Cognitive neuroscience introduction 2011

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Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience first lecture for the Autumn Semester for Cognitive Neuroscience at International Institute of Information Technology Hyderabad India

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Cognitive neuroscience introduction 2011

  1. 1. Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience<br />Dr P.S. Deb<br />
  2. 2. Neuro Science<br />Psycology<br />Computer Science<br />Philosophy<br />Genomics<br />Cognitive Science<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  3. 3. Search for seat of Mind: Vitalism<br />Ancient <br />
  4. 4. What is the seat of Cognition?<br /><ul><li>Trepanning done in South America over 10,000 years
  5. 5. To let the bad spirit out that tormented the brains</li></ul>December 29, 2010<br />
  6. 6. Surgical Papyrus: 1600BC<br /><ul><li>30 Clinical cases of head and surgical trauma
  7. 7. first known descriptions of cranial sutures, the external brain surface, brain liquor (CSF) and intracranial pulsation</li></ul>December 29, 2010<br />
  8. 8. Alcmaeon of Croton (500 BC)<br /><ul><li>Brain as the site of sensation
  9. 9. Optic nerve as hollow carried the information to the brain where sensory modalities had its own localization
  10. 10. human soul was immortal and partook of the divine nature, because like the heavenly bodies it contained in itself a principle of motion</li></ul>December 29, 2010<br />
  11. 11. Brain vs. Heart<br />Hippocrates 460-377 BC, <br />“Men ought to know that from the brain and from the brain only arise our pleasures, joys, laughter and jests, as well as our sorrows, pains, grieves and tears”. <br />Aristotle 384-322 B.C <br />“the heart as the organ of thinking, of perception and feelings,”<br />“brain could cool the passion of heart”<br /><ul><li>387 B.C. - Plato teaches at Athens. Believes brain is seat of mental process</li></ul>December 29, 2010<br />
  12. 12. Herophilus – 335-280 BC<br />Father of Anatomy<br />Ventricles are seat of human intelligence<br /> Termed Spinal cord as caudal prolongation of the rhombencephelon<br />"the neura that make voluntary motion possible have their origin in the cerebrum (enkephalos) and spinal marrow"<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  13. 13. Galen 130-200 AD<br />December 29, 2010<br />Nutrient -> natural spirit-> Heart as vital spirit- > ventricle + air = animal sprit the essence of life and intellectual skill, move along the nerve eliciting movement and sensation.<br />Phelgm is waist of animal spirit leaks form cribiform plate<br />
  14. 14. Ventricle the seat of Mind<br />Soul could not be localized but mind could<br />First ventricle the common sense<br />Second – reason, thinking and wisdom<br />Third – Memory<br />Nemesius (circa 320), bishop of Emesa<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  15. 15. Descartes 1596-1650<br />December 29, 2010<br />Reflex response<br /><ul><li>The fire elicits movement of animal spirits in hollow nerves.
  16. 16. The movement opens pores in the ventricle (F), letting flow spirits that will inflate the muscles of the leg,  that moves away from the heat.
  17. 17. 1649 - Rene Descartes describes pineal as control center of body and mind</li></li></ul><li>Animal magnetism<br />Freidrich Anton mesmer ( 1734-1815)<br />Animal magnetism (Mesmerizm)<br />System of healing based on disturbance of universal energy field<br />Mesmerism: a magnet and later hand to heal disease<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  18. 18. The Renaissance of Neuroscience<br />
  19. 19. Leonardo Da Vinci April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519 <br />December 29, 2010<br />
  20. 20. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564 CE)<br />December 29, 2010<br />Concerning the Structure of the Human Body - De CorporisHumaniFabrica in 1543 <br />
  21. 21. 1664 - Thomas Willis<br /><ul><li>1664 - Publishes Cerebrianatome (in Latin)
  22. 22. 1681 - coined the term Neurology
  23. 23. Reflex word was first used to described element act of NS
  24. 24. Chemistry is the basis of human function not mechanical</li></ul>December 29, 2010<br />
  25. 25. Brain function as Part or Whole<br />Recent<br />
  26. 26. Phrenology Franz Joseph Gall 1806<br /><ul><li>all behavior emanated from the brain.
  27. 27. particular regions of the cerebral cortex controlled specific functions.
  28. 28. Cerebral cortex was divided into at least 35 organs, each corresponding to a specific mental faculty
  29. 29. the center for each mental function grew with use</li></ul>December 29, 2010<br />
  30. 30. 1809 - Luigi Rolando<br />Ablation studies in animal – cerebrum and cerebellum<br />Stimulated animal cortex<br />Conluded - cerebrum controlled voluntary body functions and the cerebellum controlled involuntary functions.<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  31. 31. 1824 - Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens<br />December 29, 2010<br />The aggregate field theory based on ablation of birds and rabbit brain<br />By removing cerebrum, all perceptions, motor function, and judgment were abolished. <br />Removal of cerebellum affected equilibrium and motor coordination. <br />Destruction of brain stem caused death.<br />
