Oh, God, Give us food which does not cause any disease and also gives us strength - Yahurveda He, who takes food in proper measure lives a long life and lives without disease, gets strength and alertness of mind. However, his children are born healthy and without any deformity or disease. - Mahabharata
Yoga is neither for one who over eats nor for him who observes complete fasting. - Bhagavad Gita :VI - 16 Yoga is a science of mind Helps to control mind, desire & reaction to stress Skilful – rather than brutal - Maharshi Patanjali
Food provides energy to keep the body warm, the muscles active for work and play and the various organs alert to carry out the daily activities.
Food supplies body building nutrients needed for growth, while the fetus develops in the mother’s womb, new tissues are being continuously built. This proceeds right through infancy, childhood and adolescence. During these stages of life, there is a tremendous demand for body building nutrients that are essential everyday to replace the daily ‘ wear and tear .’
Variety of these nutrients, each responsible for a specific task in the body. If the diet is deficient or lacking in one or more of these vital substances, it leads to derangement of the normal functioning of the different parts of the body, resulting in ill-health, stunted growth and imperfect development.
The most commonly consumed food is called Staple food.
Varies from region to region.
In order to meet their nutrient needs, every one should eat daily at least one food item in sufficient quantity from each of the several Sub-Groups
ENERGY RICH FOODS Major Nutritions Other Nutritions Carbohydrates and fats Whole grain cereals, millets Protein, fibre, minerals, calcium, iron, B-complex, vitamins Vegetable oils, ghee, butter Fat soluble vitamins, essential fatty acids Nuts and oilseeds Proteins, vitamins / minerals Sugars Nil
BODY BUILDING FOODS Major Nutritions Other Nutritions Proteins Pulses, nuts, & oilseeds B-complex, vitamins, invisible fat, fibre Milk and milk products Calcium, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin B12 Meat, fish, poultry B-complex, vitamins, iron, iodine, fat
PROTECTIVE FOODS Major Nutritions Other Nutritions Vitamins and minerals Green leafy vegetables Antioxidants, fibre and other carotenoids Other vegetables/fruits Fibre, sugar, and antioxidants Eggs, milk and milk products and flesh foods Protein and fat
Vary according to age, sex, and activity of the individual.
Special demands are made during stress periods, such as pregnancy, lactation, infancy, and childhood, since during these periods, the individual needs increased amounts of Body-Building and Protective nutrients.
People use antioxidants to help treat or prevent some medical conditions, such as coronary artery disease (CAD), some cancers, macular degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, and some arthritis-related conditions.
FUNCTIONS OF THE ANTIOXIDANTS Vitamin A Skin, eye, bone, reproduction, growth. Vitamin C Stress (spares Vit. E), bone, cartilage. Vitamin E Stress, eye integrity, muscle integrity, reproduction, prevents oxidation of fat. Riboflavin Stress, eye function, skin integrity, muscle strength of hind quarters. Folic Acid Prevents birth defects associated with the nervous system. Zinc Stress, immune response, wound healing. Manganese Bone, tendon, muscle, birth weight. Copper Immune response, hair color, reproduction. Selenium Stress, muscle integrity, reproduction.
They are present in almost all foods in varying proportions and depending on the relative concentrations of the nutrients contained, foods are classified sometimes as protein-rich foods, carbohydrate-rich food, etc., Oils, ghee, etc., provide mostly fat, while sugar is purely a source of carbohydrate.
Proteins, fats, and carbohydrates are also sometimes called “ proximate principles .”
They are oxidized (burnt) in the body to provide the energy required for the various activities of life.
They form the important constituents of muscles and other tissues and of vital fluids like blood.
Proteins supply the building material for the body and make good the wear and tear of tissues, which is a constant feature of the process of life, and it is for tis reason that foods rich in protein are often called ‘ body building foods .’
The outer layers of cereals are richer in protein than the inner starchy kernel, and hence when wheat or rice is highly milled, there is some loss of protein as well as of other valuable nutrients such as vitamins and mineral salts.
Leafy and root vegetables and fruits are very poor sources of protein.
Defatted oilseed cakes which are very rich sources of protein were hitherto considered only as cattle feeds and manures.
As a result of improvement in food processing techniques in recent years, these foods are being made available for human consumption also.
It is the extent of the presence of these essential amino-acids that largely determines the quality of a protein.
The proteins of whole egg and human milk are considered the best amount food proteins and the pattern of essential amino-acids in these foods is usually taken as a standard against which the amounts of essential amino-acids present in other foods can be compared.
The proteins of animal foods such as milk, meat, fish, etc., generally compare well with egg protein in the distribution of essential amino acids, and hence such foods are considered to contain good quality proteins.
The proteins in foods of plant origin are not so well-balanced in their amino-acid pattern.
