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Normal EEG Patterns
EEG Interpretation
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Normal
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Lack of Abnormality

Abnormal
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Non-epileptiform Patterns

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Epileptiform Patterns
Alpha Rhythm
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The starting point of analysing awake EEG
8-13 Hz activity occurring during wakefulness
20...
Normal Alpha Rhythm
Normal Alpha Rhythm
Alpha Rhythm: Reactivity
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Should attenuate bilaterally with
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eye opening
alerting stimuli
mental concentrati...
Normal Alpha Reactivity
Eyes Closed

Normal Alpha Reactivity
Beta Activity
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Frequency of over 13 Hz; if >30-35 Hz  gamma
activity or exceedingly fast activity by Gibbs.
A...
Beta Activity


Frequency of over 13 Hz; if >30-35 Hz  gamma activity or exceedingly
fast activity by Gibbs.
Average vol...
Generalized Beta Activity
Beta Activity
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

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Frequency of over 13 Hz; if >30-35 Hz  gamma
activity or exceedingly fast activity by Gibbs.
A...
Theta Activity
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The term theta was coined by Gray Walter in 1944
when it was believed that this rhythm was r...
Theta Activity
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
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The term theta was coined by Gray Walter in 1944 when it was believed
that this rhythm was r...
Theta Activity
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


The term theta was coined by Gray Walter in 1944 when it was believed
that this rhythm was re...
Temporal Slowing Of The Elderly
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Occur chiefly over the age of 60 years
Confined to the temporal regions...
EEG of Drowsiness
(Stage I Sleep)
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In adults, most sensitive signs of drowsiness is the
disappearance of eye blinks...
Drowsy
Drowsy
Drowsy
EEG of Drowsiness
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Alpha Activity
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Mu activity
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may be occurrence or persistence over the temporal
regions a...
Other Activities During
Stage I Sleep
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Vertex Sharp Transients
Positive Occipital Sharp
Transients of Sleep (POSTs)
Vertex Sharp Transient V-Wave
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In young adults, the V-waves may have sharp or spiky
appearance and attain rather...
Vertex Sharp Transients
Post Occipital Sharp
Transients of Sleep (POSTs)
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Sharp-contoured, mornophasic, surface-positive transients
O...
POSTs
Stage II Sleep
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Sleep Spindles
K Complex
Sleep Spindles
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In adults, a frequency of 13-14 Hz
occur in a symmetric and synchronous fashion over
the two hem...
Sleep Spindles
Sleep Spindles
Sleep Spindles
K-Complex
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A broad diphasic or polyphasic waveform
(>500 msec)
Frequently associated with spindle activity
K-comple...
K-Complex
Hyperventilation
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Often produces little change in the EEG in adult
If there is a change, usually consists of
generaliz...
Intermittent Slow During HV
Intermittent Rhythmic Slow During HV
Persistence slowing following
cessation of hyperventilation:
Check if patient is still continuing
to hyperventilate or if ...
Hyperventilation
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The findings accepted as unequivocal
evidence of abnormality:
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epileptiform discharges
clear-cu...
Photic Stimulation
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Flash rate eliciting maximum driving response increases in
rough parallel with age (Niederm...
Photoparoxysmal Response
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Photic stimulation may elicit posterior dominant or
generalized epileptiform discharges in ...
Photoparoxysmal Response
Photomyoclonic Response
Physiologic Activities That Can Be
Confused With Epileptiform Activities
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Vertex transients of light sleep

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Hypnagogi...
Benign Variants Of Unknown
Clinical Significance
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Benign epileptiform transients of sleep (small
sharp spikes)

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6- an...
Normal EEG patterns, frequencies, as well as patterns that may simulate disease
Normal EEG patterns, frequencies, as well as patterns that may simulate disease
Normal EEG patterns, frequencies, as well as patterns that may simulate disease
Normal EEG patterns, frequencies, as well as patterns that may simulate disease
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Normal EEG patterns, frequencies, as well as patterns that may simulate disease

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This presentation discusses the vast range of traces that show the variations in normal EEG patterns, as well as discussing the frequency and amplitudes of various normal waveforms.

