RESPIRATORY SYSTEM By, Dr. Shamanthakamani Narendran, MD
External Respiration is the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood. Internal Respiration is the exchange of gases between the blood and the cells of the body. Cellular Respiration or Aerobic Respiration involves the use of oxygen to break down glucose in the cell.
The main job of the respiratory system is to get oxygen into the body and waste gases out of the body. It is the function of the respiratory system to transport gases to and from the circulatory system. Respiration is a vital function of all living organisms. Respiration occurs at TWO DIFFERENT LEVELS : The level of the CELL & ORGANISM
FLOW OF AIR The nose will do three things to the air we breathe in: a. Filter the air b. Warm the air c. Provide moisture (water vapor or humidity) to the air.
ALVEOLI The Alveoli consist of thin, flexible membranes that contain an extensive network of Capillaries. The Membranes separate a gas from liquid. The gas is the air we take in through our Respiratory System, and the liquid is BLOOD.
VENTILATION movement of air to and from the Alveoli. INHALATION - air is pulled into the LUNGS. EXHALATION - air is pushed out of the Lungs. MECHANISM OF BREATHING
THINGS HAPPEN TO THE AIR WE INHALE a. Oxygen is removed b. Carbon dioxide is added c. Water vapor is added. Blood contains a large amount of CO2 and Little O2.
PULMONARY FUNCTION AND TESTING Spirometry Techniques Peak flow meter testing
Pulmonary dynamics The defense mechanisms of the lung Principles of allergy and immunity Bronchial asthma Therapy of bronchial asthma Aerosol therapy in children Bronchectasis Pathophysiology of pleural fluid collection and management of empyema
Childhood pulmonary tuberculosis Tuberculin test BCG vaccination Pediatric respiratory emergencies Interpretation of blood gas analysis Respiratory failure Pulmonary edema Oxygen therapy Ventilatory physiology
Chest physiotherapy Respiratory disorders Interpretation of pulmonary function tests (PFT) Flexible fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FFBS) Sonography in perplexing pediatric chest problems In vivo diagnostic procedures in allergy Diet in respiratory diseases