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09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt
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09 Excretory System - Renal system.ppt

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  • 1. EXCRETORY SYSTEM (REMOVES WASTES) <ul><li>Kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive system </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory system. </li></ul>
  • 2. <ul><li>Metabolic processes give rise to chemical products which are of no use to the body. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, some of them may prove detrimental to health, and accumulation of these waste products can even be fatal. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence waste products are removed from the body by the process of excretion . </li></ul>
  • 3. URINARY SYSTEM
  • 4. URINARY SYSTEM METABOLIC WASTES INCLUDE 1. EXCESS WATER AND SALTS 2. CARBON DIOXIDE FROM CELLULAR RESPIRATION 3. NITROGENOUS COMPOUNDS FROM THE BREAKDOWN OF PROTEINS 4. UREA.
  • 5. URINE FORMATION <ul><li>Urine formation is involved glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion. </li></ul><ul><li>Glomerular Filtration </li></ul><ul><li>Filtration Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Filtration Rate </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of Filtration Rate </li></ul><ul><li>Tubular Reabsorption </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium and Water Reabsorption </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of Urine Concentration and Volume </li></ul><ul><li>Urea and Uric Acid Excretion </li></ul><ul><li>Tubular Secretion </li></ul><ul><li>Urine Composition </li></ul>
  • 6.  
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  • 9.  
  • 10. Water, Electrolyte, & Acid-Base Balance <ul><li>To be in balance, the quantities of fluids and electrolytes leaving the body should be equal to the amounts taken in. </li></ul><ul><li>Anything that alters the concentrations of electrolytes will also alter the concentration of water, and vice versa. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of Body Fluids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Fluids occur in compartments in the body, and movement of water and electrolytes between compartments is regulated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid Compartments </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. WATER BALANCE <ul><li>Water balance exists when water intake equals water output. </li></ul><ul><li>Water Intake </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of Water Intake </li></ul><ul><li>Water Output </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of Water Output </li></ul>
  • 12. ELECTROLYTE BALANCE <ul><li>An electrolyte balance exists when the quantities of electrolytes gained equals the amount lost. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrolyte Intake </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of Electrolyte Intake </li></ul><ul><li>Electrolyte Output </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of Electrolyte Output </li></ul>
  • 13. ACID-BASE BALANCE <ul><li>Electrolytes that ionize in water and release hydrogen ions are acids; those that combine with hydrogen ions are bases. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of homeostasis depends on the control of acids and bases in body fluids. </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of Hydrogen Ions. </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths of Acids and Bases. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of Hydrogen Ion Concentration. </li></ul>
  • 14. Major causes of ARF in Neonatal Prerenal Obstructive Intrinsic
  • 15. PRERENAL <ul><li>Systemic Hyporolemia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal Hemorrhage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Septic shock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N.E.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dehydration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renal Hypoperfusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perinatal asphyxia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CCF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac surgery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharmacologic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tolazoline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Captopril </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indomethacin </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 16. OBSTRUCTIVE <ul><li>Cong. Malformations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperforate prepuce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urethral stricture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post urethral valves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urethral diverticulam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary V.U.Reflux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ureterococle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Megacyotis – Megaureter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eagle barratt Syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ureteropelvic jn. Obstr. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic compression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saccrococcygeal terabura </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemalocolposs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic compression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Renal calculi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungal ball </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neurogenic bladder </li></ul>
  • 17. INTRINSIC <ul><li>Acute tubular necrosis Congenital malformations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bil. Agenesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renal dysplasia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polycystic kid disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glomerular maturational arrest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congenital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Syphilis, TOXO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyelonephritis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renal vascular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R.Art.Thrombosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R.Vein Thrombosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D.I.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nephrotoxins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aminoglycosides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indomethacin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ampotericin B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intra-renal obstruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uric acid nephropathy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myoglobinuria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemoglobinuria </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. RENAL HEMODYNAMIC FACTORS Renal Vasoconstriction Juxtaglomerular Apparatus Stimulates Renin Angiotensin system Further RBF Renal Ischemia & Tubular Injury Nephronal Factors Impaired glumetular capillary filtration Intraluminal tubular obstruction Tubular backleak of glomerular filtrate Captopril blockade (Rats)
  • 19. ACUTE RENAL FAILURE Incidence Pathophysiology Initiation phase
  • 20. RENAL DISEASE & COMPLICATIONS <ul><li>Renal dialysis </li></ul><ul><li>Renal failure (the inability of the person’s kidneys to function) </li></ul><ul><li>Nephritis </li></ul><ul><li>Nephrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by Gram negative bacteria such as E. coli . </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney stones (calcium-based stones) </li></ul>
  • 21. THE SKIN (INTEGUMENT) <ul><li>It is the outer covering of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a major organ of the body, forming about 8% of the total mass. </li></ul><ul><li>The average area (depending on the body build) may range from 1.2 to 2.2 sqm. </li></ul><ul><li>The total thickness is 1.4 to 4.0 mm. </li></ul>
  • 22. SKIN STRUCTURE
  • 23. <ul><li>The integument has a number of functions: </li></ul><ul><li>It is a barrier against germs. </li></ul><ul><li>It acts as a touch, resilient cushion – protection for the structures beneath. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps to regulate the body temperature. When it is hot, glands in the skin secrete perspiration on sweat. When sweat evaporates, cooling occurs. When it is cold, constriction of the blood vessels in the skin cuts down the flow of blood near the body’s surface. Hence it is decreased heat loss . </li></ul>
  • 24. <ul><li>The skin is also a sense organ. Nerve ending (and other receptors) in the skin respond to pain, heat, cold, touch, and pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>The skin supplies much of the body’s needs for Vitamin D. a substance is produced in the skin, which changes into Vitamin D, when exposed to sunlight. </li></ul><ul><li>The skin gives rise to specialized structures such as hair and nails. </li></ul>
  • 25. <ul><li>The skin has two distinct layers – the epidermis – outer covering and the inner dermis , or true skin. </li></ul><ul><li>The uppermost part consists of flat, old cells which are constantly being shed, or ‘sloughed off’. </li></ul><ul><li>The underlying part of the epidermis is made up of rapidly dividing cells. </li></ul><ul><li>These cells continuously push upward to replace dead cells. </li></ul>
  • 26. <ul><li>Tiny blood vessels and nerve ending are densely woven into the flexible connective tissue which makes up the dermis . </li></ul><ul><li>Sweat and oil (sebaceous) glands are embedded in it. </li></ul><ul><li>There are also various types of receptors for the touch sensation, beneath the skin. </li></ul>
  • 27. SWEAT GLANDS <ul><li>There are approximately 2 million sweat glands all over the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>They are tiny, coil shaped tubes. </li></ul><ul><li>They extend from the deepest layer of the skin to the surface. </li></ul><ul><li>These glands help to regulate the body temperature and also contribute to the excretion of water and salt from the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Sweat contains about 98-99% of water. </li></ul><ul><li>Certain inorganic salts – specially sodium chloride along with small make up the remaining 1-2%. </li></ul>
  • 28. <ul><li>During exercise more blood moves through the vessels surrounding the sweat glands. </li></ul><ul><li>This increases the sweat secretion, helping to lose heat and to remove waste products. </li></ul><ul><li>In offering protection to the internal organs against germs and injuries, the skin itself is vulnerable to various insults. </li></ul><ul><li>In particular, the skin of certain persons is usually sensitive. </li></ul><ul><li>In extreme cases this hypersensitivity can lead to an allergic reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>This is observed in certain skin conditions, such as eczema. </li></ul>
  • 29. SWEAT GLAND
  • 30.  

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