Cognitive Linguistics:
 Word Grammar &
 Language Network


   Malihee Mahmoudi
        MEd TESL
   University of Malaya
This paper is presented in partial fulfillment of
        the requirements for the course
         General Linguistics for...
Paper Design
Approach
  Theory of Language
  Theory of Learning
Design
Word Grammar as Network
Theory of Language


    Widdowson 1978
    linguistic system




     Theory of
     Language



       Chomsky
    Lingu...
Approach
Theory of Learning
Some elements in CLT practices that underpin a learning
  theory:
 Communication principle: A...
Characteristics of communicative view of Language




Language is a system for expression of meaning

 Primary function of...
CLT practices refer to special conditions needed to promote
second language learning rather than language acquisition
proc...
Objectives
    Piepho 1981 discussed following level of Objectives
       With regard to learners’ communicative needs
1  ...
Syllabus

                   Functional-notional
Communicative
syllabus types
   Yalden’s           Task-based
 classifica...
According to Littlewood ( 1981)

                       Learning Techniques&
                             Activities

    ...
Procedure in CLT

      Teacher introduces
    a new topic about job &     Teacher introduces a dialogue
   motivates them...
Why CLT
 Collaborative work, information-based tasks and
 tasks which involves students in negotiation with
           tak...
Theme for teaching
  Designed for Intermediate-level learners
                Lesson Theme:
                Jobs & word
  ...
Learning Techniques


1   Complete a diagram, sorting, game & jigsaw exercises

2       Class Discussion about real world ...
Students are able to…at the end of lesson


                                    Speaking:describing
Increase power        ...
Support teaching with Cognitive Linguistics

                                         ON
                                 ...
Hudsons’Word Grammar
                           WG
                    Language is just knowlege
Language network




    ...
Language is network

Brief History
   of WG        Knowledge is Network too
WG Theories
• early 1980s - Hudson first used WG (Hudson 1984);
  basically, a theory of grammar where words played a
  si...
WG and combination of 3 Super-Lexicons

• Language is a cognitive network of 3 units:
            form, words and sounds.
...
Source: Richards, Hall and Proctor (2005, page 8)
Vocabulary is a network (Noun category)
                 Noun
    is a                       is a




      Fish     Fishe...
Vocabulary is a network

                                 Noun
              is a                               is a




 ...
Vocabulary is a network

                       Noun
    is a                                 is a




           ?       ...
Vocabulary is a network

                                Noun
               is a                         is a




       ...
Vocabulary is a network

                   Noun
    is a                        is a




    Dance          Dancer       ...
Vocabulary is a network

                                      Noun
                     is a                          is ...
Source: Richards, Hall and Proctor (2005, page 8)
Source: Richards, Hall and Proctor (2005, page 9)
Grammar is network ( Verb category)

     word
                   stem


    Singular                 f
      Verb




Wor...
Grammar is network

     word
                      stem


     works                    Work




Word-form         s     ...
Grammar is network
    Morphology of Plural Nouns
     word
                  stem


     builds               Build




W...
Inheritance & Generalization
            Syntax in Network
                                       Noun
                   ...
Noun
        Subject


Verb              Doctor



        Before

        Subject


cares             nurse


        Bef...
Source: Richards, Hall and Proctor (2005, page 9)
Source: Richards, Hall and Proctor (2005, page 9)
?


               Adjective



      ?                     ?



                 great
Dependent

                Dancer
...
terrific


               Adjective



 wonderful                  fantastic



                 great
Dependent

        ...
outstanding


                       Adjective



 marvelous                                     super



                ...
Source: Lefferts, George (1991), Episode 17, Act 3.

Jason: Look at that!
Andrea: Great!
Jason: Look at that!
Andrea: Sens...
Jason: Oooh, look at them!
Andrea: All right!
They're fabulous!
Wonderful, fabulous!
Jason: Check this out. What do you th...
Source: Lefferts, George (1991), Episode 17, Act 3.

Great!
Sensational!
Amazing!
Terrific!
Fantastic!
Super!
Wonderful!
F...
Conclusion
WG & language network can be used in teaching all
4-skills to learners in a simple and applicable way
         ...
References
Creider, Chet and Hudson, Richard (2006). 'Case agreement in
 Ancient Greek: Implications for a theory of cover...
Lefferts, George (Writer) & Sedwich, Anne and M. Mazuer
  (Directors).(1991) Photo finish [Episode 17]. In A.
  Cooperman ...
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Cognitive Grammar: Word Network

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Exploring vocabulary teaching with Cognitive Linguistics "language is a network" paradigm.

