Eastern perspectives of consciousness.ppt

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Eastern perspectives of consciousness.ppt

  1. 1. /home/pptfactory/temp/20100429143424/eastern-perspectives-of-consciousnessdoc501.doc -1- EASTERN PERSPECTIVES OF CONSCIOUSNESS 1. Consciousness & Upanishads 2. Consciousness according to Sankhya, Darshana & Yoga 3. Consciousness and Gita The Upanishads talks about Brahman and Atman as one. All other things are mundane. Brahman or Consciousness is ‘Self’ and does not need any proof for its existence. All our thoughts are drawn from the ‘Universal mind’ and we are nothing but a spark of the ‘Universal body.’ CONSCIOUSNESS IN KENA UPANISHAD The Kena Upanishad has derived its name from the very first word ‘Kena’ (by whom) with which it begins. In the Kena Upanishad, we get the notion of the Ultimate Reality as the origin, ground and the goal of all manifestation. It opens with a fundamental question ‘who controls our sense organs ‘which also implies ‘who controls this world?’ This Upanishad contains the story of Uma Haimavathi imparting spiritual knowledge to Gods who thought in a moment of Self-conceit and Self-forgetfulness that they are all powerful. The Gods also understood that, they had no power of their own, all the powers, they possess, come from one source and that is ‘Brahman’. The Upanishad opens with a question, perhaps by an inquiring disciple, whether there is any entity behind the sense organs like the ear or the organ of speech or even the mind that makes them to work. The teacher – that there is, that he is the eye of the eye (power behind the eye), speech of the speech, ‘präëasya präëaù’ àa[Sy àa[> (real power behind the breath), mind of the mind. They are able to function because of the presence and power of the CONSCIOUSNESS. It is almost impossible to impart the knowledge concerning him to others since his characteristics are beyond comprehension of the senses and mind (Aprameya). Yadvachaanbhyuditham yena vaagbhyudhyathe Tadeva Brahma tvam viddhi na idam yadidamupasate The above verse defines Consciousness - Speech cannot reveal the Consciousness, but by ‘that’, speech becomes a vehicle of expression. This phenomenal world becomes real to us and by running after objects of this sense world, we, in fact worship it. Behind this phenomenal world is the Consciousness, the reality and we are one with the reality. Consciousness is that which sages say, makes the mind to function and beyond the comprehension of mind or in other words mind has limitations and it fails to grasp ‘that’. Without Consciousness the organs – eyes, ears nose are powerless. The power by which these sense organs function is Consciousness. The world appears to be real, as it is supported by Consciousness, independent of which the world does not exist. CONSCIOUSNESS IN MANDUKYA UPANISHAD
  2. 2. /home/pptfactory/temp/20100429143424/eastern-perspectives-of-consciousnessdoc501.doc -2- Mandukya Upanishad is the smallest of the ten Upanishads, but it has been considered as Basis to the principles of Advaita Vedanta. An analysis of three states of Consciousness. ie. Jagrat ( Wakefulness) , Swapna ( Dream) & Sushupti ( Deep Sleep) and relating them to 3 syllables a, u, & m of Pranava or omkara and establishing in the state of turiya (fourth state) as the highest reality is the specialty of the message. The 4 are not like 4 legs of a cow. 4 Dimensions 1 2 1 23 3 4 4 1. Jagrat 2. Svapna 3. Suúupti 4. Turiyá 279 THE THREE STATES OF OUR LIVES JAGRAT : WAKEFUL CONSCIOUSNESS SVAPNA: DREAM SUSUPTI: DEEP SLEEP THAT WHICH IS BEYOND IS TURIYA 280 The fundamental truth, the Ultimate, Eternal, All pervading concept is OM or Consciousness. Omkara is the bridge, which connects saguna Brahman & Nirguna Brahman. Om stands for everything for the whole universe. Om also encompasses past, present & future. Not only that, if there is something beyond these three times that also is included in Om. ‘Trikalatvam’ is what is beyond the three times and absolute time. Sarvam yetad brahma ayamatma brahma Soyamatma chatushapat… This entire phenomenal world is Brahman. This Atman is the individual ‘I,’ and is the Universal ‘I’. It has four states chatushpat. The individual here does not change. It is the same individual who is in the wakeful, dream, sleeping and Samadhi (the state one with
