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Hypnosis theory and practice
 

Hypnosis theory and practice

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This is an updated version of hypnosis overview

This is an updated version of hypnosis overview

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  • Check my amaizing free app for self-hypnosis by a pendulum. It can greatly change your insight about hypnosis!
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  • Great presentation of hypnosis. Did not know it dated all the way back to the vikings!
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  • Hypnosis SuggestionFormulation and ApplicationPart 3by Charles E. Henderson, Ph.D.(Continued from Part 2)One way to cut some of this verbiage down is to use image suggestions. That is, form a picture in your mind of what you want, the way you want to look, what you want to be doing, how you want to be doing it, and so on. But you still need some verbal suggestions because images can be ambiguous, and some goals are difficult to "see." For example, what do you look like when you have quit smoking? What do you look like when you are not wanting a cigarette? No different from what you look like when you want one, unfortunately. So you will still have to formulate verbal suggestions for most achievements. Organ language. Organ language refers to any semantic reference to any part of the human body. All languages abound in this kind of reference. Examples are expressions like "get a leg up" (gain the advantage), "up to my neck in (whatever)" (overcome by too much or too many (whatever), "butt heads with" (oppose someone), "lend an ear" (listen), and "elbow grease" (hard work). There have been many cases reported in which organ language was ultimately determined to be the source of the problem. The subconscious mind's literal translation of body-related statements can lead to some silly sounding, but nonetheless severe, situations: A man who was prone to severe headaches whenever his brother-in-law was around. He had often made the statement that his brother-in-law was a pain in the neck. A young lady whose stomach troubles, as identified in ideomotor questioning, were related to her mother's frequent statements to her that "all you ever do is bellyache." (This case points out that organ language is not limited to oneself. Be careful about expressions you use repeatedly with your kids and with other people in general.) A woman's skin condition-a rash and persistent itch that resisted all pharmaceutical treatment-which was the result of an over-used cliché. She was a cleanliness freak and whenever someplace did not meet her standards she would say that it "made her itch." A man who, shortly after his fiancee jilted him, began to have serious chest pains. Tests found nothing wrong with him, but psychotherapy uncovered a relationship between the pains and the word "heartache." This illustrates the fact that organ language can cause problems without an expression being "said" over and over. "Heartache" is one of our prevalent cultural icons and need not necessarily be said to be a source of trouble. The lesson from all of this is twofold: Carefully avoid any reference to body parts in the formulation of suggestion unless that is exactly what you want and mean, and check for the influence of organ language if you have mysterious problems (see Ideomotor Questioning below).
  • Subconscious ResistanceThe subconscious part of your mind is there to protect you. It would not be doing a very good job if it changed willy-nilly all the time. It is difficult to accept when we want to lose weight or get rich and famous, but the subconscious mind actually does its job best by resisting all change. It is this characteristic of the subconscious mind that helps keep people in the land of the living and the sane (well, some of us, anyway). It also this characteristics that drives you to distraction when you want to do something but your subconscious won't let you, like quit smoking or lose weight or any of the other things that seem to be so difficult. Much of the talk above about making things worse with suggestion is really a reference to the resistance of the subconscious mind that can be triggered. Look at it this way. You represent a species of organism that has evolved over many thousands of years. You are the both the recipient and embodiment of innumerable genetic and cultural characteristics that have proved to be successful in the past. That is, you are here because your ancestors survived. (Just think: Going back all the way to the first humans, not one of your ancestors died before giving birth to the next level of your ancestry, down to you.) Therefore what you represent must be mostly good because you are the latest product of an immensely complicated evolutionary process. (Or near the end if you have already proved yourself capable of being an ancestor by having children.) Now, don't get the impression that I am saying that the subconscious mind works its way through this kind of logic to arrive at its position. Frankly I don't think it could. What I am trying to present here is a rationalization for why the subconscious makes the best survival mechanism if it resists change. (On the other hand, maybe life is absurdly simple and all living things including us are simply a gene's way of making more genes.) So you can expect subconscious resistance to change. The best you can do is minimize the change when possible, and deal with it when it does block progress, or when it makes things worse. Latitude of AcceptanceThere is almost always a latitude of acceptance for change at the subconscious level. This is the window of possibility, the amount of change that the subconscious will find acceptable at any given time. If you confine your change efforts to these windows you will not trigger subconscious resistance. Once the change you want is in place, the window moves up and you can start working on the next level within the window. In this manner you ratchet your way up the ladder of change one rung at a time, rather than trying to soar to the top all at once. Think of it in terms of degrees of change. Let's say that you want to make more money and you are going to apply suggestions to that effect. Your suggestions, by the way, should be directed not just at making more money, but toward 1) raising the limits that your subconscious mind finds acceptable; and 2) the behaviors that lead to increased income. If you don't know what behaviors would lead to increased income, then you need to work on suggestions that you will learn and become aware of those behaviors. (I refer to this latter category of suggestion as Discovery Suggestions.) Let's say further that you made $25,000 last year, just to pick a number. The fact that you made $25,000 last year and did not have a problem with it (we will assume) means that that figure is an acceptable one to your subconscious mind. Now you want to up the ante. But you definitely do not want to jump up to a figure that will trigger subconscious resistance. If you do, you probably will not even make as much as you did last year. The subconscious can be fiendishly clever about thwarting the achievement of goals that it finds threatening. You can almost be guaranteed that this will happen if you, say, double the figure and shoot for $50,000. You have to do it by degrees. Get in a hurry and you will end up going backwards. Hypnosis SuggestionFormulation and ApplicationPart 4by Charles E. Henderson, Ph.D.