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Cognitive Grammar: Word Network

  1. 1. Cognitive Linguistics: Word Grammar & Language Network Malihee Mahmoudi MEd TESL University of Malaya
  2. 2. This paper is presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the course General Linguistics for TESL Faculty of Education University of Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, Facilitator PBGS 6304, Semester 2, AY 2009-2010 April 2010
  3. 3. Paper Design Approach Theory of Language Theory of Learning Design Word Grammar as Network
  4. 4. Theory of Language Widdowson 1978 linguistic system Theory of Language Chomsky Linguistic theory 1965
  5. 5. Approach Theory of Learning Some elements in CLT practices that underpin a learning theory:  Communication principle: Activities involving real communication can promote learning.  Task principle: activities which use language for performing meaningful tasks can promote learning.  Meaningfulness principle: language meaningful to students enhances the learning process.
  6. 6. Characteristics of communicative view of Language Language is a system for expression of meaning Primary function of language is to allow communication Structure of language reflects its functional & communicative uses Unit of Language is not only grammatical and structural features
  7. 7. CLT practices refer to special conditions needed to promote second language learning rather than language acquisition processes. Moreover, learners should be engaged in meaningful and authentic language use not merely mechanical practice of patterns in language (Littlewood 1981; Johnson 1982). Littlewood (1984) and Johnson (1984) represent an alternative theory which is compatible with CLT- a skill – learning model of language learning. This theory involves both cognitive and behavioral aspects that describe acquisition of competence in a language as an example of skill development.
  8. 8. Objectives Piepho 1981 discussed following level of Objectives With regard to learners’ communicative needs 1 Language as means of expression 2 Language as a semiotic system& object of learning 3 Language as a means of expressing values and judgment about oneself and others. 4 Remedial learning based on error analysis 5 Language learning within school curriculum
  9. 9. Syllabus Functional-notional Communicative syllabus types Yalden’s Task-based classification (1983) Interaction & Learner-generated
  10. 10. According to Littlewood ( 1981) Learning Techniques& Activities Functional Social communicational Interaction activities activities Dialogues Comparing Complete Draw Discussion sessions & skits Debates pictures a map a shape Role plays
  11. 11. Procedure in CLT Teacher introduces a new topic about job & Teacher introduces a dialogue motivates them to discuss & asks student to role play, as a pair work Teacher asks about any Teacher in matching game words related to jobs, & Indirectly adds S to verbs to plays vocabulary games refer to singular 3rd person with students In group work students Watch a video to apply ADJ in solve a grammar exercise real World related to jobs
  12. 12. Why CLT Collaborative work, information-based tasks and tasks which involves students in negotiation with taking risks are emphasized. Communicative Approach SLA Theory Approach to LL School of Thought: Language View Social Interaction Constructivists Communicative
  13. 13. Theme for teaching Designed for Intermediate-level learners Lesson Theme: Jobs & word of Praise Communicative Methodology Topic-driven Syllabus
  14. 14. Learning Techniques 1 Complete a diagram, sorting, game & jigsaw exercises 2 Class Discussion about real world topic (jobs) 3 Grammar in communicative contexts with matching exercise 4 Dialogue & Role play 5 Fun speaking activity after watching a video
  15. 15. Students are able to…at the end of lesson Speaking:describing Increase power jobs & workplaces of guessing in dealing with Grammar: using new words simple present Objectives tense Learn different Writing about vocabulary in different jobs in words for their family praise Listening for key words
  16. 16. Support teaching with Cognitive Linguistics ON THE CL PLUS SIDE Explain language Language learned Interfaces with From Usage & basic Conceptual unit of language Language Go beyond representation are functional structure as this Communication established during Costruction Explanation of Form-meaning cognition Child L1 Linguistics & change during Mapping in child L1 form Adult L2 Leaner & adult L2 Language Lrarner Learning
  17. 17. Hudsons’Word Grammar WG Language is just knowlege Language network Language is (symbolic) network Language is based on usage Meanings are embedded in culture Grammar & vocabulary follow very similar pattern in acquisition
  18. 18. Language is network Brief History of WG Knowledge is Network too
