections or other medical problems
      • Antiviral medicines, such as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI's), nucleoside analogues (NRTI's), and protease inhibitors
      • Regular dental exams because people who are HIV positive often have mouth problems, including gum disease
      • Preventive treatment for such diseases as:
        • Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)
        • Tuberculosis
        • Toxoplasmosis (be sure to avoid raw meat and cat litter boxes)
        • Tetanus
        • Hepatitis B
        • Pneumococcal infections
        • Influenza (by getting flu shots)
      • Treatments for other opportunistic infections and tumors as they develop.
      • CD4+ T-cell count is below 350 cells per cubic millimeter, or
      • Viral load is over 30,000 copies per milliliter (mL) when using the branched DNA test, or more than 55,000 copies/mL when using the RT-PCR test.
    • How long do the effects last?
      • The full effects of AIDS may not appear until 5 to 10 years after first infected with HIV.
      • AIDS is a fatal disease, life expectancy has increased greatly as new treatments are developed.
    • What can be done to help prevent HIV infection during pregnancy?
      • Intravenous (IV) drug abusers, cocaine addicts, etc.
      • Sexual partners of HIV-infected men or men in high-risk groups (such as drug abusers or bisexual men) if they do not always use a latex or polyurethane condom
      • Women who have lived for a long time in an area where a lot of people are infected with HIV or who have given birth in such an area
      • Prostitutes
      • Women with more than 1 sexual partner or whose sexual partner is sexually active outside the relationship (especially women who live in areas where there is a high occurrence of HIV infection)
      • Women given transfusions of blood or blood products in countries where the blood is not rigorously tested
      • Women who have cancer of the cervix
      • Women from areas with many cases of AIDS (such as Haiti and east central Africa).
    • How to prevent spreading the HIV virus?
      • Practice safer sex: Do not share sexual secretions and blood in any way.
      • Ask sexual partners to be tested for HIV
      • Do not share needles for drug use, tattooing, or body piercing.
      • Do not donate blood, plasma, semen, or body parts.