<ul><li>Dr. Shamanthakamani Narendran </li></ul><ul><li>MD (Pead), PhD (Yoga Science) </li></ul>YOGA THERAPY FOR  THE MANA...
INTRODUCTION   <ul><li>Oxygen is vital for life.  </li></ul><ul><li>The respiratory system transfers oxygen from air to bl...
 
Respiratory Anatomy   <ul><li>Nasal and other air passages in the skull. </li></ul><ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Trach...
Nasal and other air passages in the skull Diaphragm and other respiratory muscles
<ul><li>The respiratory system in close conjunction with the circulatory system is responsible for supplying all body cell...
<ul><li>Air enters the body mainly through the nostrils.  </li></ul><ul><li>The trachea splits into two airways called pri...
 
Lungs and Lung structure   <ul><li>The two spongelike lungs fill most of the chest cavity and are protected by the flexibl...
<ul><li>Air enters the lungs from the trachea.  </li></ul><ul><li>The primary bronchus divides into secondary bronchi and ...
Bronchial tree
Alveoli   <ul><li>The lungs’ microscopic air sacs, the alveoli, are elastic, thin-walled structures arranged in clumps at ...
<ul><li>Around the alveoli are networks of capillaries.  </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen passes from the air in the alveoli into ...
Alveoli
Gas exchange   <ul><li>The  body cannot store oxygen  and needs continuing supplies.  </li></ul><ul><li>It also constantly...
Gas Exchange
<ul><li>When it reaches the microscopic blind ends of the lungs’ airways, the gas dissolves into the fluid lining the air ...
<ul><li>Toxin carbon dioxide is a by-product of the process, but gas exchange discharges it into the air.  </li></ul><ul><...
Cellular Respiration   <ul><li>Glucose (blood sugar) is the body’s main energy source.  </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular respira...
Respiration Reaction   <ul><li>Cells take up oxygen to drive the key respiration reaction that releases energy from glucos...
Breathing  <ul><li>The movements of breathing, also known as bodily respiration, bring fresh air containing oxygen deep in...
<ul><li>The pressure differences are produced by forcefully expanding the chest and lungs by muscular action and then pass...
Volume and pressure   <ul><li>Breathing alters the volume of the chest (thoracic cavity).  </li></ul><ul><li>The lungs “su...
<ul><li>Rate and volume increase automatically if the body needs more oxygen, such as during exercise.  </li></ul><ul><li>...
RESPIRATORY DISORDERS   <ul><li>Millions of microbes float in even the cleanest of air and each breath brings those partic...
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI)   <ul><li>Many bacteria and viruses cause URTI.  </li></ul><ul><li>The upper airw...
<ul><li>The adenoids and tonsils tend to be larger during childhood because this age group catches more infectious disease...
Sinusitis  <ul><li>Inflammation of the sinus linings produces pain in the forehead or in the cheeks. Severe pain occurs if...
Acute Bronchitis  <ul><li>Inflammation of the bronchi can lead to other respiratory disorders. </li></ul>
Tuberculosis (TB)   <ul><li>This infectious disease, mainly affecting the lung tissue, is caused by the bacterium Mycobact...
<ul><li>Oral antibiotics have been very successful against TB, but the number of people affected by the disease has increa...
Asthma   <ul><li>Is an inflammatory lung disease that causes recurrent attacks of breathlessness and wheezing, due to narr...
<ul><li>The muscle in the walls of the airways contracts spasmodically, causing the airways to be constricted and bringing...
<ul><li>In many persons, the trigger for an attack is an allergic reaction to a foreign substance, or allergen, which can ...
Healthy airway   <ul><li>A normal bronchiole has relaxed smooth muscle in its walls and an adequate but thin lining.  </li...
Asthmatic airway   <ul><li>During an asthma attack, the smooth muscle contracts.  </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation due to an...
Asthma affected airways
Medical Management of Asthma   <ul><li>There are two main approaches to treatment, which are usually combined.  </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Reduced exposure to allergens may minimize the frequency and severity of asthma attacks.  </li></ul><ul><li>Inhali...
Tests to monitor the severity of Asthma <ul><li>Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT)  </li></ul><ul><li>Peak Expiratory Flow Rat...
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)   <ul><li>COPD consists primarily of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, two co...
<ul><li>Air-flow into and out of the lungs is restricted and the lungs’ ability to take in oxygen for the normal body pres...