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Transcript of "Normal EEG patterns, frequencies, as well as patterns that may simulate disease"

  1. 1. Normal EEG Patterns
  2. 2. EEG Interpretation  Normal   Lack of Abnormality Abnormal  Non-epileptiform Patterns  Epileptiform Patterns
  3. 3. Alpha Rhythm          The starting point of analysing awake EEG 8-13 Hz activity occurring during wakefulness 20-60 mV, max over posterior head regions Present when eyes closed; blocked by eye opening or alerting the patient 8 Hz is reached by 3 years of age and progressively increases in a stepwise fashion until 9-12 Hz is reached by adolescence Very stable in an individual, rarely varying by more than 0.5 Hz. With drowsiness, alpha activity may decrease by 1-2 Hz A difference of greater than 1 Hz between the two hemispheres is significant. 10% of adult have little or no alpha
  4. 4. Normal Alpha Rhythm
  5. 5. Normal Alpha Rhythm
  6. 6. Alpha Rhythm: Reactivity  Should attenuate bilaterally with      eye opening alerting stimuli mental concentration Some alpha may return when eyes remain open for more than a few seconds. Failure of the alpha rhythm to attenuate on one side with either eye opening or mental alerting indicates an abnormality on the side that fails to attenuate
  7. 7. Normal Alpha Reactivity
  8. 8. Eyes Closed Normal Alpha Reactivity
  9. 9. Beta Activity      Frequency of over 13 Hz; if >30-35 Hz  gamma activity or exceedingly fast activity by Gibbs. Average voltage is 10-20 microvolts Two main types in adults: Often enhanced during drowsiness or when present over a skull defect Should not be misinterpreted as a focus of abnormal fast activity.
  10. 10. Beta Activity  Frequency of over 13 Hz; if >30-35 Hz  gamma activity or exceedingly fast activity by Gibbs. Average voltage is 10-20 microvolts  Two main types in adults:      The precentral type: predominantly over the anterior and central regions; related to the functions of the sensorimotor cortex and reacts to movement or touch. The generalized beta activity: induced or enhanced by drugs; may attain amplitude over 25 microvolts. Often enhanced during drowsiness or when present over a skull defect Should not be misinterpreted as a focus of abnormal fast activity.
  11. 11. Generalized Beta Activity
  12. 12. Beta Activity      Frequency of over 13 Hz; if >30-35 Hz  gamma activity or exceedingly fast activity by Gibbs. Average voltage is 10-20 microvolts Two main types in adults: Often enhanced during drowsiness or when present over a skull defect Should not be misinterpreted as a focus of abnormal fast activity.
  13. 13. Theta Activity       The term theta was coined by Gray Walter in 1944 when it was believed that this rhythm was related to the function of the thalamus. Occurs as a normal rhythm during drowsiness In young children between age 4 months  8 years: predominance over the fronto-central regions during drowsiness In adolescents: sinusoidal theta activity can occur over the anterior head regions during drowsiness. In adults, theta components can occur diffusely or over the posterior head regions during drowsiness. Single transient theta waveforms or mixed alpha-theta waves can be present over the temporal regions in older adults.
  14. 14. Theta Activity       The term theta was coined by Gray Walter in 1944 when it was believed that this rhythm was related to the function of the thalamus. Occurs as a normal rhythm during drowsiness In young children between age 4 months  8 years: predominance over the fronto-central regions during drowsiness In adolescents: sinusoidal theta activity can occur over the anterior head regions during drowsiness. In adults, theta components can occur diffusely or over the posterior head regions during drowsiness. Single transient theta waveforms or mixed alpha-theta waves can be present over the temporal regions in older adults.
  15. 15. Theta Activity       The term theta was coined by Gray Walter in 1944 when it was believed that this rhythm was related to the function of the thalamus. Occurs as a normal rhythm during drowsiness In young children between age 4 months  8 years: predominance over the fronto-central regions during drowsiness In adolescents: sinusoidal theta activity can occur over the anterior head regions during drowsiness. In adults: theta components can occur diffusely or over the posterior head regions during drowsiness. Single transient theta waveforms or mixed alphatheta waves can be present over the temporal regions in older adults.
  16. 16. Temporal Slowing Of The Elderly          Occur chiefly over the age of 60 years Confined to the temporal regions and are usually maximal anteriorly Occur more frequently on the left side Do not disrupt background activity Usually have a rounded morphologic appearance Voltage is usually less than 60-70 microvolts Attenuated by mental alerting and eye opening and increased by drowsiness and hyperventilation Occur sporadically as single or double waves but not in longer rhythmic trains Present for only a small portion of the tracing (up to 1%) of the recording time when the patient is in a fully alert state
