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Cognitive neuroscience introduction 2011

Cognitive neuroscience introduction 2011



Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience first lecture for the Autumn Semester for Cognitive Neuroscience at International Institute of Information Technology Hyderabad India

Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience first lecture for the Autumn Semester for Cognitive Neuroscience at International Institute of Information Technology Hyderabad India



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    Cognitive neuroscience introduction 2011 Cognitive neuroscience introduction 2011 Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience
      Dr P.S. Deb
    • Neuro Science
      Computer Science
      Cognitive Science
      December 29, 2010
    • Search for seat of Mind: Vitalism
    • What is the seat of Cognition?
      • Trepanning done in South America over 10,000 years
      • To let the bad spirit out that tormented the brains
      December 29, 2010
    • Surgical Papyrus: 1600BC
      • 30 Clinical cases of head and surgical trauma
      • first known descriptions of cranial sutures, the external brain surface, brain liquor (CSF) and intracranial pulsation
      December 29, 2010
    • Alcmaeon of Croton (500 BC)
      • Brain as the site of sensation
      • Optic nerve as hollow carried the information to the brain where sensory modalities had its own localization
      • human soul was immortal and partook of the divine nature, because like the heavenly bodies it contained in itself a principle of motion
      December 29, 2010
    • Brain vs. Heart
      Hippocrates 460-377 BC,
      “Men ought to know that from the brain and from the brain only arise our pleasures, joys, laughter and jests, as well as our sorrows, pains, grieves and tears”.
      Aristotle 384-322 B.C
      “the heart as the organ of thinking, of perception and feelings,”
      “brain could cool the passion of heart”
      • 387 B.C. - Plato teaches at Athens. Believes brain is seat of mental process
      December 29, 2010
    • Herophilus – 335-280 BC
      Father of Anatomy
      Ventricles are seat of human intelligence
      Termed Spinal cord as caudal prolongation of the rhombencephelon
      "the neura that make voluntary motion possible have their origin in the cerebrum (enkephalos) and spinal marrow"
      December 29, 2010
    • Galen 130-200 AD
      December 29, 2010
      Nutrient -> natural spirit-> Heart as vital spirit- > ventricle + air = animal sprit the essence of life and intellectual skill, move along the nerve eliciting movement and sensation.
      Phelgm is waist of animal spirit leaks form cribiform plate
    • Ventricle the seat of Mind
      Soul could not be localized but mind could
      First ventricle the common sense
      Second – reason, thinking and wisdom
      Third – Memory
      Nemesius (circa 320), bishop of Emesa
      December 29, 2010
    • Descartes 1596-1650
      December 29, 2010
      Reflex response
      • The fire elicits movement of animal spirits in hollow nerves.
      • The movement opens pores in the ventricle (F), letting flow spirits that will inflate the muscles of the leg,  that moves away from the heat.
      • 1649 - Rene Descartes describes pineal as control center of body and mind
    • Animal magnetism
      Freidrich Anton mesmer ( 1734-1815)
      Animal magnetism (Mesmerizm)
      System of healing based on disturbance of universal energy field
      Mesmerism: a magnet and later hand to heal disease
      December 29, 2010
    • The Renaissance of Neuroscience
    • Leonardo Da Vinci April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519
      December 29, 2010
    • Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564 CE)
      December 29, 2010
      Concerning the Structure of the Human Body - De CorporisHumaniFabrica in 1543
    • 1664 - Thomas Willis
      • 1664 - Publishes Cerebrianatome (in Latin)
      • 1681 - coined the term Neurology
      • Reflex word was first used to described element act of NS
      • Chemistry is the basis of human function not mechanical
      December 29, 2010
    • Brain function as Part or Whole
    • Phrenology Franz Joseph Gall 1806
      • all behavior emanated from the brain.
      • particular regions of the cerebral cortex controlled specific functions.
      • Cerebral cortex was divided into at least 35 organs, each corresponding to a specific mental faculty
      • the center for each mental function grew with use
      December 29, 2010
    • 1809 - Luigi Rolando
      Ablation studies in animal – cerebrum and cerebellum
      Stimulated animal cortex
      Conluded - cerebrum controlled voluntary body functions and the cerebellum controlled involuntary functions.
      December 29, 2010
    • 1824 - Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens
      December 29, 2010
      The aggregate field theory based on ablation of birds and rabbit brain
      By removing cerebrum, all perceptions, motor function, and judgment were abolished.
      Removal of cerebellum affected equilibrium and motor coordination.