  3. 3. /home/pptfactory/temp/20100429143424/eastern-perspectives-of-consciousnessdoc501.doc -3- the Brahman). We see all kinds of modification, but the reality is always the CONSCIOUSNESS.  F se #jcd obe e l³e o e eF m ¥ l J “AUM” Aksara is all this How can it be? •Just as energy is to all matter and physical world •Water to all waves •Gold to all golden ornaments 274  F se #jcd obe e l³e o e eF m ¥ l J So is OM to all the worlds Living and the non living Known and the unknown Kinetic and Potential energies Vyakta and Avyakta 275 YetleodYeJeled Fefle ‘ YeefJe <³eled meJe&ceeWkeÀej SJe Past present and future is verily that OM’ All that is in the realm of space time -T- causation (S C) Annamaya PráïamayaManomaya, – VijnánamayaKoùas Jágrat andSvapnacome under the 276 realm of (STC)
  4. 4. /home/pptfactory/temp/20100429143424/eastern-perspectives-of-consciousnessdoc501.doc -4- The first state is when we are awake. In this state, we enjoy this gross physical world and we are conscious of the external world. We enjoy the gross world through our body and sense organs all together 19 faces. (pancha jnanendriyas, pancha karmendriyas, pancha pranas, manas, Buddhi, chitta & Ahankara) – sthula bhuk’ The second state is the state of dreaming. It involves nothing outside the mind. It is only a reflection of the desires & past impressions. It is also called as ‘svapna sthana’. In this state the Consciousness is within the mind ( anthah prajna) . The dreams are reflections of our experiencing waking state. We are enjoyers through memories & desires. The next stage is Sushupti or deep sleep – Ekibhoota prajnaanaghana. There is only Consciousness. There are no dreams, no desires, and no thoughts. The Consciousness will be dormant. The agent, which provokes the Consciousness to action, is maya or ignorance. This stage is called ‘ chetomukha’ – the door between the Self & waking/dreaming state. We are ‘ Ananda bhuk’ ie. enjoyer of bliss. In sushupti causal body is temporarily suppressed. Omkara envelopes all the three states of Consciousness and is the ‘Chaturtha.’ In the state of ‘Turiya’ ignorance is completely eliminated through Samadhi. Free from duality. Even if a person comes back to this ordinary plane of Consciousness, he is no longer deluded by duality. Samadhi is voluntarily going to sushupti. Sushupti is involuntarily going to sushupti where we cannot stay for longer time – there is is the seed of ignorance. Esha sarveshwara Esha sarvajna … This Consciousness is called sarveshwara, the lord of everything, the controller of everything. It is the source of all knowledge. It is the indwelling spirit, essence of everything, residing in the heart of everyone, cause of everything, responsible for the origination & destruction. All beings come from the same source & they go back to the same source, to the Self. mee¿ee de eD³eelcey´ e e & s ley´ e ce e e Ji b l ï ï eS celce e < e d ms³e e e® gele e leH All this is Brahman This self is Brahman This Self is having 4 padas 278
  5. 5. /home/pptfactory/temp/20100429143424/eastern-perspectives-of-consciousnessdoc501.doc -5- Big bang theory Vedanta First came time and space Existence of Akasa After three minutes explosion took place- catastrophe hypotheses_ blast of massive Air comes out of space matter into space (Akashadvayuh) Then Neutrons, electrons and protons come together and fiery masses took shape. That is the fireball sun. Fire comes out of air (Vayoragnih) Fire became cold. Water came out of fire (Agnerapah) When water gets evaporated soil remains Earth came out of water that is the earth. (adbyah Prithvi) SUMMARY In the unit we have come to know the essence of Kena Upanishad - Consciousness is not an object to be understood. It is consciousness, which understands. Senses are activated in the presence of Consciousness. In other words Consciousness is the base of all senses. Mandukya Upanishad says that Consciousness is a witness; Consciousness is awake all the time Consciousness exists always in waking stage, dream stage and sleeping stage. CONSCIOUSNESS ACCORDING TO SANKHYA, DARSHANA & YOGA INTRODUCTION We have six systems of philosophy called shatdarshanas. 1. Nyaya 2. Vaisheshika – 3. Uttara meemamsa 4. Poorva Meemamsa 5. Sankhya 6. Yoga Sankhya Shastra deals with creation. Yoga Shastra deals with pratipasava – going back to consciousness, which is the reverse process prasava and prathiprasava. CONSCIOUSNESS ACCORDING TO SANKHYA Prakriti is the Sanskrit expression for nature. It does not mean matter as we understand it today, because the matter of the scientist is a late evolute of Prakriti. It is an expression. The word säëkhya has been derived from ‘säëkhya’, which means jnäna or knowledge.