For instance, it will be found that in comparison with egg protein, the cereal proteins are poor in the amino-acid lysine, while pulse proteins are poor in methionine although they are rich in lysine.
Such proteins individually are incomplete proteins.
The relative insufficiency in amino-acids of particular vegetable foods can be overcome by a judicious combination of vegetable foods to provide a mixture having the desirable pattern of essential amino-acids.
The proteins of cereals and pulses have a mutual supplementary effect, and deficiency of one amino-acid in one foodstuff can be made good by an excess in another, if both foods are consumed at about the same time.
PROXIMATE PRINCIPLES Values given are per 100 gms of edible portion Name of the foodstuff Pulses and legumes Begal gram (whole), Cicer arietinum 17.1 5.3 3.0 60.9 10.2 Soya bean, Glycine max Merr 43.2 19.5 4.6 20.9 11.5 Protein Fat Carbo hydrates Iron Minerals
Among the Indian population, about 40% in the rural and 30% in the urban areas are estimated to be below the poverty line, which is defined as the expenditure needed to obtain, on the average, 2400 Kcal per capita per day in the rural areas and 2100 Kcal in the urban areas.
Long-term malnutrition leads to short adult stature, increased risk of morbidity and mortality and reduced work output.
Protein energy malnutrition (PEM), micronutrient deficiencies such as vitamin A deficiency (VDA), iron deficiency anemia (IDA), iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) and vitamin B-complex deficiencies are the nutrition problems frequently encountered, particularly among the poor.
Under-nutrition starts even at the time of conception.
Because of extensive maternal under-nutrition (under-weight, poor weight gain during pregnancy, and nutritional anemia, and vitamin deficiencies), about 30% of the infants are born with low birth-weights (<2500 g), as compared to less than 10% in the developed countries.
Both clinical and subclinical undernutrition are widely prevalent even during early childhood.
About 1-2% of preschool children suffer from severe and florid forms of PEM like kwashiorkor and marasmus. This is only the tip of the iceberg.
Iodine deficiency causes goitre (enlargement of thyroid gland in the neck), neonatal hypothyroidism among newborns, mental retardation, delayed motor development, stunting, deaf-mutism and neuromuscular disorders.
The most important consequence of iodine deficiency in mothers is cretinism in which the children suffer from mental and growth retardation since birth.
With increasing urbanization, energy-rich diets containing higher amounts of fat and sugar, which also provide less dietary fibre and complex carbohydrates, are being consumed, particularly in high-income groups.
The urban population is tending to be more sedentary with little physical activity.
Consumption of alcohol, providing empty calories, and of tobacco is also common.
Prevalence of disorders like obesity, heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes, is on the increase.
Are either simple or complex, and are major sources of energy in all human diets.
They provide energy of 4 Kcal/g.
The simple carbohydrates, glucose, and fructose, are found in fruits, vegetables, and honey, sucrose in sugar and lactose in milk, while the complex polysaccharides are starches in cereals, millets, pulses, and root vegetables and glycogen in animal foods.
The other complex carbohydrates which are resistant to digestion in the human digestive tract are cellulose in vegetables and whole grains, and gums and pectins in vegetables, fruits and cereals, which constitute the dietary fibre component.
In India, 70-80% of total dietary calories are derived from carbohydrates present in plant foods such as cereals, millets, and pulses.
Animal proteins are of high quality as they provide all the essential amino acids in right proportions, while plant or vegetable proteins are now of the same quality because of their low content of some of the essential amino acids.
A combination of cereals, millets, and pulses provides most of the amino acids, which complement each other to provide better quality proteins.
Diets should include adequate amounts of fat particularly in the case of infants and children, to provide concentrated energy since their energy needs per kg body weight are nearly twice those of adults per kg body weight.
Adults need to be cautioned to restrict intake of saturated fat (butter, ghee, hydrogenated fats) and cholesterol (eggs, organ meat).
Excess of these substances could lead to obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer.
Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble, while vitamin C and the B-complex vitamins such as thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin, pyridoxine (B6), folic acid and cyanocobalamin (B12) are water soluble.
Provitamins like beta-carotene are converted to vitamins in the body into vitamin A.
Fat-soluble vitamins can be stored in the body while water-soluble vitamins are not and get easily excreted in urine.
Vitamins B-complex and C are labile vitamins are easily destroyed by heat, air or during drying, cooking and food processing.
Foods may also classified according to their functions.