      Destruction of brain stem caused death.
    • 1825 - Jean-BaptisteBouillaud
      Presents cases of loss of speech after frontal lesions from clinicopathological correlation.
      We cannot test speech in animal
      Frontal lobe has other higher function which differentiate from animal.
      By symptom we can localize the cerebral lesion.
      Cerebellum controlled equilibrium and station
      Frontal lobe and higher mental functions
      December 29, 2010
    • Phinease Gage (1848)
      On 13th Sept 1848 a railroad worker hard working, diligent, reliable, responsible, intelligent, good humored, polite god fearing, family oriented foreman
      Following an explosion iron bar drove into frontal lobe
      1. He becomes unreliable and fails to come to work and when present he is "lazy."
      2. He has no interest in going to church, constantly drinks alcohol, gambles, and "whores about."
      3. He is accused of sexually molesting young children.
      4. He ignores his wife and children and fails to meet his financial and family obligations.
      5. He has lost his sense of humour.
      6. He curses constantly and does so in inappropriate circumstances.
      7. Died of status epilepticus in 1861
      December 29, 2010
    • Charles Darwin 1808-1882
      December 29, 2010
      “Cognition is survival instinct a consequence of carefully crafted modules dedicated to solving specific evolutionary problems”
    • Pierre Gratiolet <>Ernest Auburtin1861 Anthropological society Paris
      Brain Size and Volume
      • brain acted as a whole and that localized functional centers did not exist (Gratiolet)
      • If the principle of cerebral centers proven for one function the center controlling other functions could be unraveled. (Auburtin)
      December 29, 2010
    • Lobar Localization
      Paul Broca1861
      December 29, 2010
    • William Gilbert – 1600 Electricity
      December 29, 2010
    • Bioelectricity
      • 1791 - Luigi Galvani: Moves frog leg with static electricity and detected electricity in the nerves of frog
      • 1809 - Luigi Rolando uses galvanic current to stimulate cortex
      December 29, 2010
    • John Hughlings Jackson (1865)
      • Clinicopathological correlation
      • Seizure origin from cortex not medulla due to electrical activity
      • Speech difficulty during seizure due to left post frontal injury
      December 29, 2010
    • 1870, Hitzig and Fritsch
      Electrically stimulated various parts of a dog's motor cortex.
      what part of the cortex they stimulated, a different part of the body contracted.
      if they destroyed this same small area of the cortex, the corresponding part of the body became paralyzed.
      December 29, 2010
    • 1870 - David Ferrier
      December 29, 2010
      • Faradic stimulation of various animal conrtex
      • constructed one of the first detailed cortical maps
    • 1906 - Sir Charles Scott Sherrington
      1906- The Integrative Action of the Nervous system that describes the synapse and motor cortex
      Spinal reflex
      1932 Nobel Prize
      December 29, 2010
      Motor maps of the gorilla cortex
    • 1957 - W. Penfield
      December 29, 2010
    • CT Scan
      December 29, 2010
    • PET scan
      December 29, 2010
    • MRI Brain
      December 29, 2010
    • fMRI
      December 29, 2010
    • Birth of Neuron Doctrine
      December 29, 2010
    • Galileo Galilei 1564-1642
      December 29, 2010
    • Discovery of Neuron
      December 29, 2010
      RamonyCajal and Camillo Golgi 1906 Noble
    • Brodmann’s area: 1909
      December 29, 2010
    • Study of Cognitive Neural Science
      Single cell recording of behaving animal
      Cellular study of brain architecture
      Cognitive genetics
      Study of behavior of patient with specific lesion the brain
      Imaging of brain of normal and abnormal
      Computer modeling
      December 29, 2010
    • Objectives
      To know
      Organization of Nervous system
      Nerve signal processing
      Neural Networking
      Sensory processing : Physical, chemical, EM
      Motor control mechanism voluntary and involuntary
      Consciousness, sleep, emotion reproduction
      Cognitive function: Language, Memory…
      Development of NS and Genetics
      December 29, 2010
    • 1. Functional Organization of NS
      December 29, 2010
    • 1.Structural Organization of NS
      December 29, 2010
    • 2.Nerve signal processing
      December 29, 2010
    • 3. Neural Network
      December 29, 2010
    • 4. Sensory Signal Processing
      Laws of specific sense energies – Muller 1826
      “Each nerve fiber is activated primarily by a certain type of stimulus and each makes specific connections to structures in the central nervous system whose activity gives rise to specific sensations”
      December 29, 2010
    • 5. Motor Control
      December 29, 2010
    • 6. Consciousness, Sleep, Emotion Reproduction
      December 29, 2010
    • 7. Higher Cognitive Functions: Language, Memory
      December 29, 2010
    • 8. Brain Development and Genetics
      December 29, 2010
    • Selected Reading
      December 29, 2010