Green Chemistry


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The design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. Green Chemistry moves our consideration of how to deal with environmental, health and safety problems from the circumstantial to the intrinsic.

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  • Total NOx = 1,231 thousand metric tons Adipic acid = 12 thousand metric tons (2000) Total 1,231,000,000 kg 2,714,000,000 lbs Adipic Acid 27,140,000 lbs
  • Green Chemistry

    1. 1. Green Chemistry Building HSE Performance into Products Dr Rajendra R Patel Microchem Research Services Bangalore INDIA
    2. 2. Topics <ul><li>What is Green Chemistry? </li></ul><ul><li>Why apply Green Chemistry? </li></ul><ul><li>How is this done? </li></ul><ul><li>Examples & References </li></ul>
    3. 3. The design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances GREEN CHEMISTRY What is Green Chemistry?
    4. 4. Green Chemistry moves our consideration of how to deal with environmental, health and safety problems from the circumstantial to the intrinsic. What is Green Chemistry?
    5. 5. Intrinsic Circumstantial <ul><li>use hazardous chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>generate hazardous materials </li></ul><ul><li>protective and reactive systems </li></ul><ul><li>permits </li></ul><ul><li>reporting </li></ul><ul><li>training </li></ul><ul><li>waste handling, disposition </li></ul><ul><li>public information/accountability </li></ul><ul><li>consequences of use/misuse </li></ul><ul><li>liability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inherently safer design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduced hazardous materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>molecular design for reduced toxicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduced potential to manifest hazard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>safety from accidents or terrorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less regulatory burden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>minimize potential community impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decreased resource drain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lower impact from use/misuse </li></ul></ul>Added Costs! Fewer Costs!
    6. 6. What is Green Chemistry? Examples - <ul><li>Plastics that serve their purpose, yet biodegrade </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning agent that is effective, and is non-toxic </li></ul><ul><li>Biological conversion of raw materials to a product </li></ul><ul><li>Highly selective pesticide that does not persist </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel production and use </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Increased understanding of the molecular basis of hazard. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical, toxicological, and global hazards. </li></ul><ul><li>Moving from descriptive toxicology to mechanistic toxicology. </li></ul><ul><li>Treating hazard as simply another physical/chemical property. </li></ul>Current State of Science
    8. 8. 12 Principles of Green Chemistry <ul><li>Prevention </li></ul>2. Atom Economy 3. Less Hazardous Chemical Syntheses 4. Designing Safer Chemicals 5. Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries 6. Design for Energy Efficiency 7. Use of Renewable Feedstocks 8. Reduce Derivatives 9. Catalysis 10. Design for Degradation 11. Real-time analysis for Pollution Prevention 12. Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention
    9. 9. Why apply Green Chemistry? <ul><li>HSE Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lower impact on natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>second lever to reduce risk Risk = f(hazard, exposure) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lower production costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduced asset risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>public perception & expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>investor relations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State-of-the-Art in HSE issue management </li></ul>
    10. 10. Why apply Green Chemistry? “ IPPC presumes the use of preventative techniques before any consideration of end-of-pipe control techniques.” European IPPC Bureau Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Large Volume Organic Chemical Industry February 2002 “ The Congress hereby declares it to be the national policy of the United States that pollution should be prevented or reduced at the source whenever feasible...” US Pollution Prevention Act of 1990