  6. 6. /home/pptfactory/temp/20100429143424/eastern-perspectives-of-consciousnessdoc501.doc -6- The säëkhya system accepts only puruça (the individual soul) and the pradäna or prakåti (nature) as the fundamental realities and does not accept éçvara or God. Hence it is called as ‘niréçvara säëkhya’. (säëkhya without éçvara). The Yoga philosophy which accepts all the principles of the säëkhya and also éçvara or God in addition has been designated as ‘saéçvara sänkhya’. Sankhyan metaphysics has reduced all the realities in our experiences to two fundamental and eternal substances; the prakriti (lifeless object) and the purusha ( the conscious self). The basic argument behind this conclusion the principle that the effect pre existed in the cause before manifestation. Every object is seen to possess three characters – pleasure, pain and indifference – the sankhya comes to the conclusion that there be three basic subtle substances from which these three characters are derived. It calls them as gunas – sattvaguna (producing pleasure or happiness), rajoguna (producing pain and suffereing ) and tamoguna ( producing neither). Each of these gunas stands for a distinct aspect of physical reality. Satva signifies whatever is pure and fine and conduces to the production of knowledge as also happiness. Rajas is ever active. It is also responsible for desires and ambitions, to fulfill which, one has to actively work. Tamas is stolid and offers resistance. It tends to sleep and inactivity. These three gunas always exist together and can never get seperated. When these threewhich are ever in turmoil as it were – are in a perfectly balanced state not interfering with one another, though ever active or in perpetual motion within themselves, constitute the prakriti or pradhana. In other words prakriti is none other than these three gunas in a state of perfect balance. This prakriti is the basic material, primal matter from which the universe evoloves. It is the jada it has no consciousness. The purusha on the other hand is a conscious entity. Consciousness is his very essence. He is eternal, ever pure, ever detached and allo pervading. There are innumerable purushas or souls as many as the living beings. In other words according to Sankhya shastra there is Prakruti & Purusha. Prakriti is Jada or inert, Purusha is chetana. The whole Universe has come into existence with combination of jada & chetana. Each one of us is Purusha or Consciousness within i.e. Individualized Consciousness. Purusha – Prakriti ( Satwa, Rajas, Tamas) | Mahat | Ahankara | Manas | __________________________________________________________
  7. 7. /home/pptfactory/temp/20100429143424/eastern-perspectives-of-consciousnessdoc501.doc -7- | | | | 5 Tanmatras 5 Mahabhutas 5 Jnanendriyas 5 Karmendriyas Shabda Akasha shrotru Vak Sparsha Vayu Twak Pani Rasa Apah Rasana upastha Roopaa Agni chakshu pada Gandha Prithvi GhraNa payu The process of evolution from prakriti is as follows: as a result of the gunas mixing with one another, the first evolute coming out of the prakriti is the mahat or the buddhi (the cosmic intellect). From that emerges ahankara (cosmic ego). From the satvik part of ahankara evolve manas (cosmic mind), the five jnanendriyas (cosmic organs of knowledge like the eyes and the ears) and the five karmendriyas (cosmic organs of action like the hands and feets). From the tamasik part of ahankara are produced the five tanmatras (subtle elements of earth water etc.) and from them further evolve the five mahabhutas or gross elements (of earth, water, fire , air, and ether). In all , including the prakriti , there will now be 24 cosmic principles or elements. The rest of creation takes place by their permutaion and combination, each purusha getting involved with prakriti as per his