Breast Cancer-edited.ppt

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  • REFERENCING SLIDESHARE GROUP 'HEALT AND MEDICINE'
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  • Tamoxifen inhibits estrogen receptor activity in some organs (AE = antiestrogenic) but stimulates estrogen receptor activity in others (E = estrogenic). In organs such as the breast, the AE action of tamoxifen is favorable (+), while in others, such as the brain and vaginal mucosa, it produces unwanted side-effects, and the effect is unfavorable (-). Likewise, in some organs such as bone, the E activity of tamoxifen is favorable (+), while in others, such as the endometrium, it is unfavorable (-). In liver, the E activity is both favorable (lower cholesterol and decreased risk of coronary artery disease) and unfavorable (higher clotting protein levels and increased risk of deep venous thrombosis).
  • New directions in research Scientists are investigating a number of potential preventive therapies for breast cancer, including:        Retinoids. Natural or synthetic forms of vitamin A (retinoids) may have the ability to destroy or inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Unlike other experimental therapies, retinoids may be effective in premenopausal women and in those whose tumors aren't estrogen positive. Research is ongoing. Flaxseed. Flaxseed is high in lignan, a naturally occurring compound that lowers circulating estrogens in your body. Flaxseed appears to decrease estrogen production — acting much like tamoxifen does — which may inhibit the growth of breast cancer tumors. Lignans are also antioxidants with weak estrogen-like characteristics. These characteristics may be the mechanism by which flaxseed works to decrease hot flashes. Further research should clarify the connection.
  • Breast Cancer-edited.ppt

    1. 1. BREAST CANCER
    2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Breast cancer, the second-leading cause of cancer deaths in women, is the disease women fear most. </li></ul><ul><li>80% of breast cancers occur in women older than age 50. In 30s, have a one in 233 chance of developing breast cancer. By age 85, chance is one in eight. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1975, a diagnosis of breast cancer usually meant radical mastectomy – removal of the entire breast along with underarm lymph nodes and muscles underneath the breast. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, radical mastectomy is rarely performed. </li></ul>
    3. 3. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS <ul><li>Most breast lumps aren't cancerous. Yet the most common sign of breast cancer for both men and women is a lump or thickening in the breast. Often, the lump is painless. </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous clear or bloody discharge from the nipple, often associated with a breast lump </li></ul><ul><li>Retraction or indentation of the nipple </li></ul><ul><li>Change in the size or contours of the breast </li></ul><ul><li>Any flattening or indentation of the skin over the breast. </li></ul><ul><li>Redness or pitting of the skin over breast, like the skin of an orange </li></ul><ul><li>Other causes of noncancerous breast changes include fibrocystic changes, cysts, fibroadenomas, infection or injury. </li></ul>
    4. 4. CAUSES <ul><li>In breast cancer, some of the cells in the breast begin growing abnormally. </li></ul><ul><li>These cells divide more rapidly than healthy cells do and may spread (metastasize) through the breast, to lymph nodes or to other parts of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common type of breast cancer begins in the milk-producing ducts. </li></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>If one of these genes is present in the family, will have a 50 percent chance of having the gene. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet most genetic mutations related to breast cancer aren't inherited. </li></ul><ul><li>These acquired mutations may result from radiation exposure, cancer-causing chemicals, such as the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in tobacco and charred red meats. </li></ul>
    6. 8. Screening and diagnosis <ul><li>Screening – looking for evidence of disease before signs or symptoms appear – is the key to finding breast cancer in its early, treatable stages. </li></ul>
    7. 9. Breast self-exam
    8. 10. Clinical breast exam <ul><li>Mammogram - to check breast tissue </li></ul>Other tests <ul><li>Computer-aided detection (CAD) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital mammography </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) </li></ul><ul><li>Breast ultrasound (ultrasonography) </li></ul>Experimental procedures <ul><li>Ductal lavage </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular breast imaging (MBI) </li></ul>
    9. 11. Mammogram CAD Mammogram Digital mammography Breast Ultrasound
    10. 12. Breast biopsy
    11. 13. Tamoxifen inhibits estrogen receptor activity AE = antiestrogen E = estrogen
    12. 14. TREATMENT <ul><li>Surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>Radiotherapy. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemotherapy. </li></ul>
    13. 15. New directions in research <ul><li>Retinoids - Natural or synthetic forms of vit-A have the ability to destroy the growth of cancer cells. Effective in premenopausal women and in those whose tumors aren't estrogen positive. </li></ul><ul><li>Flaxseed – High in lignan, a naturally occurring compound that lowers circulating estrogens in the body. Decreases estrogen production – acts like tamoxifen – inhibit the growth of breast cancer tumors. Lignans are also antioxidants with weak estrogen-like characteristics. These characteristics may be the mechanism by which flaxseed works to decrease hot flushes. </li></ul>
    14. 16. Thank you

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