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Growth Development And Behavior 1218304464526583 9
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Growth Development And Behavior 1218304464526583 9

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  • 1. GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT AND BEHAVIOR
  • 2.
    • Newborn ( neonatal) period: begins at birth and include the 1 st month of life.
  • 3. Physical examination: term newborn
    • Average weights: 3.4 kg (7 ½ lb)
    • Average length: 50cm (20 in)
    • head circumference: 35 cm (14 in)
  • 4.
    • Hearing is well developed
  • 5. Behavioral state:
    • Quite sleep
    • Active sleep
    • Drowsy
    • Alert
    • Fussy
    • Crying
  • 6.
    • Behavioral state determines an infant’s muscle tone, spontaneous movement, electroencephalogram pattern and response to stimuli.
  • 7. Developmental milestones in the first 2 yr of life
  • 8. Gross motor:
    • Hold head steady while sitting
    • Pulls to sit, with no head lag
    • Brings hands together in midline
    • Sits without support
    • Rolls back to stomach
    • Walks alone
    • Runs
    • 2 mos
    • 3mos
    • 3mos
    • 6mos
    • 6.5mos
    • 12mos
    • 16m0s
  • 9. Fine motor:
    • grasps rattle
    • Reaches for object
    • Palmar grasp done
    • Transfers object from hand to hand
    • Thumb-finger grasp
    • 3.5mos
    • 4mos
    • 4mos
    • 5.5mos
    • 8mos
  • 10. Communication and language:
    • Smiles in response to face, voice
    • Monosyllabic babble
    • Inhibits to NO
    • Follows one-step command w/ gesture
    • Follows one-step command w/o gesture
    • Say mama or dada
    • Points to object
    • Speaks first real word
    • Speaks 4-6 words
    • Speaks 10-15 words
    • Speaks 2 word sentences
    • 1.5mos
    • 6mos
    • 7mos
    • 7mos
    • 10mos
    • 10mos
    • 10mos
    • 12mos
    • 15mos
    • 18mos
    • 19mos
  • 11. cognitive:
    • Stares momentarily at spot where object disappeared
    • Stares at own hand
    • Uncovers toys
    • Egocentric symbolic play
    • Uses stick to reach toy
    • Pretend plays with doll
    • 2mos
    • 4mos
    • 8mos
    • 12mos
    • 17mos
    • 17mos
  • 12. The first year of life
    • Age 0-2 months:
      • Tremendous growth
      • Effective feeding routines
      • Predictable sleep-wake cycle
  • 13. Physical development:
    • Weight decrease 10% below birthweight in the first week as a result of excretion of excess extravascular fluid and limited intake.
  • 14.
    • Infant regain or exceed birth weight by 2 weeks of age and should grow at approx 30 gms/day during the first month.
    • Period of fastest postnatal growth.
    • Smiling occurs involuntarily.
    • Recognition memory.
    • Sleep and wakefulness are evenly distributed throughout the 24hr day
    • Learning also occurs.
  • 15. Cognitive development:
    • Infants habituate to the familiar, attending less and less to repeated stimuli and increasing their attention when the stimulus changes.
    • Infant can differentiate among patterns, colors and consonants.
    • Recognize facial expression
  • 16. Emotional development:
    • Dependent on the environment to meet his or her need.
  • 17. Age 2-6 month:
    • Voluntary social smile.
    • Increasing eye contact
  • 18. Physical development:
    • Between 3 and 4 months of age, the rate of growth slows to approx 20gm/day.
    • By 4 month, birth weight is doubled.
    • Grasp reflex
    • Roll over
    • Regular sleep wake cycle
  • 19. Cognitive development:
    • Qualitative change
    • 4 months of age infants are described as hatching socially
    • Explore their own bodies
    • Sense of self – first stage of personality development
  • 20. Emotional development and communication:
    • Distinct facial expressions
    • Initiating games, increases social development.
  • 21. Ages 6-12 months
    • Shows advances in cognitive understanding and communicative competence.
    • Develop will and intentions
  • 22. Physical development:
    • Growth slows more
    • By the first bday, birth weight has tripled, length has increased by 50%, and head circumference has increased by 10cm.
  • 23.
    • Sit unsupported (6-7mos)
    • Pivot while sitting (9-10mos)
    • Thumb finger grasp (8-9mos)
    • Neat finger grasp by 12 mos
    • Pulling to stand by 8mos
    • Walk by 1yr
  • 24.
    • Motor achievements correlate with increasing myelinization and cerebellar growth.
    • Tooth eruption occurs, usually starting with the mandibular central incisors
    • Tooth development reflects skeletal maturation and bone age.
  • 25. Cognitive development:
    • At first everything goes into the mouth.
    • A major milestone is the achievement at about 9 mos. Of object permanence (constancy)
  • 26. Emotional development:
    • Stranger anxiety
    • Poor weight gain
    • Tantrums
  • 27. Communication:
    • 7mos adept of non verbal communication
    • 9mos aware of the emotions
    • 8 and 10mos babbling takes
    • Social interaction
    • First true word
  • 28. The second year
    • Age 12-18mos:
      • Physical development:
        • Growth rate slows further in the 2 nd yr of life
        • Appetite decline
        • Increase in head circumference of 2cm over the yr.
  • 29. Cognitive development:
    • Exploration of the environment increases and mobility
    • Playthings
    • Imitation of parents and older children
    • Symbolic play
  • 30. Emotional development:
    • Predominant mood changes
    • Tantrum
  • 31. Linguistic development:
    • Infants speak their first words
    • Respond appropriately to several simple statement
    • Points to major body parts and uses 4-6 words spontaneously and correctly
  • 32. Age 18-24 months:
    • Physical development:
      • Height and weight increase at a steady rate, w/ gain of 5in and 5lb.
      • By 24mos, children are about ½ of their ultimate adult height.
      • Head growth slows slightly
      • 90% of adult head circumference is achieved by age 2 yrs.
  • 33. Cognitive development:
    • Object permanence is firmly established
    • Cause and effect are better understood
  • 34. Emotional development:
    • Separation anxiety
    • Self-conscious awareness
  • 35. Linguistic development:
    • Most dramatic development
    • Childs vocabulary balloons, the beginning of grammar
    • Understand 2-step commands