    11. 11. <ul><li>“ Business is going to get significantly more profitable through the application of green chemistry. Proactive companies are finding the theme ‘good for business’ to be credible and real. </li></ul><ul><li>Paul V. Tebo Vice President, DuPont </li></ul><ul><li>“ Green Chemistry can return as much as 53% on capital, compared with a negative 16% when improvements are mandated by law.” </li></ul><ul><li>William S. Stavropoulos Chairman of the Board, Dow Chemical </li></ul>Why apply Green Chemistry?
    12. 12. Define Desired State/Establish Expectations Review, ID issues, provide input Tools, options, alternatives available – make good decisions Measure Progress, Capture Successes, Take Credit Fill the toolbox Develop Chemical Process How is this done? Process for Implementation
    13. 13. Resource Use Impact Resource Use Impact Impact How is this done? Resource Use Raw Material Production Material Management Production Product In Use Distribution Suppliers Manufacture/Distribution Customers
    14. 14. <ul><li>Incremental </li></ul><ul><li>apply best current science </li></ul><ul><li>optimize through substitution, selection, technology, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>quantity, quantity, quantity </li></ul>Two Modes of Improvement <ul><li>Step-change </li></ul><ul><li>Incremental </li></ul><ul><li>Step-change </li></ul><ul><li>unique and breakthrough chemistries </li></ul><ul><li>application of new technologies </li></ul><ul><li>different “kinds” of products meeting same need </li></ul>
    15. 15. Tools for Chemists <ul><li>Solvent selection guides </li></ul><ul><li>Acid/Base selection guides </li></ul><ul><li>Materials lists </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative measures - “greenness scorecard” </li></ul><ul><li>Safety screens </li></ul><ul><li>EPA’s Green Chemistry Expert System - Synthetic Methodology Assessment for Reduction Techniques (SMART) - Green Synthetic Reactions - Designing Safer Chemicals - Green Solvents/Reaction Conditions - Green Chemistry References </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives </li></ul>
    16. 16. Measure Progress, Capture Successes Projected burden = x projected annual production mass of waste mass of product e Factor = RME = Reaction mass efficiency mass of product x 100 mass of reactants in process FW of product x 100 ∑ FW of all reactants in reaction Atom economy = mass of waste mass of product
    17. 17. This improvement represents 6,000,000 kg less material use per year at full scale production. Measure Progress, Capture Successes
    18. 18. Measure Progress, Capture Successes TRI- US EPA Toxics Release Inventory Listed 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 SM1, Step 1 SM1, Step 2 SM2, Step 1 SM2, Step 2 SM2, Step 3 Step 1 Step 2 TRI Use Water Use All Other Use Development Compound “B” Material Use by Step kg material use/kg API
    19. 19. To Consider... <ul><li>company strategy </li></ul><ul><li>culture </li></ul><ul><li>geographical differences </li></ul><ul><li>available resources </li></ul><ul><li>substituting one problem for another </li></ul><ul><li>weighing alternatives – apples & oranges </li></ul><ul><li>moving issue instead of eliminating it </li></ul>Individual Situation Unexpected Consequences
    20. 20. Examples - Adipic Acid Synthesis Contributes 1% anthropogenic NOx/year
    21. 21. Examples - No nitrous oxide generated Renewable feedstock replaces petroleum-based feedstock Adipic Acid Synthesis
    22. 22. Practical Application of a Biocatalyst in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Roughly 34,000 liters of solvent and 300 kg of chromium waste were eliminated for every 100 kg of medicine produced. The new protocol was developed by combining innovations from chemistry, microbiology, and engineering. The new synthesis begins with a biocatalytic reduction to an optically pure intermediate using a yeast- Zygosaccharomyces rouxii - in a novel three-phase reaction design replacing chemical reduction. Eli Lilly and Company – 1999 Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award Winner Examples -
    23. 23. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards Summary of 2005 Award Recipients Alternative Synthetic Pathways Award Archer Daniels Midland Company - Novozymes NovaLipid™: Low Trans Fats and Oils Produced by Enzymatic Interesterification of Vegetable Oils Using Lipozyme® Alternative Synthetic Pathways Award Merck & Co., Inc. A Redesigned, Efficient Synthesis of Aprepitant, the Active Ingredient in Emend®: A New Therapy for Chemotherapy-Induced Emesis Alternative Solvents and Reaction Conditions Award BASF Corporation A UV-Curable, One-Component, Low-VOC Refinish Primer: Driving Eco-Efficiency Improvements Designing Safer Chemical Award Archer Daniels Midland Company Archer RC™: A Nonvolatile, Reactive Coalescent for the Reduction of VOCs in Latex Paints Small Business Award Metabolix, Inc. Producing Nature’s Plastics Using Biotechnology. Academic Award Prof. Robin D. Rogers; The University of Alabama A Platform Strategy Using Ionic Liquids to Dissolve and Process Cellulose for Advanced New Materials.
    24. 24. Thank you