CLASSROOM RESEARCHResearch in Second Language AcquisitionPBGS 6113 Med TESL University of MalayaSemester 1 2011/2012Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, Facilitator
LEE HUAN YIK SHARILA PUSHPAKANDASAMY PGP110012 CHRISTIE PGP110002 PGP110003 GROUP 2 MEMBERS – TITLE: CLASSROOM RESEARCH – PART 2
CLASSROOM RESEARCH : INTERACTION ANALYSIS 2. 3. 1. DESIGNING SIGNIFICANCE YOUR OWN INTERPRETING CLASSROOM OF CLASSROOM CLASSROOM RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH 4. REFLECTING ON 5. SUMMARY CLASSROOM RESEARCH
1. DESIGNING YOUR OWN CLASSROOM RESEARCHCLARIFYINGYOURBELIEFS,PICKING PICKING A PICKING AYOUR TOPIC TECHNIQUETENETS
beliefs about good teaching beliefs about effective learning Views are shared and many axioms are built Eg: Axiom – saying / statement learners learn more effectively when given positive feedback (praise, approval) than negative feedback (criticism, disapproval).
Research reports……. Positive evidence (Rosenshine and Frust, 1973) Negative evidence (Long, 1983) - clarify tenets (theories/ beliefs) - how such tenets could shape the research*useful, relevant, effective, applicable…..
Picking a topic…… Teacher- focused topics -beliefs, attitudes, perceptions, methodologies, approaches, techniques, classroom management etc… learner-focused topics -Learning styles, motivation, academic performance ,etc Topic – based on the problem encountered/observed Suggestions / ideas – future / further studies Limitations of the study
2. Findings –all the participants used their L11. Topic- L1 use during L2 while writing writing argumentative essays in their L2 to some extent. Article Example 1: 3. Limitation – only 4. Future research –included tasks in a single including a few genres – genre (argumentative) – (persuasive, expository, impossible to generalize narrative etc)the finding across genres.
1. Topic-value of written 2. Samples – intermediatecorrective feedback (WCF) to levelimprove writing performance Article Example 2: 3. Findings –WCF helped 4. Future research – WCF students to improve their might apply to students from accuracy in the use of two other proficiency levels –functional uses of the English advanced, elementary, pre- article system (a, the). intermediate
Classroom However, Others:-observations – Allwright 1988, interviews,instrument Day 1990 & questionnaires,(1960’s & Nunan 1989 action research,1970’s) had positive case studies,Challenging, overviews – L2 stimulatedtime research recall, etcconsuming,
2. Interpreting Classroom Research 1. Classroom interactions 2. Researcher’s observations 3. Recorded as Data 4. Selected for Analysis 5. Extracts for reporting 6. Features for focus 7. Features as Evidence for interpretation
Initiation- Response- ObservationalFeedback (IRF) Instrument Model
Observational Instrument The I-R-F model is the most common. Initiation-Response-Feedback Types of Wait Response Feedback In-class Questions time instances
3. Significance of Classroom ResearchAreas of Major Influence on Discussions of Language Pedagogya) Teacher-student interactionb) Student-student interactionc) Student-text interaction (reader engaged in interactive dialogue between author and reader)
• Student-student interaction• Cooperative learning• language acquisition• -adjust to appropriate level of listeners• -Vygotsky’s ZPD’-developmentally appropriate’• Eg. In small group discussions,learners develop from short term comprehension to long-term acquisition
4. Reflecting On Classroom Research Possible reasons for classroom interaction research : 1.Universal 2. Importance 3. Unsettling Experience Of Educational Findings Improvement4. Uniqueness Of 5. Further Professionalization Second Language Classes Of Teaching
Reflecting On Classroom Research 6. Bridging The Theory- 7.The Durability Of Practice Gap Classroom Patterns8.Classrooms As Ideal 9. Homegrown Nature Of Environments For The Classroom Research Study Of Talk 10. Context For Many Current Controversies
Reflecting On Classroom Research 1. Universal Experience Veteran observer – spent many years as classroom learner An expert about a topic and interesting to know deeper.
Reflecting On Classroom Research 2. Importance Of Educational Improvement Occupies the biggest budgets of most governmental agencies regardless of schooling location & subject of instruction. Therefore, there is always movements to improve delivery of education to make classroom interaction more efficient, effective & inspiring.
Reflecting On Classroom Research 3. Unsettling Findings Teacher talk took up most of the interactional time. Teacher ask questions to which answers already known.
Reflecting On Classroom Research 4.Uniqueness Of Second Language Classes Research in second language classrooms shares many same interest and techniques of inquiry with research in other subject area classrooms. Unique- both medium and content of instruction provides special challenges and the opportunity.
Example 1 Tan, B. T. (2011) suggests that for learners’ language to develop in complexity, conditions need to be set, requiring them to access the L2 directly to construct new ideas and that opportunities are needed for both L2 forms and meaning to co-evolve. Here the conditions set are considered unique.
