Philosophy Philosophy is the science of the logical foundation of all knowledge It is the first logical science Philosophy is the highest generalization which scientific research suggest. It consist of great unifying truth, the science of sciences.
philosophy Philosophy is: (a) the attempt to acquire knowledge (b) by rational means (c) about topics that do not seem amenable to empirical investigation. Condition (a) distinguishes philosophy from creative disciplines such as literature or music. (b) distinguishes philosophy from mysticism and some varieties of religion. (c) distinguishes philosophy from the empirical sciences.
Theory of knowledge What is knowledge? What are the types of knowledge? How do we acquire knowledge? What do we know? How do we know what we know?
Types of knowledge Propositional - What Procedural - How A proposition is a sentence expressing something true or false
What is knowledge? Knowledge is a“JustifiedTrue Belief” (JTB) Plato S knows that p if and only if:(1) S believes that p(2) p is true(3) S is justified in believing that P S = Subject P = Proposition
Belief Belief is the psychological state in which an individual holds a proposition or premise to be true. 1.Schwitzgebel, Eric (2006), "Belief", in Zalta, Edward, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford, CA: The Metaphysics Research Lab, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/belief/, retrieved 2008-09-19
Truth "To say of something which is that it is not, or to say of something which is not that it is, is false. However, to say of something which is that it is, or of something which is not that it is not, is true." Aristotle
Justification To know that a given proposition is true believe the relevant true proposition have a good reason for doing so.
The Gettier problem “There are situations in which one's belief may be justified and true, yet fail to count as knowledge.”
the Certain True Belief (CTB) S knows that p if and only if:(1) S believes that p(2) p is true(3') S is absolutely certain that p A problem: it seems to lead to skepticism about knowledge, the view that we can know little or nothing.
the Reliable True Belief (RTB) S knows that p if and only if(1) S believes that p(2) p is true(3'') S's belief that p is a reliable indicator that p: in the circumstances S is actually in, S's belief that p can be caused only by p.
Knowledge and skepticism S knows that P if and only if: P; S believes that P; if P were false, S would not believe that P; if P is true, S will believe that P Robert Nozick (1981). Philosophical Explanations. Harvard University Press. ISBN0674664485 Philosophical ExplanationsChapter 3 "Knowledge and Skepticism" I. Knowledge Conditions for Knowledge p. 172-178.
Externalism and internalism Externalists: the factors deemed "external", meaning outside of the psychological states of those who gain knowledge, can be conditions of knowledge Internalists: since the only method by which we perceive the external world is through our senses, and that, since the senses are not infallible we should not consider our concept of knowledge to be infallible.
How do we acquire knowledge? A priori and a posteriori knowledge Analytic/synthetic distinction Specific theories of knowledge acquisition Empiricism Rationalism Constructivism The regress problem Response to the regress problem Infinitism Foundationalism Coherentism Foundherentism
A priori and a posteriori A priori knowledge is knowledge that is known independently of experience eg "George V reigned from 1910 to 1936." A posteriori knowledge is knowledge that is known by experience "If George V reigned at all, then he reigned for at least a day."
Analytic/synthetic proposition Analytic propositions are those which are true simply by virtue of their meaning. "All bachelors are unmarried." Synthetic propositions, on the other hand, have distinct subjects and predicates. "All triangles have three sides.“
theories of knowledge acquisition Empericism: that knowledge arises from sense experience Rationalism: that knowledge is primarily acquired by a prioriprocesses or is innate Constructivism: proposes new definitions for knowledge and truth that form a new paradigm, based on inter-subjectivity instead of the classical objectivity, and on viability instead of truth.
The regress problem Assuming that knowledge is justified true belief. Then: Suppose that P is some piece of knowledge. Then P is a justified true belief. The only thing that can justify P is another statement – let's call it P1; so P1 justifies P. But if P1 is to be a satisfactory justification for P, then we must know that P1. But for P1 to be known, it must also be a justified true belief. That justification will be another statement - let's call it P2; so P2 justifies P1. But if P2 is to be a satisfactory justification for P1, then we must know that P2 But for P2 to count as knowledge, it must itself be a justified true belief. That justification will in turn be another statement - let's call it P3; so P3 justifies P2. and so on, ad infinitum.
Response to the regress problem Infinitism: It is not impossible for an infinite justificatory series to exist Foundationalism: that some beliefs that support other beliefs do not themselves require justification by other beliefs Coherentism: that an individual belief is justified circularly by the way it fits together (coheres) with the rest of the belief system of which it is a part Foundherentism: it is meant to be a unification of foundationalism and coherentism
Perception Basic kind of Perception Theory of Perception Phenomenalism Perception and Senses Problem of Perceptual knowledge Indirect Realism Idealism Direct Realism