karma. CONSCIOUSNESS ACCORDING TO YOGA The aim of yoga is pratiprasava (back to consciousness) to remove ignorance or avidya and realize the real nature of Purusha. Yogah Chittah Vritti nirodhah : Yoga is to get mastery over the Chitta. Chitta = Mind + Ego + Intelligence + Memory Mind = Gathering the information Intelligence = Analyzing the information Ego = Identifying experiences Memory = Storing the information. Purusha is in the cage of Prakriti, Mahat, Ahankara & Manas. It is in the model of Box within a Box. By Vitarka you can get out of the grossest box Jnanendriyas & Karmendriyas. By Dharana you can remove subtlest box of Tanmatras, Mahabutas & the manas. By Asmita Samadhi you can realize that you are the existence. Keeping the body fit by äsana, pränyäma, baëdha & kriyäs are necessary for pratyähära (withdrawing the senses).
  8. 8. /home/pptfactory/temp/20100429143424/eastern-perspectives-of-consciousnessdoc501.doc -8- The object in yoga is harmonizing Rajas & Tamas into Satva. Manas or Ahankara does not contaminate Satva. At that stage of Mahat, Purusha realizes and goes beyond the Satva & becomes Gunathitha – the pratiprasava or going back to the consciousness. When Purusha is attached to Prakriti, he is entangled with Sukha & Dukha. When detached, it will be in its pristine purity, one with the Universal Consciousness. a) Yoga takes the theory of Prakriti from Sankhya and explains how Purusha can be released from Prakriti. b) The aim of Yoga is Pratiprasava (back to consciousness) to remove the covers and realizes the real nature of Purusa. c) Lower Prakriti is Jada while higher Prakriti is charged with consciousness. d) Consciousness which is trapped in Prakriti is Jiva. e) According to Sankhya there is one Prakriti and Many Purusas, but Krishna divides Prakriti in to lower and higher states. f) Krishna speaks about three Purushas: Lower Purusha associated with lower Prakriti. Higher Purusha associated with higher Prakriti. The supreme Purusha – The master of all is Purusottama. g) Purusottama is the Universal self and He is the reflection of Nirguna Bharaman. h) There are no different types of consciousness; these are only different levels and states of consciousness. Consciousness is always singular. i) As white colour appears in seven colours, consciousness also appear in different states different levels. SUMMARY In this unit we have learnt the concept of consciousness (puruça or cetana) according to sänkhya and yoga Philosophy. Yoga takes the theory of Prakriti from sänkhya and explains how puruça can be released from Prakriti. CONSCIOUSNESS AND GITA Consciousness is that which does not undergo any modifications. Everything else other than consciousness has six modifications as follows : jäyate – comes to existence asti – remains vardhate – grows viparinamate – changes apakñéyate – decays måyate – dies
  9. 9. /home/pptfactory/temp/20100429143424/eastern-perspectives-of-consciousnessdoc501.doc -9- Shri Krishna in the following verses explains the evolution, but has condesed the 24 tatvas of Sankhya into eight. ÉUimrapaenlae vayu>om! mnae buiÏrev c AhNkar #tIym! me iÉÚ ài³itrÏ A:>qxa . bhümiräponalo väyuùkham mano buddhireva ca ahankära itéyam me bhinna prakritir añùöadhä (7.4) My nature is divided into eight categories – earth, water, fire, air , sky , mind, understanding & ‘ I’ sense. Apreym! #ts! Tv! ANyam! àk«itm! iviÏ me pram! jIv ÉUtam! mhabahae yyedm! xayRte jgt! apareyam itas tv anyäm prakåtim viddhi me paräm jéva bhütäm mahäbäho yayedam dhäryate jagat (7.5) This , Oh mighty armed , is My lower Nature. Know that , as different from it , is My Higher Nature forming the source of all Jivas and the support of the whole universe. yetdÏ yaenIin ÉUtain svRm! Ty! %pxary Ahm! k«TõSy jgt> àÉv> àlyStwa . yetad yonéni