  32. 32. 1825 - Jean-BaptisteBouillaud<br />Presents cases of loss of speech after frontal lesions from clinicopathological correlation.<br />We cannot test speech in animal<br />Frontal lobe has other higher function which differentiate from animal.<br />By symptom we can localize the cerebral lesion.<br />Cerebellum controlled equilibrium and station<br />Frontal lobe and higher mental functions<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  33. 33. Phinease Gage (1848)<br />On 13th Sept 1848 a railroad worker hard working, diligent, reliable, responsible, intelligent, good humored, polite god fearing, family oriented foreman<br />Following an explosion iron bar drove into frontal lobe<br />1. He becomes unreliable and fails to come to work and when present he is "lazy." <br />2. He has no interest in going to church, constantly drinks alcohol, gambles, and "whores about." <br />3. He is accused of sexually molesting young children. <br />4. He ignores his wife and children and fails to meet his financial and family obligations. <br />5. He has lost his sense of humour. <br />6. He curses constantly and does so in inappropriate circumstances. <br />7. Died of status epilepticus in 1861<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  34. 34. Charles Darwin 1808-1882<br />December 29, 2010<br />“Cognition is survival instinct a consequence of carefully crafted modules dedicated to solving specific evolutionary problems” <br />
  35. 35. Pierre Gratiolet <>Ernest Auburtin1861 Anthropological society Paris<br />Brain Size and Volume<br /><ul><li>brain acted as a whole and that localized functional centers did not exist (Gratiolet)
  36. 36. If the principle of cerebral centers proven for one function the center controlling other functions could be unraveled. (Auburtin)</li></ul>December 29, 2010<br />
  37. 37. Lobar Localization<br />Paul Broca1861<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  38. 38. William Gilbert – 1600 Electricity <br />December 29, 2010<br />
  39. 39. Bioelectricity<br /><ul><li>1791 - Luigi Galvani: Moves frog leg with static electricity and detected electricity in the nerves of frog
  40. 40. 1809 - Luigi Rolando uses galvanic current to stimulate cortex</li></ul>December 29, 2010<br />
  41. 41. John Hughlings Jackson (1865)<br /><ul><li>Clinicopathological correlation
  42. 42. Seizure origin from cortex not medulla due to electrical activity
  43. 43. Speech difficulty during seizure due to left post frontal injury</li></ul>December 29, 2010<br />
  44. 44. 1870, Hitzig and Fritsch<br />Electrically stimulated various parts of a dog's motor cortex. <br />what part of the cortex they stimulated, a different part of the body contracted. <br />if they destroyed this same small area of the cortex, the corresponding part of the body became paralyzed. <br />December 29, 2010<br />
  45. 45. 1870 - David Ferrier<br />December 29, 2010<br /><ul><li>Faradic stimulation of various animal conrtex
  46. 46. constructed one of the first detailed cortical maps</li></li></ul><li>1906 - Sir Charles Scott Sherrington<br />1906- The Integrative Action of the Nervous system that describes the synapse and motor cortex<br />Spinal reflex <br />1932 Nobel Prize <br />December 29, 2010<br />Motor maps of the gorilla cortex<br />
  47. 47. 1957 - W. Penfield<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  48. 48. CT Scan<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  49. 49. PET scan<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  50. 50. MRI Brain<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  51. 51. fMRI<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  52. 52. Birth of Neuron Doctrine<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  53. 53. Galileo Galilei 1564-1642<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  54. 54. Discovery of Neuron<br />December 29, 2010<br />RamonyCajal and Camillo Golgi 1906 Noble<br />
  55. 55. Brodmann’s area: 1909<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  56. 56. Study of Cognitive Neural Science<br />Single cell recording of behaving animal<br />Cellular study of brain architecture<br />Cognitive genetics<br />Study of behavior of patient with specific lesion the brain <br />Imaging of brain of normal and abnormal <br />Computer modeling <br />December 29, 2010<br />
  57. 57. Objectives<br />To know <br />Organization of Nervous system<br />Nerve signal processing<br />Neural Networking<br />Sensory processing : Physical, chemical, EM<br />Motor control mechanism voluntary and involuntary<br />Consciousness, sleep, emotion reproduction<br />Cognitive function: Language, Memory…<br />Development of NS and Genetics<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  58. 58. 1. Functional Organization of NS<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  59. 59. 1.Structural Organization of NS<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  60. 60. 2.Nerve signal processing<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  61. 61. 3. Neural Network<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  62. 62. 4. Sensory Signal Processing<br />Laws of specific sense energies – Muller 1826<br />“Each nerve fiber is activated primarily by a certain type of stimulus and each makes specific connections to structures in the central nervous system whose activity gives rise to specific sensations”<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  63. 63. 5. Motor Control <br />Voluntary<br />Involuntary<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  64. 64. 6. Consciousness, Sleep, Emotion Reproduction<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  65. 65. 7. Higher Cognitive Functions: Language, Memory<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  66. 66. 8. Brain Development and Genetics<br />December 29, 2010<br />
  67. 67. Selected Reading<br />December 29, 2010<br />

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