(Continued from Part 3)So how do you determine the upper limit -- the latitude of acceptability -- that your subconscious will accept? The best way is with auto questioning. By using one of the methods of auto questioning you can set the maximum acceptable limits, for this as for other areas of application. Always determine your latitude of acceptance for any suggestion you want to use. Functions of the SubconsciousThe basic functions of the subconscious are preservation, protection and procreation. If you use suggestions that violate the way the subconscious interprets its purpose in any of these areas, you will not get anywhere with the suggestions. Sometimes you can start out okay, but as soon as your suggestions kick in and you begin to get results the subconscious becomes alarmed and puts resistive forces in place. If you have an experience like this -- early success followed by reversal of the gains -- it is probably caused by subconsciously perceived threat. Because the subconscious mind is exceptionally devious and mysterious, you may find that your suggestions' failure is masked to look natural. Subconscious Needs Many of our more subtle needs reside at the subconscious level. We are usually aware of obvious needs, such as the needs for air, water, food, warmth, etc. But some of the "softer" needs may not be so obvious. Some of these vary across individuals and can include such subconscious requirements as the needs to be an adult, to always have a nurturing adult figure in our lives, to be healthy and, in short, to be anything upon which we might have imprinted when young. Subtler, unknown subconscious needs can create a lot of problems if they are not dealt with properly in suggestion formulation. Suggestions to quit smoking would, for example, run afoul of the subconscious needs to be an adult. This would be a problem in a case in which the subconscious mind has made a connection between smoking and being an adult. In subconscious terms, no smoking, no adulthood. Goofy, but that is the way subconscious logic works. Suggestion Verification and ValidationYou need to find out how to most effectively formulate suggestions for a particular purpose. It is also a good idea to determine that the suggestions you formulate will indeed do what you want them to do, and that they will not cause new or substitute problems. These objectives can be met with autoquestioning. Autoquestioning is the questioning of oneself. More specifically, it is the interrogation of the subconscious mind. You consciously come up with questions which you can ask the subconscious mind. The purpose of autoquestioning is to learn as much as you can about why you do or don't do something you want or don't want to do. The formulation of suggestion is much easier and more likely to produce effective suggestions if you know the position of your subconscious mind vis-à-vis the relevant issues. (What you consciously know or think, or think you know or think, may be totally unrelated to what you subconsciously know or think. Effective bouts of autoquestioning almost always yield surprising results.) The subconscious mind does not like giving up its secrets, so autoquestioning requires a lot of thought and careful adherence to proven procedure. There are many ways to engage in autoquestioning. The major methods are automatic writing; the use of prompted and directed dreams (a slow but fascinating process); the finger response method; the Ouija Board, but without the spirits; and the Chevreul pendulum. Of these, the Chevreul pendulum has become the most popular, probably because it is fascinating in itself, and it is easy to use. Anyone can do it with just a little practice. Please see the Autoquestioning section below on how to make and use the Chevreul pendulum.
  • Hypnosis SuggestionFormulation and ApplicationPart 5by Charles E. Henderson, Ph.D.(Continued from Part 4)Rules of Suggestion FormulationBe specific. Emile Coué (1857-1926) was the inventor of the highly generalized, one-size-fits all approach to autosuggestion. At one point in his career he had almost everyone in Europe and America going around saying, "Every day, and in every way, I am getting better and better." The fact that some of those people really did report getting "better and better" attests to the power of suggestion. They got better in spite of the fact that, as we now know, specificity in suggestions is much more powerful than generality. Specificity, that is, as it applies to outcomes. DO NOT get SO specific as to suggest to your subconscious mind all of the steps (physiological and otherwise) it should take to, say, reduce your interest in food. To do that you would end up with suggestions about glandular processes, pheromones, brain opiates, and a whole host of other things that none of us consciously know nearly as much about as your subconscious mind does. So don't get crazy with specificity. Just stick to specific outcomes that make sense to you. Sometimes it is helpful to use numbers in your suggestions if they are appropriate. However, this can also backfire, so be sure to clear the suggestions through autoquestioning and continue to monitor effectiveness during the period you are using any quantified suggestions.Be literal.Be very careful in the wording of suggestions. You might end up getting what you literally asked for, and that can be a shock if you used words like "cool" to mean in command of yourself, "swift" or "cool" for something to be desired or admired, or "bitchin'" to mean, well, whatever it means to you consciously. "Bitchin'" and "awesome" are two words that never seem to have happy consequences when used in suggestions. See the material above on Clichés for more on this. Be positive.Always try to use positive wording for your suggestions. This can be difficult, especially in those situations where you are trying to quit or get rid of something. If you have to use a negatively formulated suggestion, go ahead, but try for the positive approach first. Here is an example of negative versus positive formulation for a case of nail-biting: NEGATIVE: I no longer bite my