bhütäni sarvam ty upadhäraya aham kåtsnasya jagataù prabhavaù pralayastathä (7.6) Know that all beings have these two natures of Mine as their source. I am the origin and the dissolution of this entire Universe. mÄ> prtrm! n ANy ikiNcdÏ AiSt xn{jy miy svRm! #dm! àaewm! sUÇe mi[ g[a #v . mattaù parataram na anya kincid asti dhanaëjaya mayi sarvam idam protham sütre maëi gaëä iva (7.7) Oh Arjuna! There is no being Higher than Me. As a row of pearls threaded on a string , all the worlds are held on Me. The above verses set forth that in the creative process of the Lord’s power of Manifestations functions as His two natures – The material i.e Unconsciousness Nature or Prakriti and His spiritual Nature or the Jivas. Strangely enough, the Jiva , which should be calle dpurusha is classified with prakriti here, there by obliterating the dicotamy between the two terms familiar in the Sankhya.
  10. 10. /home/pptfactory/temp/20100429143424/eastern-perspectives-of-consciousnessdoc501.doc - 10 - The material Nature is here treated in its Cosmic aspect and is spoken of as eight fold. But that is done by counting only the effect category and leaving the causal categories as implied . Fully stated , according to the analysis of the Sankya philosophy , the categories of the Prakriti and its evolutes are 24. These are – Prakriti (with its three Gunas of Satva, Rajas, Tamas) ; Mahatatva ; Ahankara ; Manas ; the five organs of knowledge; the five organs of action; the five tanmatras; and the five gross elements of Sky , Air, Fire, Water and Earth. From these categories the material Universe is evolved. Also the psycho - physical organism of the Jiva , consisting of his subtle and gross bodies, evolves out of these. The subtle body persist through all embodiments until ther Jiva gains liberation, attaining to his natural state as purusha. This material Nature or Prakriti is infinite with countless dimensions in which different world systems (Lokas) of different subtley coexist without mutual intrusion and the Jiva finds embodiment in these different Lokas accordiong to his Karma. ]eǶm! caip mam! iviÏ sv ]eÇezu Éart ]eÇ ]eǶyaerÏ Jnanm! yt! tt! Jnanm! mtm! mm . kñetrajnam cäpi mäm viddhi sava kñetreçu bhärata kñetra kñetrajnayor jnänam yat tat jnänam matam mama (13.2) Know Me Oh Scion of Bharata race, to be the Kshetrajna (the spirit) In all Kshetraas (bodies). The knowledge of the distinction between Kshetra and Kshetrajna alsone is real knowledge according to Me. In (13.2) Krishna says that there are 2 categories in the consciousness of man _ the object and the subject, the ‘seen’ and the ‘seer’. The ‘seen’ is in the field, the body; the ‘seer’ is the spirit, the Jiva. The body mind is its addition, the instrument through which the spirit contacts objects. Still, it is only the ‘seen’, the ‘object’, because the seer the Jiva is not part of it but distinct from it and master of it. In a broader sense the field is not merely the individual body but Universal nature of which the individual body is a part. This Universal nature of which individual body is a part. This Universal Nature, the Field is constituted of the following : The egoity, Intellect, the Un-manifested state, the eleven organs, the five objects of perception, will , aversion, joy, sorrow, combination, life, vitality. All the individual fields are made of the combination of these and in all of them Seer is Myself (My part or reflection in them). n Astae ivXyte Éavae nÉavae ivXyte st> %Éyaerip ÔZqaeNtSTv Anyaes! tTv dizRiÉ> . na asato vidhyate bhävo nabhävo vidhyate sataù ubhayorapi draçöontastva anayos tatva darçibhiù (2.16) The unreal can never come into existence, and the real can never cease to be. The wise philosphers have known the truth about these categories. (of the real and the unreal).