Reflecting On Classroom Research 5.Further Professionalization Of Teaching growing interest – involvement of classroom teacher in the process of research. This trends include school based curriculum development, field based teacher preparation and professional self-evaluation projects.
Reflecting On Classroom Research 6. Bridging The Theory- Practice Gap Goals to narrow the gap between theory and practice, allowing teachers to become enthusiastic producers & consumers of educational research.
Example 2 Gilmore, A. (2009) explains that participants were able to improve their writing after 90-minutes training session using online corpora and it was beneficial. Hence, online resources are tools that can be used to bridge the theory-practice gap to improve or develop writing skills.
Reflecting On Classroom Research 7.The Durability Of Classroom patterns Classroom looked same for last 1,000 years. Despite changes in content, technologies, methods, educational priorities & professionalization of teaching, school classroom & activities in classroom not much change but the role and orientation of teacher and learners have maintained.
Reflecting On Classroom Research 8.Classrooms As Ideal Environments For The Study Of Talk Classroom feature- attractive environment for the study of talk. Ethographers examine how talk systematically patterned in ways that reveal, or define & how speakers perceive their relationships and situations. Classrooms represent a strongly marked local social system, allowing researcher intimate looks at language which marks relationships & situations
Example 3 Frazier, S. (2007) describes the sequential structures of a kind of talk typical to group work. The study analyzes video data of naturally occurring interactions between students in writing classes, draws its theoretical basis from conversation-analytic literature on ‘second stories’ and on analytic approaches to the way talk, gesture, and other forms of embodiment produce action in the course of interaction.
Reflecting On Classroom Research 9.Homegrown Nature Of Classroom Research Many techniques comes from outside the field of applied linguistics. Studies of classroom talk, educational researchers acknowledge that initial impetus in investigations of classrooms talk come not from educational researchers but applied linguistics like Hymes, Gumperz, Sinclair and Coulthhard. Critical study of classroom interaction can be said home-grown.
Example 4 Firkins, Forey and Sengupta, (2007) explains about a genre-based literacy pedagogy which can be used with English language learners. The method use is involved a combination of two explicit teaching methodologies, a genre-based and activity based pedagogical approach. The pedagogy was introduced in an English Club at a local Hong Kong school. It was found that a genre- based is suitable for educational context to low proficiency EFL learners. Here the genre-based is a home-grown tool in explicit teaching methodology.
Reflecting On Classroom Research 10.Context For Many Current Controversies Educational psychologist, second language specialist, social anthropologist, linguist..etc all assert a multiplicity of views on how classroom interaction research should be carried out both within their own areas of specialization and wider context of teaching and learning generally.
ReferencesBitchener, J., & Knoch, U. (2008). The value of written corrective feedback for migrant and international students. Language Teaching Research, 12(3), 409-431. Retrieved 07 October 2011, from http://ltr.sagepub.com/content/12/3/409Brown, J. D., & Rodgers, T. S. (2009). Doing Second Language Research. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.Firkins, A., Forey, G. & Sima Sengupta, (2007). Teaching writing to low proficiency EFL students. English Language Teaching Journal, 61(4), 341-352.
Ford, M., & Opitz, M.. (2011). Looking Back to Move Forward with Guided Reading. Reading Horizons, 50(4), 225-240. Retrieved 11October 2011, from ProQuest Education Journals. http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdwebindex=0&did=2302650221&SrchMode= 1&sid=2&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS =1320572694&clientId=18803Frazier, S. (2007). Telling of rememberances ‘Touch off’ by student reports in group work in undergraduate writing classes. Applied Linguistics, 28(2), 189-210.Gilmore, A. (2009). Using online corpora to develop students’ writing skills. English Language Teaching Journal, 63(4), 363-372.Lesaux, N. K.; Kieffer, M. J. (2010) Exploring sources of reading comprehension difficulties among language minority learners and their classmates in early adolescence. American Educational Research Journal 47(3), 596-632.
Lo, Y., Cooke, N., & Starling, A. (2011). Using a repeated reading program to improve generalization of oral reading fluency. Journal of Education & Treatment of Children, 34(1), 115-140. Retrieved 11October, 2011, from ProQuest Education Journals http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdwebindex=0&did=2298722431&SrchMode=1&sid=1 &Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1320572599&cli entId=18803Stapleton, P. & Radia, P (2010). Tech-era L2 writing: toward a new kind of process. English Language Teaching Journal, 64(2), 175-183.Tan, B. T. (2011). Language creativity and co-emergence of form and meaning in creative writing task. Applied Linguistics, 32(2), 215-235.Van Weijian, D., Van den Bergh, H., Rijlaarsdam, G., & Sanders, T. (2009). L1 use during L2 writing: An empirical study of a complex phenomenon. Journal of Second Language Writing, 18, 235-250. Retrieved 10 October 2011, from http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2095/science/journal/10603743/18/4