Chronic Bronchitis  <ul><li>Chronic inflammation of the lungs’ airways is usually caused by smoking. Rarely, recurrent acu...
<ul><li>They produce too much mucus, resulting in a typical cough that at first is troublesome mostly in damp, cold months...
Occupational Diseases   <ul><li>Asbestosis, silicosis and pneumoconiosis are due to inhaling particles that irritate and i...
Lung Cancer   <ul><li>A malignant tumor in the lung. Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide with over a million n...
Lung Cancer <ul><li>In rare cases, lung cancer is caused by asbestos, toxic chemicals, or the radioactive gas radon.  </li...
Symptoms of Lung Cancer   <ul><li>A persistent cough is usually the earliest symptom.  </li></ul><ul><li>Because most peop...
<ul><li>Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of more than 3000 different substances, including the addictive stimulant nicot...
<ul><li>The risk of developing lung cancer increases with the number of cigarettes smoked per day, their tar content, the ...
Spread of Lung cancer
YOGIC MANAGEMENT OF  RESPIRATORY DISORDERS   <ul><li>Bridging the voluntary system with the involuntary system   </li></ul...
<ul><li>There is intimate connection between the mind and the pancha pranas.  </li></ul><ul><li>Hence by voluntarily chang...
BENEFITS OF  BREATHING PRACTICES AND PRANAYAMA   <ul><li>Slowing of respiratory rate, awareness of breathing and balance o...
<ul><li>Cooling Pranayama : Relaxes the muscles, soothens the nervous system and reduces the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR). A...
<ul><li>Anuloma – Viloma Pranayama : Reduces the basal metabolic rate, increases the vital capacity and strengthens the im...
<ul><li>Ujjayi : Strengthens the muscles of epiglottis and helps to reduce the effort of breathing.  </li></ul><ul><li>Bhr...
<ul><li>Kriyas  help in removing the inhibitions and reducing the hyper-reaction of the respiratory system.  </li></ul><ul...
REFERENCES   <ul><li>R. Nagarathna, H.R. Nagendra Yoga For Bronchial Asthma: A Controlled Study, Vivekananda Kendra Yoga R...
<ul><li>Joshi, M., and Telles, S. (2008). Immediate effects of right and left nostril breathing on verbal and spatial scor...
<ul><li>Visweswaraiah NK, Telles S. Randomized trial of yoga as a complementary therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. Respir...
<ul><li>Swami Karmananda. Yogic management of Common Diseases. Yoga Publications Trust, Munger, Bihar </li></ul><ul><li>Sw...
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Introduction Yoga Therapy For The Management Of Respiratory Disorders

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  • There are sinuses that are hollow air passages in the skull and are connected to the throat and nose. The sinuses will lighten the weight of the skull , act as echo chambers and will help to warm and moisten inhaled air.
  • Introduction Yoga Therapy For The Management Of Respiratory Disorders

    1. 1. <ul><li>Dr. Shamanthakamani Narendran </li></ul><ul><li>MD (Pead), PhD (Yoga Science) </li></ul>YOGA THERAPY FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF RESPIRATORY DISORDERS
    2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Oxygen is vital for life. </li></ul><ul><li>The respiratory system transfers oxygen from air to blood so that the cardiovascular system can distribute it, while the muscular and skeletal systems drive the movements of breathing. </li></ul><ul><li>The air is often contaminated with dust particles, harmful microbes, allergens, and hazardous, irritant and cancer-causing chemicals; smokers further boost these last three categories. </li></ul><ul><li>All of these items can damage the system’s delicate parts, making respiratory disorders among the most common of all illnesses. </li></ul>
    3. 4. Respiratory Anatomy <ul><li>Nasal and other air passages in the skull. </li></ul><ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Trachea </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchi and bronchioles </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragm and other respiratory muscles. </li></ul>
    4. 5. Nasal and other air passages in the skull Diaphragm and other respiratory muscles
    5. 6. <ul><li>The respiratory system in close conjunction with the circulatory system is responsible for supplying all body cells with essential oxygen and removing potentially harmful carbon dioxide from the body. </li></ul><ul><li>The mouth and nose channel air from outside the body through a system of tubes of diminishing size that eventually reach the two lungs situated on either side of the heart within the chest cavity. </li></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>Air enters the body mainly through the nostrils. </li></ul><ul><li>The trachea splits into two airways called primary bronchi, one of which enters the right lung and the other the left lung. </li></ul><ul><li>Each bronchus divides further into secondary and tertiary bronchi and eventually into tiny bronchioles. </li></ul><ul><li>This continuous branching is referred to as the bronchial tree. </li></ul><ul><li>Deep within the paired, cone-shaped lungs, exchange of gases takes place. </li></ul>