  11. 11. /home/pptfactory/temp/20100429143424/eastern-perspectives-of-consciousnessdoc501.doc - 11 - Aivnaiz tu tdÏ iviÏ yen svRimdm! ttm! ivnazmVyySyaSy n kiSct! ktuRm! AhRit . avinäçi tu tad viddhi yeana sarvamidam tatam vinäçamavyayasyäsya na kascit kartum arhati (2. 17) Know that Reality, by which everything is pervaded, to be indestructible, No one can cause the destruction of this immutable Being. nEn< iDNdiNt zôai[ nEn< dhit pavk> ncEn< ¬edy<Tyap> n zae;yit maét>. nainaà chindanti çasträëi nainaà dahati pävakaù nacainaà kledayantyäpaù na çoñayati märutaù (2.23) Weapons do not cleave the Atman, fire burns it not, water wets it not, wind dries it not. ACD*ae=ymdaýae=ym! A¬e*ae=zae:y yev c inTy> svRgtSwa[u> Aclae=ym! snatn>. acchaedyo'yamadähyo'yam akledyo'çoñya yeva ca nityaù sarvagatasthäëuù acalo'yam sanätanaù (2.24) This Self is uncleavable, incombustible and neither wetted nor dried. It is eternal, all- pervading, stable, immovable and everlasting. AVy´ae=ym! AicNtyae=ym! AivkayaeR=ym! %Cyte tSmadÏ @vm! ividTvEnm! n Anuzaeictum! AhRis . avyakto'yam acintayo'yam avikäryo'yam ucyate tasmäd evam viditvainam na anuçocitum arhasi (2.25) Knowing Him (the Self ) to be unmanifest , inconceivable and unmodifyiable it is improper to mourn for Him. The truth is that man’s spirit or Atman is indestructible. Until man lives by this truth , there can be no abiding virtue in him. In order to convince this Arjuna, Krishna at the very start of this discourse, expounds the high philosophy of Atman in the following words: Your sorrow is for persons who are not in need of it. A wise man takes death as a triffle. For he, knows that the essence in man is the Atman or the consciousness, the birthless, the death less, the eternal spirit, whom weapons cannot cleave, fire cannot burn or air cannot dry . Birth and Death are only of the body and not of the Atman, and the body in relation to the Atman is like clothes one puts on and throws away; or like the passing stages of life like childhood, boyhood, youth and old age. Pleasant and painful experiences of life are passing episodes. A man who knows this and is never moved by pleasure and pain, by life and death, is alone wise and fit for spiritual freedom.
  12. 12. /home/pptfactory/temp/20100429143424/eastern-perspectives-of-consciousnessdoc501.doc - 12 - SUMMARY a. Lower Prakrti is jada (inert) while the higher prakriti is charged with consciousness. b. Consciousness is trapped in Prakriti is Jiva. c. According Sankhya there is one prakriti and many purushas. But Krishna divides Prakriti into lower and higher. d. Krishna speaks about three purushas a. Lower Purusha associated with lower Prakriti. b. Higher Purusha associated with higher Prakriti. c. The suprme Purusha - the master of all is Purushottama e. Purushottama is the Universal Self and He is the reflection of Nirguna Brahman. f. Consciousness is always singular. As white color appears in seven colors. Consciousness also appears in different states in different levels. g. Krishna condenses 24 tatvas into 8.

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