  19. 19. WG Theories • early 1980s - Hudson first used WG (Hudson 1984); basically, a theory of grammar where words played a significant role -the only units of syntax; the largest units of morphology. • has developed around three decades by borrowing ideas from a selection of other theories of language structure (e.g., Systemic Functional Grammar, Generative Grammar, artificial intelligence, psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics).
  20. 20. WG and combination of 3 Super-Lexicons • Language is a cognitive network of 3 units: form, words and sounds. (Hudson;1984; Goldberg, 1995: Langacker, 2000). • no ‘rules’ but there are plenty ‘of generalization’. • WG ‘isa’ relation; e.g. CAT isa Noun, This relation carries the basic logic of generalization called ‘ inheritance,’ Through the Teaching Procedure in a Linguistic way
  21. 21. Source: Richards, Hall and Proctor (2005, page 8)
  22. 22. Vocabulary is a network (Noun category) Noun is a is a Fish Fisherman ? ? ? Network neighbors
  23. 23. Vocabulary is a network Noun is a is a Fish Fisherman Sea Net Boat Sea-animals River animals Beach
  24. 24. Vocabulary is a network Noun is a is a ? Lumberjack ? ? ? ?
  25. 25. Vocabulary is a network Noun is a is a Tree Lumberjack jungle wood saw woodcutter lorry hammer
  26. 26. Vocabulary is a network Noun is a is a Dance Dancer ? ? ? Network neighbor
  27. 27. Vocabulary is a network Noun is a is a Dance Dancer music Dance studio ballade Show room Cds Audience
  28. 28. Source: Richards, Hall and Proctor (2005, page 8)
  29. 29. Source: Richards, Hall and Proctor (2005, page 9)
  30. 30. Grammar is network ( Verb category) word stem Singular f Verb Word-form s S-variant
  31. 31. Grammar is network word stem works Work Word-form s S-variant
  32. 32. Grammar is network Morphology of Plural Nouns word stem builds Build Word-form s S-variant
  33. 33. Inheritance & Generalization Syntax in Network Noun Subject Verb Sara Before Subject cooks mother W‘ Before
  34. 34. Noun Subject Verb Doctor Before Subject cares nurse Before
  35. 35. Source: Richards, Hall and Proctor (2005, page 9)
  36. 36. Source: Richards, Hall and Proctor (2005, page 9)
  37. 37. ? Adjective ? ? great Dependent Dancer Adj network, ADJ Category
  38. 38. terrific Adjective wonderful fantastic great Dependent Dancer ADJ Category
  39. 39. outstanding Adjective marvelous super excellent Dependent Photographer ADJ Category Watch a video to practice these Adjective neighbors
  40. 40. Source: Lefferts, George (1991), Episode 17, Act 3. Jason: Look at that! Andrea: Great! Jason: Look at that! Andrea: Sensational! Great, sensational! Jason: What do you think of that? Andrea: Amazing! Amazing! Jason: What do you think of that? Andrea: Terrific! Amazing Jason: Look over here. What do you think of them? Andrea: They're wonderful!
  41. 41. Jason: Oooh, look at them! Andrea: All right! They're fabulous! Wonderful, fabulous! Jason: Check this out. What do you think of him? Andrea; He's marvelous! Jason: Ooh! Listen to that! Andrea: Wow! He's incredible! Marvelous, incredible! Jason: Look at him! Andrea: He's fantastic! Jason: Look at him! Andrea: He's super! Jason and Andrea: Fantastic, super!
  42. 42. Source: Lefferts, George (1991), Episode 17, Act 3. Great! Sensational! Amazing! Terrific! Fantastic! Super! Wonderful! Fabulous! Marvelous! Incredible! OUTSTANDING!
  43. 43. Conclusion WG & language network can be used in teaching all 4-skills to learners in a simple and applicable way Hudson’s Perspective in WG : Language is network L1 is More general network Patterns of L2 Morphology & is syntax network Are network Grammar is network
  44. 44. References Creider, Chet and Hudson, Richard (2006). 'Case agreement in Ancient Greek: Implications for a theory of covert elements.’ In Sugayama, Kensei & Hudson, Richard (eds.), Word Grammar. New Perspectives on a Theory of Language Structure. London: Continuum. 35-53. Hudson, Richard. (2007b). Language networks: the New Word Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hudson, Richard. (1997a). 'Inherent variability and linguistic theory' Cognitive Linguistics 8: 73-108. Hudson, Richard. 1990. English Word Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell. Hudson, Richard. (1984). Word Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.
  45. 45. Lefferts, George (Writer) & Sedwich, Anne and M. Mazuer (Directors).(1991) Photo finish [Episode 17]. In A. Cooperman (Producer), Family Album USA. New York: Maxwell Macmillan International Publishing Group. Richards, J.C., Hull, J., & Proctor, S. (2005). Interchange 1 (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Robinson, P. and N. Ellis (eds). 2008. Hand Book Of Cognitive Linguistics & Second Language Acquisition. By Rutledge: Taylor & Francis
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