    7. 9. Lungs and Lung structure <ul><li>The two spongelike lungs fill most of the chest cavity and are protected by the flexible ribcage. </li></ul><ul><li>Together they form one of the body’s largest organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Their essential function is gas exchange – taking in vital oxygen from the air and expelling waste carbon dioxide to the air. </li></ul>
    8. 10. <ul><li>Air enters the lungs from the trachea. </li></ul><ul><li>The primary bronchus divides into secondary bronchi and these subdivide into tertiary bronchi, all the time decreasing in diameter. </li></ul><ul><li>Many subsequent divisions form the narrowest airways, which distribute air to the alveoli. </li></ul><ul><li>This intricate network of air passages resembles an inverted tree, with the trachea as the trunk, known as bronchial tree. </li></ul>
    9. 11. Bronchial tree
    10. 12. Alveoli <ul><li>The lungs’ microscopic air sacs, the alveoli, are elastic, thin-walled structures arranged in clumps at the ends of respiratory bronchioles. </li></ul><ul><li>They resemble bunches of grapes; although, the alveoli are partly merged with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>White blood cells known as macrophages are always present on their inner surfaces, where they ingest and destroy airborne irritants such as bacteria, chemicals and dust. </li></ul>
    11. 13. <ul><li>Around the alveoli are networks of capillaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen passes from the air in the alveoli into the blood by diffusion through the alveolar and capillary walls. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide diffuses from blood into the alveoli. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 300 million alveoli in both lungs provide a huge surface area for gas exchange, about 40 times greater than the body’s outer surface. </li></ul>
    12. 14. Alveoli
    13. 15. Gas exchange <ul><li>The body cannot store oxygen and needs continuing supplies. </li></ul><ul><li>It also constantly produces carbon dioxide as a waste product. </li></ul><ul><li>Gas exchange swaps oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs and tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen gas is physically drawn into the body by the expanding lungs. </li></ul>
    14. 16. Gas Exchange
    15. 17. <ul><li>When it reaches the microscopic blind ends of the lungs’ airways, the gas dissolves into the fluid lining the air spaces (alveoli). </li></ul><ul><li>It then passes into the blood stream, which distributes oxygen to each body cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Inside cells, the chemical changes known as cellular respiration use oxygen to break apart glucose for energy. </li></ul>
    16. 18. <ul><li>Toxin carbon dioxide is a by-product of the process, but gas exchange discharges it into the air. </li></ul><ul><li>In both lungs and body tissues, gases pass by diffusion, which is the process of flowing from regions of high to low density. </li></ul>
    17. 19. Cellular Respiration <ul><li>Glucose (blood sugar) is the body’s main energy source. </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular respiration occurs in every body cell when oxygen reacts with glucose to free its energy in chemical form. </li></ul><ul><li>The end products are carbon dioxide and water, which is known as metabolic water and amounts to about 300 mL daily throughout the body. </li></ul><ul><li>The whole process is called aerobic (oxygen-requiring) cellular, or internal, respiration. </li></ul>
    18. 20. Respiration Reaction <ul><li>Cells take up oxygen to drive the key respiration reaction that releases energy from glucose. </li></ul>
    19. 21. Breathing <ul><li>The movements of breathing, also known as bodily respiration, bring fresh air containing oxygen deep into the lungs and then remove stale air containing the waste product carbon dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>The physical movement of air into and out of the lungs is generated by differences in pressure within the lungs compared to the surrounding atmospheric pressure. </li></ul>
    20. 22. <ul><li>The pressure differences are produced by forcefully expanding the chest and lungs by muscular action and then passively allowing them to return to their former size. </li></ul><ul><li>The rate and depth of breathing can be consciously modified; however, the underlying need to breathe is controlled by areas within the brain stem, which responses to regulate the breathing muscles (of which we are usually aware) occur according to the levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the blood. </li></ul>
