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Arches of the Foot
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Arches of the Foot


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  • 1. Arches of the Foot
  • 2. Arches of the foot
    • Transverse arch of the foot
    • Longitudinal arch of the foot
    • Insufficiently expressed arches are called flat feet.
    • Exaggerated arches are the less common pes cavus.
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  • 8. Skeleton of foot Medial aspect
  • 9. Skeleton of foot Lateral aspect
  • 10. Bones of the right foot Dorsal surface
  • 11. The soles of a male foot & female foot
  • 12. High Arches and Flat Feet
    • Bunions; Corns; Hammertoe; Plantar Fasciitis
    • Tarsal tunnel syndrome – compression of a nerve that runs through a narrow passage behind the inner ankle bone down to the heel.
    • Associated with diabetes, back pain, or arthritis.
    • Injury to the ankle or by a growth, abnormal blood vessels, or scar tissue that press against the nerve.
    • Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and the dorsiflexion-eversion test are being used to diagnose this syndrome.
  • 13. Abnormally High Arches
    • An overly-high arch (hollow foot)
    • Hollow foot is much more common than the flat foot.
    • Clawfoot, or pes cavus deformity of the foot marked by very high
    • arches and very
    • long toes.
  • 14. Symptoms of Flat Feet
    • The symptoms differ according to the severity of the problem
    • The patient may experience corns or hard skin under the sole of the foot
    • Shoes may wear out quickly
    • Pain or tenderness along the arch
    • With several fallen arches problems such as calf pain, knee pain and hip pain may be present
  • 15. Causes of Flat Feet
    • It is caused due to biomechanical complaint (abnormal walking), that is when the feet roll too much.
    • Hereditary factor is also one cause
    • A ruptured tendon can lead to a flat foot
    • Cerebral palsy, spins bifida and muscular dystrophy can also cause a flat foot
    • The foot being repetitively subjected to hard surfaces eventually weakening the arch of the foot
    • Obesity and pregnancy
  • 16. Complications of a Flat Foot
    • Inflammation and pain in the ligaments in the soles
    • Achilles and posterior tibial tendinitis
    • Shin splints
    • Stress fractures in lower leg
    • Bunions
    • Calluses
  • 17. Treatment for Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
    • Orthotics, specially designed shoe inserts, to help redistribute weight and take pressure off the nerve.
    • Corticosteroid injections
    • Surgery
  • 18. Flat Feet
    • Flat feet, or pes planus, are a defect of the foot that eliminates the arch.
    • Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD).
  • 19. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD)
    • Risk factors for PTTD
    • Wearing high heels.
    • Achilles tendon in the back of the calf shortens and tightens.
    • Ankle does not bend properly.
    • The tendons and ligaments running through the arch then try to compensate.
    • Break down and the arch falls.
  • 20.
    • Other conditions lead to flat feet or PTTD include;
    • Obesity,
    • Diabetes,
    • Surgery,
    • Injury,
    • Rheumatoid arthritis, or
    • Use of corticosteroids.
    • Indirect complication – urinary incontinence or leakage during exercise.
  • 21. Treatment for Flat Feet
    • in Children
    • Stand on tip-toes.
    • Outgrow the condition.
    • in Adults
    • Pain relief and insoles
    • custom-made orthotics.
  • 22. Surgery
    • Osteotomies or arthrodesis.
    • Lengthen the Achilles tendon and adjusting tendons in the foot.
    • Implant to support the arch.
    • Potential complications.
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