nails. POSITIVE: Every day my fingernails are becoming longer and healthier. This suggestion might work just fine for one nail-biter but have no affect at all on another. One problem is the logical limitation of the subconscious mind. Since it reasons (if you could call it reasoning) only with deductive logic, the subconscious mind sees nothing contradictory about both chewing nails and having long, healthy ones. In other words, the subconscious might fail to make a connection between chewing and having normal nails. You and I consciously know that these are two mutually exclusive events. This is intuitively obvious when both induction and deduction are available. But without the inductive side of logic, mutually exclusive events can exist side by side without apparent contradiction. This is why there are times when, even though you have a perfectly logical and well-formulated suggestion, it can backfire or be ineffective. So you have to resort to autoquestioning to get to the root of the problem and change your suggestion accordingly. This is a lot of work, but here is why it is worth it: If you can get the right suggestion formulation and apply it properly, you can be or do just about anything that relies upon your own efforts. Use "I," not "you."In the formulation of your suggestions, address yourself as "I," not "you." Don't say "you are...," say "I am . . ." Avoid clichés.Some people are so accustomed to speaking and thinking in clichés that they don't even know what they are. If you have trouble with this, look up the meaning in a dictionary to see what most people think a word means. If your choice is not even close, pick different words. Here is an example of what might have been a good suggestion turned bad by the inclusion of a silly cliché: "Any time I am in a negotiating situation I want to come across as a tough cookie." See the Clichés section above for more information. Be visual..Visualization can be a very important part of your suggestion application. There are some instances, perhaps most, in which a good, powerful visualization is more effective than the best worded suggestion. Come up with an image of your desired state or whatever it is you want to achieve. The more vivid and dramatic the image, the more effective it will be. Here are a couple of examples: WEIGHT CONTROL: Picture yourself as you want to be, doing the kinds of things you want to do when you look svelte and slender. See yourself looking in a mirror and admiring the way you look in new clothes. Or nude. HEADACHES: Imagine your brain stem, especially in the area where it joins the midbrain (look in an anatomy book to get an accurate image if you like; otherwise, just make-up whatever you think it might look like). Imagine a calming, soothing, numbing coolness radiating up and throughout your head. Imagine the blood vessels in your head originally pulsing and throbbing but quickly settling down to their normal status as the coolness pervades your entire head. Keep in mind that visualizations are suggestions, too, and as such should be cleared through autoquestioning (and modified if necessary).
  • [Ego-Strengthening Suggestions]During this deep sleep… you are going to feel physically stronger and fitter in every way. You will feel more alert… more wide awake… more energetic. You will become much less easily tired… much less easily fatigued… much less easily discouraged… much less easily depressed. Every day… you will become so deeply interested in whatever you are doing… in whatever is going on around you… that your mind will become completely distracted away from yourself. You will no longer think nearly so much about yourself… you will no longer dwell nearly so much upon yourself and your difficulties… and you will become much less conscious of yourself… much less preoccupied with yourself… and with your own feelings. Every day… your nerves will become stronger and steadier… your mind calmer and clearer… more composed… more placid… more tranquil. You will become much less easily worried… much less easily agitated… much less easily fearful and apprehensive… much less easily upset. You will be able to think more clearly… you will be able to concentrate more easily. You will be able to give up your whole undivided attention to whatever you are doing… to the complete exclusion of everything else. Consequently… your memory will rapidly improve… and you will be able to see things in their true perspective… without magnifying your difficulties… without ever allowing them to get out of proportion. Every day… you will become emotionally much calmer… much more settled… much less easily disturbed. Every day… you will become… and you will remain… more and more completely relaxed… and less tense each day… both mentally and physically… even when you are no longer attending here. And as you become… and as you remain… more relaxed… and less tense each day… so… you will develop much more confidence in yourself… more confidence in your ability to do… not only what you have… to do each day… but more confidence in your ability to do whatever you ought to be able to do… without fear of failure… without fear of consequences…. Without unnecessary anxiety… without uneasiness. Because of this… every day… you will feel more and more independent… more able to ‘stick up for yourself’… to stand upon your own feet… to hold your own… no matter how difficult or trying things may be. Every day… you will feel a greater feeling of personal well-being… A greater feeling of personal safety… and security… than you have felt for a long, long time. And because all these things will begin to happen… exactly as I tell you they will happen… more and more rapidly… powerfully… and completely… with every treatment I give you… you will feel much happier… much more contented… much more optimistic in every way. You will consequently become much more able to rely upon… to depend upon… yourself… your own efforts… your own judgement… your own opinions. You will feel much less need… to have to rely upon… or to depend upon… other people.

Hypnosis theory and practice Hypnosis theory and practice Presentation Transcript

  • Hypnosis
    Dr PS Deb, MD, DM Neurology
  • What is Hypnosis ?
    Is a natural, focused and altered state of consciousness or awareness
    Hypnosis is a induced trance
    i) Focused attentionii) Disattention to extraneous stimuliiii) Absorption in some activity, image, thought or feeling
    hypnosis may bring about "...changes in subjective experience, alterations in perception, sensation, emotion, thought or behavior
    7/11/2010
    Hypnosis
    2
  • Everyday Hypnosis
    • Being 'lost in thought' or day dreaming• Absorption in sport, reading, listening to music etc• Driving for long distances and not recalling the route taken• Being absorbed in meditation / relaxation procedures.