    21. 23. Volume and pressure <ul><li>Breathing alters the volume of the chest (thoracic cavity). </li></ul><ul><li>The lungs “suck” onto the inner chest wall, so that as the cavity expands, they also become larger. </li></ul><ul><li>The main expanding forces are provided by the diaphragm and intercostal muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>At rest, the diaphragm carries out most of the work as 0.5 liters of air – the tidal volume – shifts in and out with each breath (12-17 times every minute). </li></ul>
    22. 24. <ul><li>Rate and volume increase automatically if the body needs more oxygen, such as during exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>Then forced inspiration can suck in an extra 2 liters, and forced expiration expels almost as much, leading to a total air shift, or vital capacity of more than 4.5 liters in a large, healthy adult. </li></ul><ul><li>The breathing rate can triple, producing a total air exchange more than 20 times greater than at rest. </li></ul>
    23. 25. RESPIRATORY DISORDERS <ul><li>Millions of microbes float in even the cleanest of air and each breath brings those particles into the respiratory tract, despite defense systems such as mucus and cilia. </li></ul><ul><li>These microbes heighten the risk of a respiratory infection. </li></ul>
    24. 26. Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) <ul><li>Many bacteria and viruses cause URTI. </li></ul><ul><li>The upper airway is exposed to continual intake of microbes with each breath. </li></ul><ul><li>Harmful microbes may manage to break through the mucous lining and other defenses at various places, and set up an infection zone there. </li></ul><ul><li>Apart from the nasal chambers, which suffer most during a common cold, other sites at risk include the sinuses, the pharynx, throat and the larynx. </li></ul>
    25. 27. <ul><li>The adenoids and tonsils tend to be larger during childhood because this age group catches more infectious diseases while their immune system is still in the process of developing. </li></ul><ul><li>The interconnected regions of the tract mean that infection can spread relatively easily from one to another often from “top-down.” </li></ul>
    26. 28. Sinusitis <ul><li>Inflammation of the sinus linings produces pain in the forehead or in the cheeks. Severe pain occurs if swelling prevents drainage of the sinuses and pressure builds up. </li></ul>
    27. 29. Acute Bronchitis <ul><li>Inflammation of the bronchi can lead to other respiratory disorders. </li></ul>
    28. 30. Tuberculosis (TB) <ul><li>This infectious disease, mainly affecting the lung tissue, is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people harbor the TB microbe, but it causes the disease in only a small proportion, usually if an individual’s immunity or resistance is lowered. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms include fever and a persistent cough, loss of appetite and general weakness. </li></ul>
    29. 31. <ul><li>Oral antibiotics have been very successful against TB, but the number of people affected by the disease has increased since the 1980s. </li></ul><ul><li>This is due partly to the emergence of new antibiotic-resistant strains of the bacteria and partly because of the spread of HIV/AIDS, which lowers a person’s immunity. </li></ul>
    30. 32. Asthma <ul><li>Is an inflammatory lung disease that causes recurrent attacks of breathlessness and wheezing, due to narrowed airways in the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Is one of the most common and most variable of lung conditions, affecting as many as one in four children in some regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people have the occasional slight episode; others are prone to severe breathlessness that can threaten life and some have attacks that are variable and unpredictable from one day to the next. </li></ul>
    31. 33. <ul><li>The muscle in the walls of the airways contracts spasmodically, causing the airways to be constricted and bringing on an attack of breathlessness. </li></ul><ul><li>The narrowing is worsened by the secretion of excess mucus. </li></ul><ul><li>Most cases develop in childhood and may be linked to allergy-based problems such as eczema, with both having an inherited component. </li></ul>
    32. 34. <ul><li>In many persons, the trigger for an attack is an allergic reaction to a foreign substance, or allergen, which can include tiny inhaled particle such as pollen, mold from the droppings of house-dust mites, and particles from animal hair or feathers. </li></ul><ul><li>Other cases are due to food or drink allergies, certain drugs, respiratory infection and vigorous activity in cold weather. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important factor is anxiety, fear and mental stress. </li></ul>
    33. 35. Healthy airway <ul><li>A normal bronchiole has relaxed smooth muscle in its walls and an adequate but thin lining. </li></ul><ul><li>The passageway for air, or lumen is wide enough for sufficient oxygen-containing air to reach the alveoli. </li></ul>Healthy vs Asthmatic airway
