SYNTAX NOTES 1Dr. Jessie Grace U. RubricoPBET 1101 , TESL Program   University of Malaya
Syntax• ordering of words in phrases, clauses  and sentences.        – ordering can be diagrammed using          syntactic...
Components of Syntax:1. Lexicon : mental dictionary2. Computational system   Merge –combines elements           to create ...
categories and structure1. syntactic categories   lexical – N, V, A, P   functional – Det, Aux, Conj, Deg2. Determining wo...
Phrases identification1.       the child2.       the poor child3.       the poor and hungry child4.       a scented candle...
Phrases identification1.       almost inside the building2.       perhaps earn some money3.       too large for my friend4...
blueprint for mapping phrases into trees                        XP          Spec                                          ...
head• Head (X) - obligatory:  –the word a phrase cannot do without  –determines the kind/name of phrase  –head is noun : N...
specifier• Specifier: (Spec) – optional   –marks the head   –comes before the head or     modifiers of the head.11/16/2011...
specifiersLexical Head       Specifiers                                             ExamplesNouns          articles       ...
NP           VP                                   AP               PPa woman           slowly crawl                  too l...
complements• NPs can co-occur with a PP complement  – the rumor about his wife• PPs take NP complement  – almost at the pe...
• VPs can take  – an NP complement              - never trust your competitor     – a PP complement        – got inside th...
Exercise on phrase mapping1. the child                                    11. calmly accepted the news2. the poor child   ...
Reference• OGrady, W.D., Archibald, J. (eds.). (2009).  Contemporary Linguistic Analysis: An  Introduction, 6th edition. O...
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Syntax Notes

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Lecture notes, PBET 1101 TESL Program Department of Language & Literacy Education, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MY.

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Syntax Notes

  1. 1. SYNTAX NOTES 1Dr. Jessie Grace U. RubricoPBET 1101 , TESL Program University of Malaya
  2. 2. Syntax• ordering of words in phrases, clauses and sentences. – ordering can be diagrammed using syntactic trees.11/16/2011 syntax notes: dr jessie grace u. rubrico/2011
  3. 3. Components of Syntax:1. Lexicon : mental dictionary2. Computational system Merge –combines elements to create phrases & sentences Move –transports elements to new positions in a structure11/16/2011 syntax notes: dr jessie grace u. rubrico/2011
  4. 4. categories and structure1. syntactic categories lexical – N, V, A, P functional – Det, Aux, Conj, Deg2. Determining word category meaning * inflection * distribution11/16/2011 syntax notes: dr jessie grace u. rubrico/2011
  5. 5. Phrases identification1. the child2. the poor child3. the poor and hungry child4. a scented candle5. an earnest plea for peace6. those dresses inside the cabinet7. that red jaguar by the seashore8. this very interesting story9. some problems with their studies11/16/2011 syntax notes: dr jessie grace u. rubrico/2011
  6. 6. Phrases identification1. almost inside the building2. perhaps earn some money3. too large for my friend4. the very beautiful and witty professor5. brightly beams from his house6. calmly accepted the news7. this man and that child8. some stories about the Queen9. often eat lunch near the library11/16/2011 syntax notes: dr jessie grace u. rubrico/2011
  7. 7. blueprint for mapping phrases into trees XP Spec X’ (read X-bar) X ComplementXP stands for syntactic categories like Noun Phrase (NP), Verb Phrase (VP),Adjective Phrase (AP), and Prepositional Phrase (PP). 11/16/2011 syntax notes: dr jessie grace u. rubrico/2011
  8. 8. head• Head (X) - obligatory: –the word a phrase cannot do without –determines the kind/name of phrase –head is noun : NP Lexical Heads : Noun, Verb, Adjective, Preposition11/16/2011 syntax notes: dr jessie grace u. rubrico/2011
  9. 9. specifier• Specifier: (Spec) – optional –marks the head –comes before the head or modifiers of the head.11/16/2011 syntax notes: dr jessie grace u. rubrico/2011
  10. 10. specifiersLexical Head Specifiers ExamplesNouns articles a, an, the qualifiers some, certain, our, my, etc. demonstratives that, this, these, thoseVerbs adverbs slowly, brightly auxiliaries •modals can, will, should, would, could, may, might •aux verbs is, are, has, have, etcAdjectives adverbs/degrees too, so, much, etcPrepositions adverbs/degrees almost, so, too, etc 11/16/2011 syntax notes: dr jessie grace u. rubrico/2011
  11. 11. NP VP AP PPa woman slowly crawl too large almost at the peakhis lovely wife should much simpler so near yet so carefully write farthat very pretty hotly contest very smart and just under theprofessor lovely bedour cheap but can truthfully more tiny butbeautiful car tell stronger brightly shines so crowded for directly under from the ship some visitors the sunlight 11/16/2011 syntax notes: dr jessie grace u. rubrico/2011
  12. 12. complements• NPs can co-occur with a PP complement – the rumor about his wife• PPs take NP complement – almost at the peak• APs take PP complement –quite sure of the facts 11/16/2011 syntax notes: dr jessie grace u. rubrico/2011
  13. 13. • VPs can take – an NP complement - never trust your competitor – a PP complement – got inside the building - a sentence for a complement using Complementizer Phrase (CP) - thinks that her students pass the test. 11/16/2011 syntax notes: dr jessie grace u. rubrico/2011
  14. 14. Exercise on phrase mapping1. the child 11. calmly accepted the news2. the poor child 12. this man and that child3. the poor and hungry child 13. often eat lunch near the library4. a scented candle 14. so crowded for some visitors5. that red jaguar by the seashore 15. just under the bed6. this very interesting story 16. more tiny but stronger7. almost inside the building 17. our cheap but beautiful car8. too large for my friend 18. never trust your competitor9. brightly beams from his house 19. got inside the building10. the very beautiful and witty 20. quite sure of the facts professor11/16/2011 syntax notes: dr jessie grace u. rubrico/2011
  15. 15. Reference• OGrady, W.D., Archibald, J. (eds.). (2009). Contemporary Linguistic Analysis: An Introduction, 6th edition. Ontario: Pearson Education Canada.11/16/2011 syntax notes: dr jessie grace u. rubrico/2011
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