    7/11/2010
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    3
  • Myths and Facts
    Hypnosis is not mind control or brain washing
    Hypnosis is not sleep or coma
    Hypnosis is not surrender of will or revelation of secrets
    Any person with average intelligence can become hypnotist. Dominant person with sharp eye is not a prerequisite
    Psychotics and feeble minded people are not good candidates
    Any person with average intelligence and willing to cooperate can be hypnotized. Some takes longer than other. Cooperation of subject is more important than operator
    Subject can adjust sneeze and cough and can change position. He can come out any time
    All the muscles are relaxed and senses are intact
    One can go to sleep and come out refreshed
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    4
  • Hypnosis - Mythology
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    5
    • Babylonians
    • Greeks
    • Egyptian
    • Chinese (incantations and passes of the hands)
    • Vedas
    • Bibles
    • Druids
    • Vikings
    • Indians
    • Dervishes
  • Sleep Temple
    Ancient Egyptians used to heal people in sleep or dream temples
    Sick people were put into trance through religious rituals.
    Priests used to cast out evil spirit
    Healing by Gods were suggested
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    6
  • Father of Hypnosis
    Freidrich Anton mesmer ( 1734-185)
    Animal magnetism (Mesmerizm)
    System of healing based on disturbance of universal energy field
    Mesmerism: a magnet and later hand to heal disease
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    7
  • Mesmer's tub
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    8
    Gathered around a large oaken tub filled with magnetized water, iron filings and glass, Mesmer's patients grasped rods, held hands and waited for healing to take effect.
  • Marquis Armand de Puysqer (1751-1825)
    Pupil of Mesmer
    Animal magnatism to induce sleep and communicate
    Called artificial somnoambulism
    Will of a person and operator’s action important
    Puysegur's Tree
  • John Elliotson (1791-1868)
    Chairmen of London college of surgeon
    1834 surgical operations
    Disbarred from medical profession due to demonstration of animal magnetism
    James Esdaile : Operated on mesmeric sleep
  • Dr James Braid 1841
    Scottish eye surgeon working in Manchester
    Coined the word hypnosis
    Fixed gaze technique
    Treated functional disorders
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    11
  • Dr Jean Charcot (1825- 1893)
    Neurologist at Peris
    Treated hypnosis for hysterical seizure
    Major hypnotism 3 stages
  • Freud and Hypnosis
    Sigmund Freud, father of cathartic method, free association and psychoanalysis,
    interested in hypnosis and began to practise it.
    Not being very good at it, he went on to develop psychoanalysis instead!
  • Hippolyte Bernheim (1837-1919)
    Prof at university of Nancy France
    Pure suggestion
    Psychological nature of the process
  • James Esdail (1845-1953)
    British surgeon in India
    Performed 2000 operation under hyno anesthesia
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    15
  • Calrk L Hull ( 1884-1952)
    First experimental Psychologist
    Imagination as main factor
  • Modern Hypnosis
    1914 World war I – Pschogenic paralysis and amnesia
    1925: Hypnodentistry
    1955: BMA, AMA recognized Hypnosis
    1962 Craneotomy was done under Hypnosis
    Various scientific association formed
  • Milton Erickson (1932-74)
    Psychologist and psychiatrist
    Indirect suggestion
    Bypassing conscious mind by verbal and nonverbal pacing techniques
    Metaphor, confusion
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  • What is Hypnosis ?
    Is a natural, focused and altered state of consciousness or awareness
    A state of intensified attention and receptiveness, and an increased responsiveness to an idea or to a set of ideas. - Dr. Milton Erickson
    Hypnosis is a induced trance
    Is a guided meditation
  • What is hypnosis cont…
    “Hypnosis is an artificially induced state, usually (but not always) resembling sleep, but physiologically distinct from it, which is characterized by heightened suggestibility, as a result of which certain sensory, motor and memory abnormalities may be induced more readily than in the normal state“
    Warren's Dictionary of Psychology
  • What is Hypnosis?
    “Hypnosis is an abnormal or supernormal state of mind induced by artificial means and characterized chiefly by the presence of suggestibility”
    In an exaggerated state of mind with selective attention to operator’s word with selective inattention to the distracting noise.
    Boris Sidis
  • What is Hypnosis?
    Hypnosis is a psychological state or condition, induced by a ritualistic procedure, in which the subject experiences changes in perception, thinking, memory and behavior in response to suggestions by the hypnotist
    (Orne 1977).
  • All hypnosis are self hypnosis
    “The best hypnotic subject is intelligent, imaginative, and self-aware”
    “A person must agree to be hypnotized, participate in the process with their full attention and be able to use their imagination”
  • How Hypnosis Work?