  17. 17. EEG of Drowsiness (Stage I Sleep)    In adults, most sensitive signs of drowsiness is the disappearance of eye blinks and the onset of slow eye movements Slowing, dropout or attenuation of the background Occurrence of theta activity over the posterior regions
  18. 18. Drowsy
  19. 19. Drowsy
  20. 20. Drowsy
  21. 21. EEG of Drowsiness  Alpha Activity    Mu activity   may be occurrence or persistence over the temporal regions after a disappearance of the occipital alpha may be asymmetric may persist Beta activity    over the fronto-central regions may become more prominent during drowsiness 20-30 Hz; occasional bursts of 30-40 Hz activity
  22. 22. Other Activities During Stage I Sleep   Vertex Sharp Transients Positive Occipital Sharp Transients of Sleep (POSTs)
  23. 23. Vertex Sharp Transient V-Wave      In young adults, the V-waves may have sharp or spiky appearance and attain rather high voltages During the earlier stages of sleep these may occur in an asymmetric fashion Should be careful not to mistake V-waves for abnormal epileptiform activity Sometimes trains or short repetitive series, clusters, or bursts of V-waves may occur in quick succession In older adults the V-waves may have a more blunted appearance
  24. 24. Vertex Sharp Transients
  25. 25. Post Occipital Sharp Transients of Sleep (POSTs)      Sharp-contoured, mornophasic, surface-positive transients Occurring singly or in trains of 4-5 Hz over the occipital head regions May have a similar appearance to the lambda waves during the awake record but are of higher voltage and longer duration Usually bilaterally synchronous but may be asymmetric over the two sides Predominantly seen during drowsiness and light sleep
  26. 26. POSTs
  27. 27. Stage II Sleep   Sleep Spindles K Complex
  28. 28. Sleep Spindles      In adults, a frequency of 13-14 Hz occur in a symmetric and synchronous fashion over the two hemispheres Usually these occur at intervals between 5-15 seconds, Spindle trains ranging from 0.5-1.5 seconds in duration More prolonged trains or continuous spindle activity may be seen in some patients on medication, particularly benzodiazepams
  29. 29. Sleep Spindles
  30. 30. Sleep Spindles
  31. 31. Sleep Spindles
  32. 32. K-Complex    A broad diphasic or polyphasic waveform (>500 msec) Frequently associated with spindle activity K-complexes can occur in response to afferent stimulation and may be linked to an arousal response
  33. 33. K-Complex
  34. 34. Hyperventilation   Often produces little change in the EEG in adult If there is a change, usually consists of generalized slowing.    either gradual or abrupt onset in theta or delta range may continue as series of rhythmic slow waves or consist of repeated bursts of slow waves at irregular intervals Degree of response depends on the age, the vigor of hyperventilation, blood sugar levels, and posture
  35. 35. Intermittent Slow During HV
  36. 36. Intermittent Rhythmic Slow During HV
  37. 37. Persistence slowing following cessation of hyperventilation: Check if patient is still continuing to hyperventilate or if patient is hypoglycemic
  38. 38. Hyperventilation  The findings accepted as unequivocal evidence of abnormality:    epileptiform discharges clear-cut focal or lateralized slowing or asymmetry of activity Contraindications:  significant cardiac or cerebrovascular disease, or respiratory dysfunction.
  39. 39. Photic Stimulation     Flash rate eliciting maximum driving response increases in rough parallel with age (Niedermeyer, 1982) Driving response may normally have a notched appearance resembling a spike-wave discharge. It can be distinguished from spike-waves by its time-locked appearance with the flash rate and its failure to persist after the stimulation stops. Asymmetries of photic driving probably have less clinical value and can only be interpreted in association with other significant asymmetries
  40. 40. Photoparoxysmal Response   Photic stimulation may elicit posterior dominant or generalized epileptiform discharges in patients suspected of having photosensitive seizure disorders Photo-paroxysmal response:     complex waveform repeat at a frequency which is independent of the flash rate field extends beyond the usual posteriorly-situated photic driving region and may be frontally dominant Time-locked with stimulus or not time-locked / selfsustained
  41. 41. Photoparoxysmal Response
  42. 42. Photomyoclonic Response
  43. 43. Physiologic Activities That Can Be Confused With Epileptiform Activities  Vertex transients of light sleep  Hypnagogic hypersynchrony  Positive occipital sharp transients of sleep (POST)  Mu rhythm  Lambda waves  Breach rhythms
  44. 44. Benign Variants Of Unknown Clinical Significance  Benign epileptiform transients of sleep (small sharp spikes)  6- and 14-Hz positive spikes  Wicket spikes  Psychomotor variants (rhythmic mid-temporal theta discharge of drowsiness)  Subclinical rhythmic EEG discharge of adults  Phantom spike and wave
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