Sentences

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Lecture notes for PBET 1103 -2012, TESL Program, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya.

Lecture notes for PBET 1103 -2012, TESL Program, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya.

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  • 1. Introduction to thegrammar of English
  • 2.  S NP VP • NP (Subject) • VP (Predicate) • VP Verb (NP/PP/AdvP)
  • 3.  noun (obligatory) – student det + noun – a student det + adj + noun – an intelligent student det + adv + adj + noun - a very intelligent student
  • 4.  adj + noun – cold weather adv + adj + noun very cold weather det + adv + adj + noun this very cold weather
  • 5. pronoun – they, you, etc. det + N + PP the sound of an airplane PP –Prepositional Phrase
  • 6.  verb – go verb + adv – go quickly adv + verb – always go aux + verb – is going did not go has leftmodal aux + verb – will go
  • 7.  verb + NP : buy [a car] verb + PP : go [to school] adv + verb + PP – always go [to school] verb + NP + PP drive [the car] [up the hill]
  • 8.  Subject : NP - the taxi driver Predicate : VP • bought – verb • some food – object (NP) • from that store – PP • yesterday – adverb (AdvP)
  • 9.  Subject (NP) + Predicate : VP NP det + adj + N VP verb + NP + PP + AdvP NP det/quantifier PP P + NP AdvP yesterday
  • 10. 1) The inquiry left in its wake a number of casualties.2) I was one of them.3) The inquiry left in its wake a number of casualties, and I was one of them.4) When the inquiry left in its wake a number of casualties, I was one of them.5) The inquiry left in its wake a number of casualties, I being one of them.Source: Greenbaum & Nelson (2002), pp.15-16.
  • 11.  Simple Sentence – 1 main clause -- 1 Subject and 1 Predicate The car is red -- plural subject and/or plural predicate Lyn and Sheena went to the beach. Their dog barked and jumped.
  • 12.  Liza reads comics. Liza reads novels. Liza reads comics and novels. Liza reads and enjoys novels Liza and Farah read novels Liza and Farah read and enjoy novels and newspapers. Punctuation note: Do not separate compound elements (subject, verb, direct object, indirect object, subjective complement, etc.) in a simple sentence by commas.
  • 13. Compound sentence : - two or more independent clauses joined by a coordinating conj: and, or, nor, but, yet, so, for • John ran to the store and he bought lotto tickets. • Gan and Pearly were late for class, so they were marked ‘absent.’ • We did not mean to tell a lie, but we did it anyway.
  • 14. Two independent clauses joined by--a coordinating conjunction Liza reads comics, but Farah reads novels--a conjunctive adverb (however, therefore) Liza reads comics; however, Farah reads novels --a semicolon Liza reads comics; her friend reads novels.
  • 15.  Complex • one independent and • one or more dependent clauses • joined by a relative pronoun or a subordinating conjunction. • After eating the dead rat, the dog died. • Because of the rain, the picnic was cancelled.
  • 16.  Although Liza reads comics, Farah reads novels. Farah reads novels although Liza reads comics Farah, who reads novels, seldom reads comics People who read novels seldom read comics.
  • 17.  Compound-complex • Two or more independent clauses • one or more dependent clauses • When Mother came, she walked into my bedroom and she placed the books on my bed. • Dina, who reads novels, rarely reads comics; however, Nona enjoys comics.
  • 18. While Farah reads novels, Liza reads comics, but Eyna reads only newspapers.Farah reads novels but Liza reads comics because novels are boring.[Liza,{who reads comics}, seldom reads novels]; however, Farah enjoys novels.People {who read comics} seldom read novels; they find novels boring.
  • 19.  Clause : group of related words with a subject and a predicate - can be independent or dependent/subordinateIdentify the independent and the subordinateclauses in the quote below: "Whenever you find yourself on the side of the majority, it is time to pause and reflect." (Mark Twain)
  • 20.  Independent (Main) Clause - a group of related words that has a subject and a verb and makes sense by itself. • Mary went into the store Dependent (Subordinate) Clause - A group of related words that has a subject and a verb, • As John drove around the block but does not make sense by itself because it needs the independent clause to make sense. As John brought the kids to the park, Jane prepared dinner.
  • 21. group of words with a defining head • Noun : head of a Noun Phrase • Verb : head of a Verb Phrase • Adjective : head of an Adjective Phrase • Adverb : head of Adverb Phrase • Preposition : head of Preposition Phrase • Refer to examples on Slides 3 to 9 above.
  • 22.  Declaratives • She is working here. Interrogatives • Where have you been? Imperatives • Take a seat. Exclamatives • How well you look!
  • 23. Statements – convey informationQuestions – request informationImperatives – request actionExclamations – express strong feeling
  • 24. I am going to KLCC.I am not going to Ipoh. She can dance. She cannot sing. They have left Malaysia They have not left Malaysia
  • 25. Shakespeare wrote many plays.Many plays were written by Shakespeare.Alice will buy that red car.That red car will be bought by Alice.
  • 26.  Onlyactive sentences with transitive verbs can be transformed to passive sentences. • Transitive verbs – require direct object NP Object of the transitive verb in the active S becomes the subject in the passive S; the actor moves to a position after the verb, [by + actor]
  • 27.  Passive verb needs the auxiliary [be + -en] Active S: The teacher gave the book to her. Passive S: The book was given to her by the teacher. Active S: Tina will prepare dinner for the guests. Passive S: A dinner will be prepared for the guests (by Tina). [by –actor] is sometimes omitted.