    Parasympathetic activation
    Brain wave changes to alpha from beta
    Right brain activation with left brain deactivation
    Suppression of ego
    Dissociation of consciousness
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    24
  • A Word triggers Picture
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    25
    1
    2
  • Word can change muscle activity
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    26
    1
  • Word can change sensation
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    27
    1
  • Mental Picture can change muscle activity
    1
    2
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    28
  • Picture can give feeling
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    29
    1
    2
  • Image can affect balance
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    30
    1
    2
  • Complex behavioral trigger
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    31
    1
    2
  • Theory of Hypnosis
    hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness characterized by both alterations of subjective experience and alterations of mental processes of perception, thinking, memory, and control of behavior
    hypnosis is not an altered state of consciousness, but rather it involves normal thinking and behavior processes operating in a somewhat unusual manner in a special social situation. In this view, subjects in a hypnosis situation enter into a special social role (hypnotic subject) and play that role to the best of their ability using various cognitive and behavioral strategies
  • Topography of Mind
    Conscious
    Logic
    Reason
    Mathematics
    Reading
    Writing
    Language
    Analysis
    Ego
    Unconscious
    Recognition
    Rhythm
    Visual
    Imagery
    Creativity
    Synthesis
    Dreams
    Symbols
    Emotions
    Id
  • Freud’s Model of Personality
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    34
  • Freud’s Stages of Development
    Oral Stage: Birth to 18months
    Anal Stage: 18months to 3 years
    Phallic Stage: 3-6 years
    Latency Stage: 6year to puberty
    Genital Stage: Puberty onwards
  • Ego Defense Mechanism
    Denial
    Displacement
    Intellectualization
    Projection
    Rationalization
    Reaction formation
    Regression
    Repression
    Sublimation
    Suppression
  • Denial
    arguing against an anxiety provoking stimuli by stating it doesn't exist
    denying that your physician's diagnosis of cancer is correct and seeking a second opinion
  • Displacement
    taking out impulses on a less threatening target
    slamming a door instead of hitting as person, yelling at your spouse after an argument with your boss
  • Intellectualization
    avoiding unacceptable emotions by focusing on the intellectual aspects
    focusing on the details of a funeral as opposed to the sadness and grief
  • Projection
    placing unacceptable impulses in yourself onto someone else
    when losing an argument, you state "You're just Stupid;" homophobia
  • Rationalization
    supplying a logical or rational reason as opposed to the real reason
    stating that you were fired because you didn't kiss up the the boss, when the real reason was your poor performance
  • Reaction formation
    taking the opposite belief because the true belief causes anxiety
    having a bias against a particular race or culture and then embracing that race or culture to the extreme
  • Regression
    returning to a previous stage of development
    sitting in a corner and crying after hearing bad news; throwing a temper tantrum when you don't get your way
  • Repression
    pulling into the unconscious
    forgetting sexual abuse from your childhood due to the trauma and anxiety
  • Sublimation
    acting out unacceptable impulses in a socially acceptable way
    sublimating your aggressive impulses toward a career as a boxer; becoming a surgeon because of your desire to cut; lifting weights to release 'pent up' energy
  • Suppression
    pushing into the unconscious
    trying to forget something that causes you anxiety
  • Hypnotic State
    Altered consciousness
  • Wake fullness
    Sensory
    All sensory modalities are intact
    Motor
    Voluntary control on muscle with muscle tone maintained
    Autonomic
    Changes with physical and mental activity
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  • Signs of wake fullness
    Eye opened
    Responsiveness to external stimuli by motor movements
    Muscle tone maintained
    Can speak and understand coherently
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    49
  • Sleep
    • Sensory
    • All sensory modalities are suppressed
    • Motor
    • No Voluntary control on muscle with muscle tone reduced
    • Autonomic
    • Slowing of all autonomic functions
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    50
  • Signs of sleep
    Eye closed
    Sensory modalities suppressed
    Motor tone reduced and no voluntary activity possible
    Do not speak or understand
    Reflex movements to noxious stimuli
    Aroused by strong stimuli
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    51
  • Hypnosis
    • Eye closed
    • Sensory modalities suppressed
    • Motor tone reduced and no voluntary activity possible
    • Can speak and understand
    • Reflex movements to noxious stimuli reduced
    • Aroused by strong verbal command
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    52
  • Hypnosis
    Sensory:
    Increased threshold for sensory perception and pain
    Attenuated attention to external sound without distraction
    Motor
    Muscular relaxation
    Partial loss of voluntary control
    Autonomic
    Reduced heart rate and blood pressure
    Reduce body temperature
    Slowing of all automatic activity
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    53
  • Subjective Experience
    Feeling of being hypnotized
    Disinclination to speak
    Disinclination to move
    Disinclination to think
    Feeling of compulsion
    Change in size or appearance of parts of body
    Feeling of floating
    Feeling of blacking out
    Feeling of dizziness
    Feeling of spinning
    Any similarity to sleep
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  • Involuntariness of Responses
    Hypnotic subjects allow them to happen and use cognitive strategies to actively encourage them.
    Hypnotic responses have the volitional response characteristic of purposive ness.
    Hypnotic subjects put considerable mental effort into using cognitive strategies to make the responses happen.
    Hypnotic subjects ordinarily are consciously aware of their overt responses.
