Filipino Variety of Davao (FVD): A Linguistic Description
Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, PhD University of Malaya Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaA paper read at the 11th Philippine Linguistics Congress 07-09 December 2011 NISMED University of the Philippines
capital - Region XI (Southern Mindanao): Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, and Compostela Valley population : 4,156,653 (2007 census, http://www.nscb.gov.ph/ru11/) Cebuano : language of the majority (74.56%) http://www.census.gov.ph/data/pressrelease/2002/pr02123tx.html Summer Institute of Linguistics: 91% to 97% of Davao residents use Cebuano* English : institutions of learning, commerce & trade Filipino: widely spoken (next to Cebuano)*Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=daw.
Cebuano 74.56% Ilocano 1.01%Tagalog 3.86% Waray 0.55%Hiligaynon 3.43% Maguindanao 1.91%Bagobo, Guiangao 3.16% Bilaan 1.67%Tagacaolo 2.38% Davaweño 1.26%Manobo 2.15% other languages 2.04%Mandaya 2.01% uncertain 0.01%.Source: http://davao.islandsphilippines.com/davao_dialect.html citing Statistical Variable,Regional QuarterlyPublication, National Census & Statistics Office, Davao City.
1. Tagalog- Bisaya blend Tagalog na Binisaya BISLOG < Bis(ayang) (Taga)log TAGBIS < Tag(alog) Bis(aya)2. English- Filipino mix > closely resembles the Metro Manila Filipino
• English-Filipino English- Codeswitch Filipino Mix • Very close to MMF • Tagalog na BinisayaTagalog-Bisaya • BISLOG < Bis(ayang) (Taga)log Blend • TAGBIS < Tag(alog) Bis(aya)
2.1 FVD Type 1 Clauses (Filipino-English Codeswitch)1a) Nagpapakaserious sa work and naglilibang sa net kung bakit pa kasi ako nainlove. Eng: pretending to be serious at work and keeping busy at the internet, why did i have to fall in love.1b) Bro, dont do that... naglilibang si pareng bobby alvarez, eh... Eng: brother. . . . . . . . .our friend bobby alvarez is relaxing, you know.1c) Let’s go na po, sa paborito nato! Eng: Come now, let’s go, to our favorite (place) 1d) Dad, I love it here, BUY NA, NOW NA! Eng: . . . . . . . . . . buy now, this instant. Sources: (2a) www.tristancafe.com/forum/46 (2b) mannypacquiao.ph/forum/viewtopic.php?t=12132&sid=996b764ed88d5d35bfd3c495f4a7cb63 (2c-d) billboards along the highway
2.2 FVD BISLOG/TAGBIS Features2.2.1. predominance of Tag words2a) Dahil wala akong magawa ay naglibang-libang ako. Because neg 1SGen-link do-Apt IM amuse-Perf 1PNom Because I could do nothing, I amused myself /kept myself occupied.2b) Wag lang dagat na magtabok kami dahil takot akong neg just sea that ConAF-cross 1PNom because afraid 1SGenlinker sumakay ng bangka para tumabok. board- ConAF indefM canoe to cross Not just the sea where we need to cross because I’m afraid to board a canoe to cross.2c) mas mabuti kung muhawa na lang mi kay kusog lagi ang ulan! more good if AFleave-Con just 1PGen because hard part the rain It is better if we just leave because the rain is really hard (it’s raining hard)Source: http://www.sunstar.com.ph/static/dav/2005/01/19/life/lizada.tagalog.na.binasaya.html
2.2.2 Insertion of BIS particles in clauses2d) Mabait bitaw gyud si Weng good-natured part really AM Weng Tag: Totoong mabait talaga si Weng. Eng: Weng is really good-natured.2e) Galenga talaga niya gyud, uy! excellent really 3SGen part Tag: Ang galing niya talaga! Eng: She really is excellent!Source (3d): Galenga Talaga Niya Gyud, Uy!” http://thespoke.net/blogs/yeoj/archive/2006/01/12/931047.aspx
2.2.3 The affixation of BIS verbal affixes to TAG roots are done in accordance with the morphological rules of BIS2f) Hindi pa man siya nag-dating, uy. neg part part 3SNom ProgAF-arrive part Tag: Hindi pa siya dumating kasi. Eng: S/he has not arrived yet. (What’s taking her/him so long?)2g) Ayaw kasi nilang mag-lapit sa akin, di ayaw neg because 3PGenLinker ConAF-come near to 1SLoc so neg ko na ring maglapit sa kanila. 1SNom part part to 3PLoc Tag: Ayaw kasi nilang lumapit sa akin, kaya ayaw ko na ring lumapit sa kanila. Eng: Because they don’t want to come near me, so I don’t also want to go near them.Source of (2f and g): “Pagkakaisa sa Gitna ng Pagkakaiba-iba,” a homily delivered byPastor Roderick Raut to the Tagalog congregation of the Davao City UCCP on May 2004.
