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Cognitive neuroscience introduction 2011

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Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience first lecture for the Autumn Semester for Cognitive Neuroscience at International Institute of Information Technology Hyderabad India

Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience first lecture for the Autumn Semester for Cognitive Neuroscience at International Institute of Information Technology Hyderabad India

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  • 1. Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience
    Dr P.S. Deb
  • 2. Neuro Science
    Psycology
    Computer Science
    Philosophy
    Genomics
    Cognitive Science
    December 29, 2010
  • 3. Search for seat of Mind: Vitalism
    Ancient
  • 4. What is the seat of Cognition?
    • Trepanning done in South America over 10,000 years
    • 5. To let the bad spirit out that tormented the brains
    December 29, 2010
  • 6. Surgical Papyrus: 1600BC
    • 30 Clinical cases of head and surgical trauma
    • 7. first known descriptions of cranial sutures, the external brain surface, brain liquor (CSF) and intracranial pulsation
    December 29, 2010
  • 8. Alcmaeon of Croton (500 BC)
    • Brain as the site of sensation
    • 9. Optic nerve as hollow carried the information to the brain where sensory modalities had its own localization
    • 10. human soul was immortal and partook of the divine nature, because like the heavenly bodies it contained in itself a principle of motion
    December 29, 2010
  • 11. Brain vs. Heart
    Hippocrates 460-377 BC,
    “Men ought to know that from the brain and from the brain only arise our pleasures, joys, laughter and jests, as well as our sorrows, pains, grieves and tears”.
    Aristotle 384-322 B.C
    “the heart as the organ of thinking, of perception and feelings,”
    “brain could cool the passion of heart”
    • 387 B.C. - Plato teaches at Athens. Believes brain is seat of mental process
    December 29, 2010
  • 12. Herophilus – 335-280 BC
    Father of Anatomy
    Ventricles are seat of human intelligence
    Termed Spinal cord as caudal prolongation of the rhombencephelon
    "the neura that make voluntary motion possible have their origin in the cerebrum (enkephalos) and spinal marrow"
    December 29, 2010
  • 13. Galen 130-200 AD
    December 29, 2010
    Nutrient -> natural spirit-> Heart as vital spirit- > ventricle + air = animal sprit the essence of life and intellectual skill, move along the nerve eliciting movement and sensation.
    Phelgm is waist of animal spirit leaks form cribiform plate
  • 14. Ventricle the seat of Mind
    Soul could not be localized but mind could
    First ventricle the common sense
    Second – reason, thinking and wisdom
    Third – Memory
    Nemesius (circa 320), bishop of Emesa
    December 29, 2010
  • 15. Descartes 1596-1650
    December 29, 2010
    Reflex response
    • The fire elicits movement of animal spirits in hollow nerves.
    • 16. The movement opens pores in the ventricle (F), letting flow spirits that will inflate the muscles of the leg,  that moves away from the heat.
    • 17. 1649 - Rene Descartes describes pineal as control center of body and mind
  • Animal magnetism
    Freidrich Anton mesmer ( 1734-1815)
    Animal magnetism (Mesmerizm)
    System of healing based on disturbance of universal energy field
    Mesmerism: a magnet and later hand to heal disease
    December 29, 2010
  • 18. The Renaissance of Neuroscience
  • 19. Leonardo Da Vinci April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519
    December 29, 2010
  • 20. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564 CE)
    December 29, 2010
    Concerning the Structure of the Human Body - De CorporisHumaniFabrica in 1543
  • 21. 1664 - Thomas Willis
    • 1664 - Publishes Cerebrianatome (in Latin)
    • 22. 1681 - coined the term Neurology
    • 23. Reflex word was first used to described element act of NS
    • 24. Chemistry is the basis of human function not mechanical
    December 29, 2010
  • 25. Brain function as Part or Whole
    Recent
  • 26. Phrenology Franz Joseph Gall 1806
    • all behavior emanated from the brain.
    • 27. particular regions of the cerebral cortex controlled specific functions.
    • 28. Cerebral cortex was divided into at least 35 organs, each corresponding to a specific mental faculty
    • 29. the center for each mental function grew with use
    December 29, 2010
  • 30. 1809 - Luigi Rolando
    Ablation studies in animal – cerebrum and cerebellum
    Stimulated animal cortex
    Conluded - cerebrum controlled voluntary body functions and the cerebellum controlled involuntary functions.
    December 29, 2010
  • 31. 1824 - Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens
    December 29, 2010
    The aggregate field theory based on ablation of birds and rabbit brain
    By removing cerebrum, all perceptions, motor function, and judgment were abolished.
    Removal of cerebellum affected equilibrium and motor coordination.