  • Practical uses of hypnosis
    Confidence Building:
    fear of public speaking, athletic and academic peerformance
    Stress reduction
    Motivation
    quitting smoking, diet
    Sleep disorders
    Help with life transitions
    Preparation for medical procedures
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  • Risk and Precaution
    Aversion suggestion
    False memory syndrome
    Antisocial behavior
    Dependence (Transference and counter-transference)
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  • Memory and Hypnosis
    Hypnosis does not have any special power by itself to enhance the recall of old memories
    It can indirectly help us rebuild past events, but it can also rebuild events that never happened
    True enhancement of the recall of meaningful old memories (hypermnesia) is in fact possible, particularly with highly hypnotizable people, but it does not require hypnosis to do it !The main factor in improving recall is repeated retrieval efforts
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  • False memory syndrome
    Remembering an event that has never happened
    A high level of details and high confidence in recall, particularly under hypnosis, do not necessarily mean that the events are historical
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  • Stage Hypnosis
    Hypnotizing volunteers for fun
    There is no difference in trance
    Techniques are direct commanding and binding, group oriented
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  • Evil Hypnosis
    Temporary mind and behavior controls possible with hypnosis
    Permanent change to our personality occurs only when our core self-image is altered
    It takes time and skill to turn the hypnotic situation into one of profound persuasion by altering the self-image
    Simply going through hypnosis does not leave you vulnerable to having your core values or beliefs altered
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  • Pre-hypnotic preparation
    Explain the procedure , experience and expectation
    Only suggestion compatible with subject wishes will be followed
    Good rapport is prerequisite of hypnosis
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  • Hypnotic Susceptibility
    fictional reading
    the dramatic arts
    religion (as a true believer, not just a churchgoer);
    affective arousal through sensory stimulation
    adventure someness (including mental and physical space traveling); and
    artistic creativity
    having had imaginary companions in childhood
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  • Absorption Scale
    Drama
    Reading
    Daydreaming child
    Daydream adult
    Mental space travelers
    Physical space travelers
    Creativity
    Religion
  • Who can be hypnotized
    Any person with average intelligence willing to cooperate can be hypnotized
    10% of population are highly hypnotizable
    Hypnotizable is related to the imaginative absorption. Absorption is the ability to become particularly involved in something, such that things that would normally be very distracting are not even noticed
    Absorption is a personality trait a sub-scale of openness
    Openness measures our willingness to explore and to consider unusual alternatives
  • Changing Suggestibility
    Trait theory
    Skill Theory
    hypnotic susceptibility depends upon certain attitudes, beliefs, and cognitive skills (such as how to think, imagine, and interpret one's experience) that can be improved by special training methods.
  • Who cannot be Hypnotized
    A person in a psychotic process or with a thought disorder
    A person with a low IQ
    A person who really does not want to be hypnotized
  • Who can become Hypnotist
    Any person with average intelligence
    Dominant person with piercing eye is not required
    Unobtnsive maneuver and monotonous voice is required
    Student can be successful at first attempt
  • Test of suggestibility
    Ideomotor response
    Ideosensory response
    Arm elevation
    Arm Rigidity
    Bucket and Balloon
    Chevreul’s Pendulum
    Eye catalepsy
    Finger elevation
    Hand clasp
    Planchette and board
    Postural sway
  • Precaution and Preconditioning
    Congenial environment with no extreme temperature.
    Soothing background music
    Faith in the hypo-therapist
    Fixation of attention
    Progressive relaxation
    Removing all prejudices and myths about hypnosis
    Heart condition
    Hysterical behavior
    Rape fantasy
    Neurotic behavior
    Oversensitive subjects
  • Hypnosis prerequisit
    Fixation of attention
    Monotonous intonation of voice
    Limitation of voluntary physical movements
    Limitation of field of voluntary consciousness
    Inhibition of all thoughts and idea except which attention is directed
  • Hypnotic induction
    “Hypnosis is an art of carving subjects mind with words and action”
    “Hypnosis is an art and an art cannot be taught but it has to be caught”
    In a clinical setting hypnotists can be creative and employ whatever technique they believe will be most effective for a particular subject/client
    The hypnosis can be induced by a wide variety of techniques, there is nothing magical about the induction itself
  • Hypnotic induction
    Use slower method of progressive relaxation for first time
    Experienced person can be hypnotized fast to simple cue
    Subject is asked to fixed attention to an object and listen to hypnotists suggestion
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  • James Braid's Method
    Bright object is place 10-15”” above the eye slightly higher than the gaze
    This position make eyelid tire “ Your eye will shortly become very tired, your eyelid will want to close”
    Comment at all physiological changes in subject “ Your getting sleepier – your eyelids are getting heavier…”
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  • Dr Esdaile’s method
    Ask the patient to lye down relax and close eyes
    Pass your hand from head to toe with or without touching the body
    Passing hand from head to toe make subject sleepy
    Reverse pass from toe to head awaken the patient
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  • Hippolyte Bernheim’s Method
    ‘Look at me and think of nothing but sleep. Your eyelids begin to feel heavy, your eyes are tired. They begin to blink, they are becoming moist, you cannot see distinctly. Your eyes are closing
    ‘Your eyelids are closing, you cannot keep them open any longer. Your arms feel heavy, so do your legs. You cannot feel anything. Your hands remain motionless. You see nothing, you are going to sleep.’
    Command , ‘Sleep!’
  • Counting Method
    Fix gaze on an object
    Count slowly , on odd number close and even open.
    Suggest he will feel sleepy and eyelid will be difficult t open increasingly and in a short time he will unable to open them.
    Lengthening pause after odd number and comment
    5…Deep, 7…relax, 9…you are feeling very comfortable 11.. It is very pleasant just resting 13… your eyes are getting heaver and heaver 15…They are getting so heavy that you cannot open them and it is much more pleasant.
  • Dave Elman Technique
    Deep breath and eye closure.
    Deep relaxation of eye muscles.
    Eye catalepsy (suggestion that subject unable to open eyes).
    Challenge to open eyes (catalepsy test).
    Fractionation by repeated eye closure.
    Losing the numbers (for mental relaxation).