ENERGY RICH FOODS MAJOR NUTRIENTS OTHER NUTRIENTS Carbohydrates & fats Whole grain cereals, millets Protein, fibre, minerals, calcium, iron and B-complex vitamins Vegetable oils, ghee, butter Fat soluble vitamins, essential fatty acids Nuts and oilseeds Proteins, vitamins/minerals Sugars Nil
BODY BUILDING FOODS MAJOR NUTRIENTS OTHER NUTRIENTS Proteins Pulses, nuts, oilseeds B-complex vitamins, invisible fat, fibre Milk and milk products Calcium, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin B12 Meat, fish, poultry B-complex vitamins, iron, iodine, fat
PROTECTIVE FOODS MAJOR NUTRIENTS OTHER NUTRIENTS Vitamins & Minerals Green leafy vegetables Antioxidants, fibre and other carotenoids Other vegetables/fruits Fibre, sugar and antioxidants Eggs, milk, and milk products and flesh foods Protein and fat
Choose a variety of foods in amounts appropriate for age, gender, physiological status and physical activity.
Use a combination of grains, grams, and greens. Include jaggery or sugar and cooking oils to bridge the calorie or energy gap.
Prefer fresh vegetables and fruits in plenty.
Include in the diets, foods of animal origin such as milk, eggs and meat, particularly for pregnant and lactating women and children.
Adults should choose low-fat, protein-rich foods such as lean meat, fish, pulses and low-fat milk.
Develop healthy eating habits and exercise regularly.
IMPORTANCE OF DIET DURING DIFFERENT STAGES OF LIFE For growth and appropriate milestones. Breast-milk, energy rich foods (fats, sugar) For growth, development and to fight infections. Energy, body building and protective food (milk, vegetables, and fruits. For growth spurt, maturation and bone development Body building and protective foods. For maintaining health productivity and prevention of diet-related disease and to support pregnancy/lactation. Nutritionally adequate diet with extra food for child bearing/rearing. For being physically active and healthy. Nutrient dense low fat foods.
BALANCED DIET FOR ADULT MAN (SEDENTARY) * Portion Size **No. of portions Elderly man: Reduce 3 portions of cereals and millets and add an extra serving of fruit. CEREALS AND MILLETS *30 g x 14** FRUITS *100 g x 1** PULSES *30 g x 2** FATS/OILS SUGAR *5 g x 4** *5 g x 5** MILK & MILK PRODUCTS *100 g x 3** VEGETABLES *100 g x 4**
BALANCED DIET FOR ADULT WOMAN (SEDENTARY) * Portion Size **No. of portions Elderly man: Reduce 3 portions of cereals and millets and add an extra serving of fruit. CEREALS AND MILLETS *30 g x 10** FRUITS *100 g x 1** PULSES *30 g x 2** FATS/OILS SUGAR *5 g x 4** *5 g x 4** MILK & MILK PRODUCTS *100 g x 3** VEGETABLES *100 g x 3**
Approximate nutritive value of some ready-to-serve preparations (per serving)
Wt gm Weight in grams
Cal gm Calories in grams
Prot gm Protein in grams
CBH gm carbohydrates in grams
Food Preparations Qty. Wt. gm Cal gm Protgm Fat gm CBH gm Cereal preparations Corn flakes 1 cup 25 94 2.0 0.1 21.2 Beaten rice 1 cup 30 114 1.8 0.2 26.3 Puffed rice 1 cup 14 54 0.8 0.1 12.3 Oat meal 1 cup 25 101 3.6 1.8 17.6 Wheat flakes 1 cup 35 133 3.8 0.6 28.1
Food Preparations Qty. Wt. gm Cal gm Protgm Fat gm CBH gm Pulse preparations Bengal gram dal 1 cup 151 284 9.0 16.4 25.2 Green gram dal 1 cup 142 171 7.0 7.7 18.4 Red gram dal 1 cup 192 220 12.8 4.0 32.8 Dal rasam 1 cup 130 19 1.0 0.6 2.5 Green gram dal and spinach ¾ cup 120 137 7.9 3.5 18.6
Basal or Resting Metabolic Rate measures the calories the body needs to keep it in being. 1654 calories per day is the number of calories to keep the circulatory system and other vital bodily functions in operation.
Sedentary Lifestyle means you are very inactive physically; you only walk when absolutely necessary. This approximates most closely to your basal metabolic rate. If you are happy with your weight and general health then consuming approximately 2067 calories per day will maintain your current weight.
One pound of fat is approximately equal to 3500 calories. To loose one pound in a week would mean cutting calorie intake by 500 calories a day (3500/7). To loose a pound in two weeks would mean cutting consumption by only 250 calories a day.
This could represent a food reduction of no more than 2 ounces of carbohydrates and fat, and half an ounce of protein.
Remember, maintaining an optimal weight can have beneficial effects on your outlook on life and on your over-all general health prospects in terms of avoiding heart attacks and strokes.
Excessive body weight increases the risk of heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, gallstones, cancer and arthritis.
Obesity invariably predisposes to reduced levels of high density lipoproteins (good cholesterol) and to increased levels of low density lipoproteins (bad cholesterol), and triglycerides , besides an abnormal increase in glucose and insulin in blood following an oral glucose load (insulin resistance).