    34. 36. Asthmatic airway <ul><li>During an asthma attack, the smooth muscle contracts. </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation due to an allergic response causes the blood vessels to widen and the tissues in the airway wall to swell. </li></ul><ul><li>The mucus layer also thickens. </li></ul><ul><li>This results in narrowing of the lumen. </li></ul>
    35. 37. Asthma affected airways
    36. 38. Medical Management of Asthma <ul><li>There are two main approaches to treatment, which are usually combined. </li></ul><ul><li>Corticosteroid drugs suppress the inflammatory reaction and should be taken regularly as prophylactics. </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchodilator drugs are used for quick relief to treat early symptoms of an attack; they work rapidly but last only a few hours. </li></ul>
    37. 39. <ul><li>Reduced exposure to allergens may minimize the frequency and severity of asthma attacks. </li></ul><ul><li>Inhaling a spray of antiasthma medication gets the drug directly to the site of the problem in the lungs’ small airways. </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent cure is extremely difficult. </li></ul>
    38. 40. Tests to monitor the severity of Asthma <ul><li>Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT) </li></ul><ul><li>Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) </li></ul><ul><li>Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV) </li></ul><ul><li>Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) </li></ul><ul><li>Vital Capacity (VC) </li></ul>
    39. 41. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) <ul><li>COPD consists primarily of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, two conditions that usually occur together in the same person. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a long-term disorder in which there is progressive damage to lung tissue with increasing shortness of breath. </li></ul>
    40. 42. <ul><li>Air-flow into and out of the lungs is restricted and the lungs’ ability to take in oxygen for the normal body pressures diminishes. </li></ul><ul><li>By far the most important contributory factor for COPD is smoking tobacco. </li></ul>
    41. 43. Chronic Bronchitis <ul><li>Chronic inflammation of the lungs’ airways is usually caused by smoking. Rarely, recurrent acute infections lead to chronic bronchitis. </li></ul><ul><li>The bronchi, become inflamed, congested and narrowed due to irritation caused by tobacco smoke, frequent infections, or prolonged exposure to pollutants. </li></ul>
    42. 44. <ul><li>They produce too much mucus, resulting in a typical cough that at first is troublesome mostly in damp, cold months but then persists throughout the year. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms such as hoarseness, wheezing and breathlessness also develop. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, a person becomes short of breath even at rest. </li></ul>
    43. 45. Occupational Diseases <ul><li>Asbestosis, silicosis and pneumoconiosis are due to inhaling particles that irritate and inflame the lung tissue, leading to fibrosis. </li></ul><ul><li>The people most at risk from this disease are those whose work exposes them to harmful particles over many years, like miners, quarry workers, stone masons. </li></ul><ul><li>There is gradual thickening (fibrosis) of the lung tissue, which eventually leads to irreversible scarring. </li></ul>
    44. 46. Lung Cancer <ul><li>A malignant tumor in the lung. Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide with over a million new cases diagnosed each year. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common cause of lung cancer is tobacco smoke. </li></ul><ul><li>Cigarette smoke contains thousands of known carcinogenic substances. </li></ul>
    45. 47. Lung Cancer <ul><li>In rare cases, lung cancer is caused by asbestos, toxic chemicals, or the radioactive gas radon. </li></ul>
    46. 48. Symptoms of Lung Cancer <ul><li>A persistent cough is usually the earliest symptom. </li></ul><ul><li>Because most people who develop lung cancer are smokers, this is often dismissed as a “smoker’s cough.” </li></ul><ul><li>Other symptoms include coughing up blood, wheezing, weight loss, persistent hoarseness and chest pain. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemotherapy and radiation therapy is the main stay of treatment. </li></ul>
    47. 49. <ul><li>Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of more than 3000 different substances, including the addictive stimulant nicotine, benzene, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, and tar. </li></ul><ul><li>The burning tar elements in the smoke are known to be strongly cancer-causing (carcinogenic). </li></ul>