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  • Ego Strengthening Tech.
    You have now become so deeply relaxed… so deeply asleep… that your mind has become so sensitive… so receptive to what I say… that everything that I put into your mind… will sink so deeply into the unconscious part of your mind… and will cause so deep and lasting an impression there… that nothing will eradicate it.
    Consequently… these things that I put into your unconscious mind… will begin to exercise a greater and greater influence over the way you think… over the way you feel… over the way you behave.
    And… because these things will remain… firmly imbedded in the unconscious part of your mind… after you have left here… when you are no longer with me… they will continue to exercise the same great influence… over your thoughts… your feelings… and your actions… just as strongly… just as surely… just as powerfully… when you are back home… or at work… as when you are with me in this room.
    You are now so very deeply asleep… that everything that I tell you that is going to happen to you… for your own good… will happen… exactly as I tell you. And every feeling… that I tell you that you will experience… you will experience… exactly as I tell you. And these same things will continue to happen to you… every day… just as strongly… just as surely… just as powerfully… when you are back home… or at work… as when you are with me in this room.
  • Chevreul’s Pendulum Method
    Subject is asked to follow the pendulum keeping 1’ above and 6” above the gaze.
    "As you observe the pendulum swing, your eyes will become heavier and heavier and at the count of three you shall close your eyes and go into a deep state of relaxation“ after closing eyes
    With very breath you are becoming more and more relaxed and going deeper and deeper into a total state of relaxation
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  • Progressive Relaxation (Edmund Jacobson 1929)
    Close eye and take three deep breath
    Progressively relax each part of the body
    Suggest relaxation, deep, comfortable lighter and pleasant
    Take a walk through beach or staircase
    Use various visualization techniques and leave there for sometime
    Bring back by counting three and suggesting he will feel refreshed, relaxed and feeling better than before.
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  • Stanford Techniques (1962)
    Fixation of gaze on a shiny object
    Suggestion for relaxing various body parts
    Feeling sleepy and having heavy eyelids are repeated several times
    Deepening suggestion by counting 1-20 (feel more and more deeply asleep)
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  • Finger on forehead method
    I want you to close your eyes and take deep breath
    Keep your finger on forehead and ask subject to direct gaze to the finger and suggest
    As you look at my finger your eyes will become heavy and breathing will become slower
  • Arm Elevation Mehtod
    Fix gaze on an object and say
    As you watch the object your right hand is becoming lighter and lighter. just brush away all thoughts from your mind and shift all your focus on the object and without any effort your right palm will become lighter and lighter as if it is tied to a gas balloon and move towards your face. When it touches your cheeks it will drop down with a thud as if a wet cloth is thrown on the floor and you will close your eyes and go into deep state of relaxation
  • Hyperventilation technique
    Sit in a comfortable position
    Take deep breath, .. Deeper… deeper, just , hold it for a moment then breath out
    “As you breathe in and out your head will become lighter and lighter”
    “Your arms and legs are getting heavy. The whole of your body is feeling heavier. Now close your eyes.
    Your head is feeling light and you may feel a little dizzy and detached
    Do not take notice of any noises. Just listen to my voice. Nothing is going t disturb you. You are just resting comfortably
    Going further and further away into a deep, sound sleep.
  • Placebo Technique
    Used for difficult subject
    Use a placebo and say “As you take this special hypnotic pill, you will start feeling drowsy and sleepy”
    Your eyes are red and you are going into a deep state of relaxation, you are hardly able to keep your eyes open
  • For difficult cases
    “Now I would like to see if you can make your arm rigid by the time I count ten. I want to see if you can concentrate sufficiently on the idea and make your arm so stiff that you will unable to bend it”
    Phrase all the suggestion in such a way to make the subject feel that his power of concentration and ability to control his thought are being challenged.
  • Instantaneous Method
    To the previously hypnotized subject …. Say … “In a few moments I am going to wake you and afterwards if say…. the word “sleep” or snap my finger you will immediately go into hypnotic trance.”
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  • Instantaneous hypnosis
    Make cooperative subject stand and ask him to fix gaze on an object hold his right or left hand flexed at elbow and keep other hand on the shoulder.
    Suddenly lower his hand and say “ sleep”, he goes into instantaneous hypnosis.
    Maintain hypnosis by continuous suggestion.
  • Instantaneous Stage Hypnosis
    Make subject close eye and stand stiff to attention
    Make a sudden nose by shouting or clasping
    Sway him rapidly backwards and lay him on the ground
  • Levels of Hypnosis
    Stage 1 – Light stage (Lethargic)
    experiences light slumber and dullness and one feels very relaxed and comfortable. One is told to visualize events; past events can be recalled and suggestions given
    Stage 2 – Medium stage (Hallucinatory)
    Visualization is more accurate
    Aversion suggestion can be given
    Stage 3 – Deep (somnoamulistic)
    Anesthesia, amnesia, control of body function, positive and negative hallucination , time distortion, open eyes without being awake.
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  • Self Hypnosis
    Sit in a quite place
    Close your eyes and take three deep breath
    Think of relaxing from head to toe.
    Take your awareness to head to toe each part and relax.
    Do not concentrate
    Do not try to block your thought
    Use trigger word like relax with each breath
    Try to imagine you are descending a stair and reaching a new place try to visualize….
    Say your affirmation..
