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Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
Reform and utopian movements
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Reform and utopian movements

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  • 1. Reform Movements and Utopian Societies
  • 2.
    • Questions for today:
    • How did 19 th -century Americans seek to improve their society?
    • How were their efforts at odds with one another?
    • Outline
    • 1) Growing Middle Class
    • 2) Second Great Awakening
    • 3) Middle-class reform:
    • - Temperance
    • - Stop prostitution
    • 4) Utopian communities:
    • New Harmony, Indiana
    • Brook Farm, Mass.
    • Oneida, NY
  • 3. 1. Growing Middle Class
    • Work ethic: sober, reliable
    • Cult of Domesticity: Women as moral guardians
    • Separate spheres
  • 4. Godey’s Lady’s Book (1850, 1851)
  • 5. 2. Second Great Awakening Charles B. Finney, Evangelical preacher
    • Perfectionism
    • Conformity through reform
    • Only moral standard: Protestant middle class
  • 6. 3. Middle Class Reform: Temperance Movement
    • Alcoholism causes domestic violence
    • Techniques of revivalism
  • 7. “ The Temperance “The Drunkard’s Home” (1850) Home”
  • 8. The Bottle (1848)
  • 9.  
  • 10. Successes of Temperance Movement:
    • Reduced alcohol consumption
    • Helped fight violence against women
    • Women engaged in public activity
  • 11. Crusade against Prostitution
    • Female Moral Reform Society
    • Attacked the sexual double standard
    • Homes of Refuge
    • Causes: poverty and male demand
  • 12. 4. Utopian communities
  • 13. 1820-1860: wide range of experiments
    • Liberal: reform can reduce the worst aspects of capitalism (poverty)
    • Radical: capitalism has flaws that reform cannot fix. A new society is needed.
  • 14. New Harmony, Indiana, 1825-1827 Robert Owen Frances Wright
  • 15. New Harmony, Indiana
    • Cooperation, not competition
    • Full racial equality
    • No marriage. “Free love”
    • Make birth control and divorce available
  • 16. Brook Farm, Mass., 1841-1846
    • Both intellectual and manual labor
    • Transcendentalism:
      • Reality above everyday lives
    • Individualism
  • 17. Ralph Waldo Emerson
    • Mystical unity of nature
    • An original relation to the universe
    • Self-reliance (not organized religion)
  • 18. Henry David Thoreau
    • “ To live deliberately”
    • Individualism: a different drummer
    • What is a life well lived?
  • 19. Oneida Community, NY, 1848-1881 John Humphrey Noyes
    • Perfectionism
    • Complex marriages
    • Outside the law
    • Strict rules about sex
  • 20. Oneida: children’s house
  • 21. Oneida: mansion
  • 22. Oneida: group photo
  • 23. Noyes in later years
  • 24. Oneida Silverware
  • 25. A vast array of proposals
    • Middle-class values: self-discipline, work
    • Self-determination (free love, no racism)
    • Complete individualism
    • Authoritarian structures
    • Competing assumptions about human nature

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