    48. 50. <ul><li>The risk of developing lung cancer increases with the number of cigarettes smoked per day, their tar content, the number of years that a person has smoked and the depth of inhalation into the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Another risk factor is regular exposure to other people’s cigarette smoke, which is known as passive smoking. </li></ul>
    49. 51. Spread of Lung cancer
    50. 52. YOGIC MANAGEMENT OF RESPIRATORY DISORDERS <ul><li>Bridging the voluntary system with the involuntary system </li></ul><ul><li>TO PREVENT BRONCHOCONSTRICTION AND </li></ul><ul><li>TO TACKLE THE TRIGGERING FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of yoga in reducing mental and physical stress and regarding the importance of breathing is well documented. </li></ul><ul><li>The imbalance in the respirations disturbs the pancha pranas. </li></ul>
    51. 53. <ul><li>There is intimate connection between the mind and the pancha pranas. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence by voluntarily changing the respiratory rate, its pattern, its rhythm making it into regular, deep, harmonious and slow breathing, the dysfunction can be corrected. </li></ul><ul><li>Patience and skill in practice is necessary. </li></ul>
    52. 54. BENEFITS OF BREATHING PRACTICES AND PRANAYAMA <ul><li>Slowing of respiratory rate, awareness of breathing and balance of breath are the three main features of Pranayama. </li></ul><ul><li>The excessive speed, jerks, randomness of breathing and wrong breathing are corrected by Sectional Breathing and Prananusandhana . </li></ul>
    53. 55. <ul><li>Cooling Pranayama : Relaxes the muscles, soothens the nervous system and reduces the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR). Allergies due to cold can be effectively overcome by prolonged practice of these pranayama. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling Pranayamas are contraindicated in acute respiratory conditions like acute tonsillitis, nasal congestion, bronchitis, asthma and respiratory distress. Once the acute situation improves, gradually the Sitali , Sitkari and Sadanta can be introduced. </li></ul>
    54. 56. <ul><li>Anuloma – Viloma Pranayama : Reduces the basal metabolic rate, increases the vital capacity and strengthens the immune system. Helps in clearing the congestion in the nostrils and is very useful for Nasal allergy. </li></ul><ul><li>Nadi Suddhi : Promotes balance between the two nostrils, reduces anxiety and stress levels. Brings equanimity (samatva) – the key to spiritual growth. Keeping awareness is the key in the performance of all pranayamas. </li></ul>
    55. 57. <ul><li>Ujjayi : Strengthens the muscles of epiglottis and helps to reduce the effort of breathing. </li></ul><ul><li>Bhramari : Soothens the nervous system by restoring homeostasis, cultures the voice by increasing the range of frequency (pitch) and melody. Extremely useful in almost all ailments of the psychosomatic type as it reduces the stress factor. </li></ul>
    56. 58. <ul><li>Kriyas help in removing the inhibitions and reducing the hyper-reaction of the respiratory system. </li></ul><ul><li>Asanas help to relax the muscles and unfold the complete potential of stretching and relaxation. </li></ul>
    57. 59. REFERENCES <ul><li>R. Nagarathna, H.R. Nagendra Yoga For Bronchial Asthma: A Controlled Study, Vivekananda Kendra Yoga Research Foundation, Bangalore, India </li></ul><ul><li>R. Nagarathna Preliminary studies of Yoga Therapy for Bronchial Asthma, Vivekananda Kendra Yoga Research Foundation, Bangalore, India </li></ul><ul><li>Yoga as a therapeutic intervention. A Bibliometric Analysis of Published Research Studies. </li></ul>
    58. 60. <ul><li>Joshi, M., and Telles, S. (2008). Immediate effects of right and left nostril breathing on verbal and spatial scores. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 52(2):197-200. </li></ul><ul><li>Raghuraj, P. and Telles, S. (2008). Immediate effect of specific nostril manipulating yoga breathing practices on autonomic and respiratory variables. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 33(2):65-75 </li></ul>
    59. 61. <ul><li>Visweswaraiah NK, Telles S. Randomized trial of yoga as a complementary therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. Respirology. 2004 Mar;9(1):96-101. </li></ul><ul><li>Manjunath, N.K. and Telles, S. (2006). Therapeutic application of a cold chest pack in bronchial asthma. World journal of medical science, 1(1): 18-20 </li></ul><ul><li>Robin Munro, R. Nagarathna. Yogic therapy for common ailments. </li></ul>
    60. 62. <ul><li>Swami Karmananda. Yogic management of Common Diseases. Yoga Publications Trust, Munger, Bihar </li></ul><ul><li>Swami Shankardevananda. Yogic management of Asthma and Diabetes. Yoga Publications Trust, Munger, Bihar. </li></ul><ul><li>Telles S, Hanumanthaiah BH, Nagarathna R, Nagendra HR. Plasticity of motor control systems demonstrated by yoga training. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1994 Apr;38(2):143-4. </li></ul>
    61. 63. Thank You

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