    Destruction of brain stem caused death.
  • 32. 1825 - Jean-BaptisteBouillaud
    Presents cases of loss of speech after frontal lesions from clinicopathological correlation.
    We cannot test speech in animal
    Frontal lobe has other higher function which differentiate from animal.
    By symptom we can localize the cerebral lesion.
    Cerebellum controlled equilibrium and station
    Frontal lobe and higher mental functions
    December 29, 2010
  • 33. Phinease Gage (1848)
    On 13th Sept 1848 a railroad worker hard working, diligent, reliable, responsible, intelligent, good humored, polite god fearing, family oriented foreman
    Following an explosion iron bar drove into frontal lobe
    1. He becomes unreliable and fails to come to work and when present he is "lazy."
    2. He has no interest in going to church, constantly drinks alcohol, gambles, and "whores about."
    3. He is accused of sexually molesting young children.
    4. He ignores his wife and children and fails to meet his financial and family obligations.
    5. He has lost his sense of humour.
    6. He curses constantly and does so in inappropriate circumstances.
    7. Died of status epilepticus in 1861
    December 29, 2010
  • 34. Charles Darwin 1808-1882
    December 29, 2010
    “Cognition is survival instinct a consequence of carefully crafted modules dedicated to solving specific evolutionary problems”
  • 35. Pierre Gratiolet <>Ernest Auburtin1861 Anthropological society Paris
    Brain Size and Volume
    • brain acted as a whole and that localized functional centers did not exist (Gratiolet)
    • 36. If the principle of cerebral centers proven for one function the center controlling other functions could be unraveled. (Auburtin)
    December 29, 2010
  • 37. Lobar Localization
    Paul Broca1861
    December 29, 2010
  • 38. William Gilbert – 1600 Electricity
    December 29, 2010
  • 39. Bioelectricity
    • 1791 - Luigi Galvani: Moves frog leg with static electricity and detected electricity in the nerves of frog
    • 40. 1809 - Luigi Rolando uses galvanic current to stimulate cortex
    December 29, 2010
  • 41. John Hughlings Jackson (1865)
    • Clinicopathological correlation
    • 42. Seizure origin from cortex not medulla due to electrical activity
    • 43. Speech difficulty during seizure due to left post frontal injury
    December 29, 2010
  • 44. 1870, Hitzig and Fritsch
    Electrically stimulated various parts of a dog's motor cortex.
    what part of the cortex they stimulated, a different part of the body contracted.
    if they destroyed this same small area of the cortex, the corresponding part of the body became paralyzed.
    December 29, 2010
  • 45. 1870 - David Ferrier
    December 29, 2010
    • Faradic stimulation of various animal conrtex
    • 46. constructed one of the first detailed cortical maps
  • 1906 - Sir Charles Scott Sherrington
    1906- The Integrative Action of the Nervous system that describes the synapse and motor cortex
    Spinal reflex
    1932 Nobel Prize
    December 29, 2010
    Motor maps of the gorilla cortex
  • 47. 1957 - W. Penfield
    December 29, 2010
  • 48. CT Scan
    December 29, 2010
  • 49. PET scan
    December 29, 2010
  • 50. MRI Brain
    December 29, 2010
  • 51. fMRI
    December 29, 2010
  • 52. Birth of Neuron Doctrine
    December 29, 2010
  • 53. Galileo Galilei 1564-1642
    December 29, 2010
  • 54. Discovery of Neuron
    December 29, 2010
    RamonyCajal and Camillo Golgi 1906 Noble
  • 55. Brodmann’s area: 1909
    December 29, 2010
  • 56. Study of Cognitive Neural Science
    Single cell recording of behaving animal
    Cellular study of brain architecture
    Cognitive genetics
    Study of behavior of patient with specific lesion the brain
    Imaging of brain of normal and abnormal
    Computer modeling
    December 29, 2010
  • 57. Objectives
    To know
    Organization of Nervous system
    Nerve signal processing
    Neural Networking
    Sensory processing : Physical, chemical, EM
    Motor control mechanism voluntary and involuntary
    Consciousness, sleep, emotion reproduction
    Cognitive function: Language, Memory…
    Development of NS and Genetics
    December 29, 2010
  • 58. 1. Functional Organization of NS
    December 29, 2010
  • 59. 1.Structural Organization of NS
    December 29, 2010
  • 60. 2.Nerve signal processing
    December 29, 2010
  • 61. 3. Neural Network
    December 29, 2010
  • 62. 4. Sensory Signal Processing
    Laws of specific sense energies – Muller 1826
    “Each nerve fiber is activated primarily by a certain type of stimulus and each makes specific connections to structures in the central nervous system whose activity gives rise to specific sensations”
    December 29, 2010
  • 63. 5. Motor Control
    Voluntary
    Involuntary
    December 29, 2010
  • 64. 6. Consciousness, Sleep, Emotion Reproduction
    December 29, 2010
  • 65. 7. Higher Cognitive Functions: Language, Memory
    December 29, 2010
  • 66. 8. Brain Development and Genetics
    December 29, 2010
  • 67. Selected Reading
    December 29, 2010

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