Arches of the Foot


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Arches of the Foot

  1. 1. Arches of the Foot
  2. 2. Arches of the foot <ul><li>Transverse arch of the foot </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal arch of the foot </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficiently expressed arches are called flat feet. </li></ul><ul><li>Exaggerated arches are the less common pes cavus. </li></ul>
  3. 8. Skeleton of foot Medial aspect
  4. 9. Skeleton of foot Lateral aspect
  5. 10. Bones of the right foot Dorsal surface
  6. 11. The soles of a male foot & female foot
  7. 12. High Arches and Flat Feet <ul><li>Bunions; Corns; Hammertoe; Plantar Fasciitis </li></ul><ul><li>Tarsal tunnel syndrome – compression of a nerve that runs through a narrow passage behind the inner ankle bone down to the heel. </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with diabetes, back pain, or arthritis. </li></ul><ul><li>Injury to the ankle or by a growth, abnormal blood vessels, or scar tissue that press against the nerve. </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and the dorsiflexion-eversion test are being used to diagnose this syndrome. </li></ul>
  8. 13. Abnormally High Arches <ul><li>An overly-high arch (hollow foot) </li></ul><ul><li>Hollow foot is much more common than the flat foot. </li></ul><ul><li>Clawfoot, or pes cavus deformity of the foot marked by very high </li></ul><ul><li>arches and very </li></ul><ul><li>long toes. </li></ul>
  9. 14. Symptoms of Flat Feet <ul><li>The symptoms differ according to the severity of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>The patient may experience corns or hard skin under the sole of the foot </li></ul><ul><li>Shoes may wear out quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Pain or tenderness along the arch </li></ul><ul><li>With several fallen arches problems such as calf pain, knee pain and hip pain may be present </li></ul>
  10. 15. Causes of Flat Feet <ul><li>It is caused due to biomechanical complaint (abnormal walking), that is when the feet roll too much. </li></ul><ul><li>Hereditary factor is also one cause </li></ul><ul><li>A ruptured tendon can lead to a flat foot </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral palsy, spins bifida and muscular dystrophy can also cause a flat foot </li></ul><ul><li>The foot being repetitively subjected to hard surfaces eventually weakening the arch of the foot </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity and pregnancy </li></ul>
  11. 16. Complications of a Flat Foot <ul><li>Inflammation and pain in the ligaments in the soles </li></ul><ul><li>Achilles and posterior tibial tendinitis </li></ul><ul><li>Shin splints </li></ul><ul><li>Stress fractures in lower leg </li></ul><ul><li>Bunions </li></ul><ul><li>Calluses </li></ul>
  12. 17. Treatment for Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome <ul><li>Orthotics, specially designed shoe inserts, to help redistribute weight and take pressure off the nerve. </li></ul><ul><li>Corticosteroid injections </li></ul><ul><li>Surgery </li></ul>
  13. 18. Flat Feet <ul><li>Flat feet, or pes planus, are a defect of the foot that eliminates the arch. </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD). </li></ul>
  14. 19. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) <ul><li>Risk factors for PTTD </li></ul><ul><li>Wearing high heels. </li></ul><ul><li>Achilles tendon in the back of the calf shortens and tightens. </li></ul><ul><li>Ankle does not bend properly. </li></ul><ul><li>The tendons and ligaments running through the arch then try to compensate. </li></ul><ul><li>Break down and the arch falls. </li></ul>
  15. 20. <ul><li>Other conditions lead to flat feet or PTTD include; </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity, </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes, </li></ul><ul><li>Surgery, </li></ul><ul><li>Injury, </li></ul><ul><li>Rheumatoid arthritis, or </li></ul><ul><li>Use of corticosteroids. </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect complication – urinary incontinence or leakage during exercise. </li></ul>
  16. 21. Treatment for Flat Feet <ul><li>in Children </li></ul><ul><li>Stand on tip-toes. </li></ul><ul><li>Outgrow the condition. </li></ul><ul><li>in Adults </li></ul><ul><li>Pain relief and insoles </li></ul><ul><li>custom-made orthotics. </li></ul>
  17. 22. Surgery <ul><li>Osteotomies or arthrodesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Lengthen the Achilles tendon and adjusting tendons in the foot. </li></ul><ul><li>Implant to support the arch. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential complications. </li></ul>