Swine Flu


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Swine Flu

  1. 1. Swine Flu Dr Riham Raafat assistant lecturer of chest diseases
  2. 2. What is swine FLU? <ul><li>Swine flu is a respiratory disease, caused by influenza type A which infects pigs. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many types, and the infection is constantly changing. </li></ul><ul><li>Can spread from person to person through coughing and sneezing. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a misnomer as pigs were only mixing pot. </li></ul>
  3. 3. It seems likely that the new version of H1N1 resulted from a mixing of different versions of the virus, which may usually affect different species, in the same animal host. Pigs provide an excellent 'melting pot' for these viruses to mix and match with each other. What is new about this type of swine flu?
  4. 4. Where is it found?
  5. 5. How dangerous is it? <ul><li>.Symptoms of swine flu in humans appear to be similar to those produced by standard, seasonal flu. </li></ul><ul><li>.These include: fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, body aches, chills, fatigue and sometimes diarrhea and vomiting. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>.Most cases so far reported around the world appear to be mild, but in Mexico lives have been lost. </li></ul><ul><li>.Eating pork isn’t infectious: cooking pork to an internal temperature of 160°F kills the swine flu virus as it does other bacteria and viruses. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Till when is it Infectious? <ul><li>Adult is infectious for up to 7 days following illness onset. </li></ul><ul><li>Children, especially younger children, might potentially be contagious for longer periods . </li></ul><ul><li>Virus can live 2 hours or longer on surfaces like cafeteria tables, door-knobs, and desks. </li></ul>
  8. 8. What should I do to stay safe? <ul><li>Signs that require urgent medical attention include: </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath </li></ul><ul><li>Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden dizziness </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Severe or persistent vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Flu-like symptoms that improve but then return with fever and worse cough ( specially those that have been in contact with the swine virus - such as those living or traveling in the areas that have been affected - should seek medical advice ) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Everyday actions to stay healthy: <ul><li>Cover your nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing with a tissue. Dispose the tissue in the trash bin after use. </li></ul><ul><li>Wash your hands often with soap or hand sanitizer after you cough or sneeze. It is a good practice to wash your hand before having your meal. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid touching or rubbing your eyes, nose or mouth. Germs will spread in this ways. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Try to avoid close contact with unwell/sick people and avoid crowded places.  </li></ul><ul><li>Having a healthy diets or supplement to boosts your immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Get the latest news of the virus before planning any overseas trip. </li></ul><ul><li>Stay home when you are sick. </li></ul>
  11. 12. When contact is unavoidable: <ul><li>Facemasks (disposable, single use masks) for persons who enter crowded settings </li></ul><ul><li>Respirators (N95 or higher filtering facepiece respirator) for persons who have unavoidable close contact with infectious person </li></ul>
  12. 13. Is there a Vaccine? <ul><li>No vaccine available to protect humans from swine flu. </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccine for human seasonal influenza does not protect against H1N1 swine flu viruses due to antigenic differences, but may provide partial protection against swine H3N2 virus </li></ul>
  13. 14. Is it a Pandemic?
  14. 15. How to Diagnose? <ul><li>.To diagnose swine influenza A infection, a respiratory specimen is collected within the first 4 to 5 days of illness (when an infected person is most likely to be shedding virus). </li></ul><ul><li>.However, some persons, especially children, may shed virus for 10 days or longer. </li></ul>
  15. 16. When to use Chemo-prophylaxis? <ul><li>Household close contacts (of confirmed, probable, or suspected case) at high-risk for complications of influenza </li></ul><ul><li>+ chronic medical conditions </li></ul><ul><li>+ aged ≥ 65 years </li></ul><ul><li>+ aged ≤ 5 years </li></ul><ul><li>+ pregnant women </li></ul><ul><li>School children or children in daycare at high-risk for complications of influenza (certain chronic medical conditions) who had close contact (face-to-face) with confirmed, probable, or suspected case </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Any healthcare worker at high-risk for complications of influenza (persons with certain chronic medical conditions, elderly) working in area with confirmed swine influenza A (H1N1) cases, or who is caring for patients with any acute febrile respiratory illness. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-high risk travelers to areas with an outbreak, or border workers who are working in areas with confirmed cases of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Prophylaxis Drugs? <ul><li>Pre-exposure – treat during exposure period and for 10 days after last known exposure to ill confirmed case of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection once daily (not used now). </li></ul><ul><li>Post-exposure – treat for 10 days after last known exposure to ill confirmed case of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection once daily. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Zanamivir (Relenza): 10 mg (2 inhalations) once daily for adults & children ≥ 5 yrs old </li></ul><ul><li>Oseltamivir (Tamiflu): orally </li></ul><ul><li>.adults and children ≥ 13 years old - 75 mg once/d </li></ul><ul><li>.children aged 1-12 years - dose based on weight: </li></ul><ul><li>≤ 15 kg 30 mg once daily </li></ul><ul><li>15-23 kg 45 mg once daily </li></ul><ul><li>23-40 kg 60 mg once daily </li></ul><ul><li>> 40 kg 75 mg once daily </li></ul>
  19. 20. How to Treat cases? <ul><li>Most recent swine influenza viruses isolated from humans are resistant to Amantidine and Rimantadine. </li></ul><ul><li>Zanamivir (Relenza): 10 mg (2 inhalations) twice daily for adults & children ≥ 5 yrs old for 5 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Oseltamivir (Tamiflu): orally </li></ul><ul><li>.adults and children ≥ 13 years old - 75 mg twice/d for 5 days </li></ul><ul><li>.children aged 1-12 years - dose based on weight </li></ul>
  20. 21. Thank You