2h) Gisabi kasi ni Helen na mag-absent PerfOF-say because AM Helen that ConAF-absent si Bernard bukas AM Bernard tomorrow Tag: Sinabi kasi ni Helen na aabsent si Bernard bukas. Eng: Because Helen said that Bernard will be absent tomorrow2i) Maka-inis man yan siya, uy! AptCon-irritate part that 1SNom part Tag: Nakakainis talaga siya! Bis: Makalagot man na siya uy! Eng: S/he really makes one mad!
2.2.4 nakin : Tag ko 2j) Alam man nakin `yan ba! know part 1PNom that part Tag: Alam ko na man yan. Eng: I already know that. 2k) Saan nakin kita* nakita gani? where 1SNom PerfAF-see part Tag: Saan nga ba kita nakita? Eng: Where have I seen you before?*Kita is a Tagalog pronoun that express the I-You paradigm as in Mahal Kita (I love you) or Isumbong kita (I’ll tell on you).
3. Observations3.1. Verbnaglibang-libang (1a) TAGlibang (to amuse or to keep busy) does not appear in this form (viz., Vaf – Rootlibang-totalRedupl) in TAG. In BIS, libang does not co-occur with the affix mag-; affixed with ma- means “to defecate.”
3.2 BIS root tabok (TAG. Tawid in 2b) affixed by mag- and –um- : “to cross”. magtabok, tumabok - FVD >Tagalog : tumawid (*magtawid) > BIStabok - mo-, mang- (manabok), magtabok?/ tumabok?3.3 use of verbal affixes mag- or nag- in lieu of the TAG –um- Tagdating in (2f): nagdating –dumating Taglapit in (2g) : maglapit –lumapit
3.4 use of BIS Vaf gi- in lieu of TAG -in- as shown in (2h) : Tagsabi : FVDgisabi : Tagsinabi3.5 BIS Vaf maka- in (2i) is used in accordance with BIS morphosyntax.3.6 morpheme –a affixed to BIS adjective galenga (2e) to express intensity. (Other examples: dakoa (how big); gamaya (how little or how small)3.7 use of the pronoun nakin in FVD for TAG ko
1. Combines BIS and TAG words in a clause and uses BIS particles.2. Uses BIS particles in Tag-Bis clauses3. Applies BIS morphosyntactic rules on TAG morphemes suffixing of –a to adjectives to convey their intensive form (2e) affixing BIS verbal affixes to Tag verb base4. Uses nakin (1PNom) in lieu of Tagko
Can Tagalog words with BIS affixes derived through BIS morphosyntactic rules be called Tagalog still? Can the foregoing clauses be considered BIS because they are derived through the morphosyntactic rules of BIS despite its seemingly Tagalog form? Is the FVD TAGBIS a variety of Tagalog? Is Filipino Tagalog?
"The core of the real Filipino language is the Filipino as spoken in Davao and not the Balagtas Tagalog in Bulacan [Luzon]. . . A language and its usage should grow and that is what is happening in Davao,” former University of the Philippines President Francisco Nemenzo.Source: Davao dialect backed as RP national language. Accessed on 23 ng September2005 from the website of The Manila Times:http://www.manilatimes.net/national/2005/jan/23/yehey/metro/20050123met1.html
Bisaya Bloggers, Ato ni Bai`! Accessed 27 December 2007 frombisayabloggers.blogspot.com/2005_04_01_bisayabloggers_archive.htmlDavao dialect backed as RP national language. Accessed 23 September 2005 from the website of The Manila Times: http://www.manilatimes.net/national/2005/jan/23/yehey/metro/20050123met1.htmlDavao Language(s) and Dialect(s). Accessed 04 April 2009 from the website of Davao Island Philipines at http://davao.islandsphilippines.com/davao_dialect.html citing "Statistical Variable", Regional Quarterly Publication National Census & Statistics Office, Davao City.Galenga Talaga Niya Gyud, Uy! Accessed 31 January 2006 from the website The Spoke at: http://thespoke.net/blogs/yeoj/archive/2006/01/12/931047.aspxLizada, Rene. Tagalog na Binasaya (Part Two). Accessed 27 December 2008 from the SunStar Davao website at: http://www.sunstar.com.ph/static/dav/2005/01/19/life/lizada.tagalog.na.binasaya.html
Manny Pacquiao, The Destroyer. Accessed 31 January 2009 from forum.philboxing at: mannypacquiao.ph/forum/viewtopic.php?t=12132&sid=996b764ed88 d5d35bfd3c495f4a7cb63.Raut, Roderick. “Pagkakaisa sa Gitna ng Pagkakaiba-iba”, homily delivered during the Tagalog Service at the Davao City UCCP on May 2004.Rubrico, Jessie Grace. The Metamorphosis of Filipino as National Language. Accessed on 23 Nov 2009 from the author’s website at: www.languagelinks.org/onlinepapers/fil_met.htmlTristanCafe Forums: Wala lang gusto ko lang magkwento. Accessed 07 January 2009 from : www.tristancafe.com/forum/46