    Come out slowly by counting 1-3 …
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  • Deepening of hypnosis
    Realization (hypnotic conditioning)
    Lid catalepsy
    Arm Catalepsy
    Arm and leg levitation
    Body and leg Sticking
    Counting 10
    Pyramiding of suggestion
    Post hypnotic suggestion
    Creative visualization
    Counting backward
    Placebo suggestion
    Repeated induction
    Hypnotic walking
    Speech: Flat dull tone low volume
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  • Measuring depth of Hypnosis
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    • Swallowing reflex
    • Breathing
    • Slow, deep and abdominal
    • Involuntary deep breathing
    • Limb
    • Loss of tone
    • Arm catalepsy
    • Twitching of limb, finger or hand
    • Amnesia during trance
    • Analgesia
    • Following Post hypnotic suggestion
    • Face:
    • Pale , wax like
    • Eye:
    • Fluttering of eyelids
    • Involuntary blinking
    • Lid dropping, frowning
    • Eyelid catalepsy
    • Head
    • Falling forward, backward or side
    • Auditory and visual hallucination
    • Somnambulism
  • Suggestion
    “Any communication, verbal or nonverbal, simple or complex, from the suggestor [hypnotist] to the suggestee [subject], aimed at bringing- about some experience and behavior at variance with the suggestee's environment or the behavior he would have otherwise exhibited"
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  • Types of hypnotic suggestion
    Ideomotor suggestion
    Ideosensory suggestion
    Hypnotic dream
    Post hypnotic amnesia
  • Effective Suggestion (ES):1
    Framed in (grammatically) positive language.
    Tied to detailed and specific sensory language.
    Phrased in the present tense.
    Repeated many times.
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  • Effective Suggestion: 2
    Subconscious mind take literal meaning of words, avoid any clinches….
    Use specific words and spell out correctly
    Give detailed and unambiguous instructions…
    Give slowly and few instruction for subconscious to digest…..
    Be visual, imagine the situation
  • ES 3: Organ Language
    Form a picture in your mind of what you want, the way you want to look, what you want to be doing, how you want to be doing it, etc.
    Organ language: Carefully avoid any reference to body parts in the formulation of suggestion unless that is exactly what you want and mean, and check for the influence of organ language if you have mysterious problems.
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  • ES 4: Subconscious Resistance
    Subconscious defense mechanism prevent any effective suggestion to work.
    Recognize these defense mechanism and work slowly for change.
    There is almost always a latitude of acceptance for change at the subconscious level: confine your efforts within this limit
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  • Ruesl of Effective Suggestion
    Be Specific
    Be literal
    Be positive
    Be Visual
    Use first person not second (I not you)
    Avoid Clinches
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  • Ego strengthening Suggestions
    During this deep sleep… you are going to feel physically stronger and fitter in every way. You will feel more alert… more wide awake… more energetic. You will become much less easily tired… much less easily fatigued… much less easily discouraged… much less easily depressed. Every day… you will become so deeply interested in whatever you are doing… in whatever is going on around you… that your mind will become completely distracted away from yourself. You will no longer think nearly so much about yourself… you will no longer dwell nearly so much upon yourself and your difficulties… and you will become much less conscious of yourself… much less preoccupied with yourself… and with your own feelings. Every day… your nerves will become stronger and steadier… your mind calmer and clearer… more composed… more placid… more tranquil. You will become much less easily worried… much less easily agitated… much less easily fearful and apprehensive… much less easily upset.
    You will be able to think more clearly… you will be able to concentrate more easily. You will be able to give up your whole undivided attention to whatever you are doing… to the complete exclusion of everything else. Consequently… your memory will rapidly improve… and you will be able to see things in their true perspective… without magnifying your difficulties… without ever allowing them to get out of proportion. Every day… you will become emotionally much calmer… much more settled… much less easily disturbed. Every day… you will become… and you will remain… more and more completely relaxed… and less tense each day… both mentally and physically… even when you are no longer attending here. And as you become… and as you remain… more relaxed… and less tense each day… so… you will develop much more confidence in yourself… more confidence in your ability to do… not only what you have… to do each day… but more confidence in your ability to do whatever you ought to be able to do… without fear of failure… without fear of consequences…. Without unnecessary anxiety… without uneasiness. Because of this… every day… you will feel more and more independent… more able to ‘stick up for yourself’… to stand upon your own feet… to hold your own… no matter how difficult or trying things may be.
    Every day… you will feel a greater feeling of personal well-being… A greater feeling of personal safety… and security… than you have felt for a long, long time. And because all these things will begin to happen… exactly as I tell you they will happen… more and more rapidly… powerfully… and completely… with every treatment I give you… you will feel much happier… much more contented… much more optimistic in every way. You will consequently become much more able to rely upon… to depend upon… yourself… your own efforts… your own judgement… your own opinions. You will feel much less need… to have to rely upon… or to depend upon… other people.
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  • Termination
    “Think to yourself that you are going to be fully awake and alert after you count up to three feeling light, refreshed, revitalized, energetic, wonderful happy cheerful feeling better than before”
    “Day by day and every way you will get better and better”
    “Next time when you go into trace it will be deeper and more advanced then now”
    “This wonderful feeling of peace, happiness, relaxation and joy will continue even after you come out form hypnosis”
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    Wish you a deeeeep hypnosis