Motor system overview 2011

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Overview of Motor system for Cognitive neuroscience class IIIT Hyderabad India 2011

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Motor system overview 2011

  1. 1. Organization of Motor System<br />
  2. 2. Spinal Motor Neuron<br />
  3. 3. Motor Unit<br />
  4. 4. Neuromuscular Junction<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
  7. 7. Types of Muscle Contraction<br />
  8. 8. Muscle Spindle<br />
  9. 9. Stretch Reflex<br />
  10. 10.
  11. 11. Golgi Tendon Organ<br />
  12. 12. Feedback Inhibition: Golgi Tendon Organ<br />
  13. 13. Withdrawal Reflex<br />
  14. 14. Withdrawal and Crossed Extensor Reflex<br />
  15. 15. Alpha and gamma motor neurons are coactivated during voluntary movements<br />
  16. 16. Spinal Animal<br />
  17. 17. Cat hind limb activity during stepping<br />
  18. 18. Locomotor Center in Cat<br />
  19. 19. Motor Cortex in precise stepping <br />
  20. 20. Locomation<br />
  21. 21. Motor cortical center<br />
  22. 22. Functional Organization of the Primary Motor Cortex<br />
  23. 23. Corticospinal Pathway<br />
  24. 24. CorticoRubrospinal Pathway<br />
  25. 25. Convergence of Motor Control on the Anterior Motor Neuron<br />
  26. 26. Corticomotoneuronal (CM) cell is active depends on the motor task<br />
  27. 27. Activity in Individual Neurons of the Primary Motor Cortex Is Related to Muscle Force and Direction of Movement <br />
  28. 28. A set-related neuron in the dorsal premotor area becomes active while the monkey prepares to make a movement to the left<br />
  29. 29. Motor Cortical Cell Firing with Force Generated<br />
  30. 30. Different areas of cortex are activated during simple, complex, and imagined sequences of finger movements (Xenon PET)<br />
  31. 31. Cell activity in the motor cortex depends on whether a sequence of movements is guided by visual cues or by prior training<br />
  32. 32. The visuomotor transformations required for reaching and grasping involve two different pathways<br />
  33. 33. Individual neurons in the ventral premotor area fire during specific hand actions only<br />
  34. 34. Motor planning<br />
  35. 35. Mirror Neurons<br />A. Activity in the neuron as the monkey observes another monkey make a precision group.B. Activity in the same neuron as the monkey observes the human experimenter make the precision grip.C. Activity in the same neuron as the monkey itself performs a precision grip. (From Rizzolottiet al 1996.)<br />
  36. 36. Summary<br />Primary Motor Cortex:<br />Codes force and direction of movement<br />Spinal motor neuron are directly under control for precise movement.<br />Dorsal Premotor Cortex<br />Movement related neuron encodes sensorimotor transformation for visual and sensory cue<br />Fire before movement<br />Ventral Premotor Cortex<br />Encodes learned motor act fire before movement<br />All cortical neurons are adaptable and plastic<br />
  37. 37. Basal Ganglia<br />
  38. 38. Functional organization of BG<br />
  39. 39. Motor Component of Basal Ganglia<br />
  40. 40. Basal Ganglia in Executing Patterns of Motor Activity— The Putamen Circuit<br />
  41. 41. Cognitive Control of Sequences of Motor Patterns—The Caudate Circuit<br />
  42. 42. Neurotransmitters of BG<br />
  43. 43. Function of BG<br />Voluntary movement<br />Initiation of movement<br />Control of ramp movement<br />Change from one pattern to other<br />Programming and correcting movement while in progress (thalamocortical circuts)<br />Postural control<br />Righting reflex<br />Automatic associated movement (walking)<br />Control of muscle tone<br />Reticulospinal <br />Vestibulospinal<br />
  44. 44. Cerebellum<br />
  45. 45. Functional organization of cerebellum<br />
  46. 46. Afferent Pathway of Brain<br />
  47. 47. Spinocerebellar pathway<br />
  48. 48. Output Signals from the Cerebellum<br />
  49. 49. Neocerebellum<br />
  50. 50. Vestibulocerebellum<br />
  51. 51. The spinocerebellum contains two somatotopic neural maps of the body<br />
  52. 52. Neuronal Circuit of the Functional Unit<br />
  53. 53.
  54. 54. Control of voluntary movement<br />Execution<br />Planning<br />Basal Ganglia<br />Association cortex<br />Premotor + Motor cortex<br />Movement<br />Idea<br />Lateral cerebellum<br />Intermediate Cerebellum<br />

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