0
Introduction to Cognitive Neurophysiology <br />Dr PS Deb MD, DM (Neurology)<br />
What is Cognition?<br /><ul><li>Middle English cognicion, from Anglo-French, from Latin cognition-, cognitio, from cognosc...
The act or process of knowing; perception.
the product of such a process; something thus known, perceived,
Faculty for processing information
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism become aware of or obtain knowledge (MeSH)
A conscious intellectual act , mental process of knowing learning, thinking, judging</li></ul>7/2/2010<br />2<br />Cogniti...
What is Cognition?<br />Part of speech: noun<br />Definition:         understanding<br />Synonyms: <br />acknowledgment, a...
Spectrum of Cognition<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />4<br />
7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />5<br />Neuro Science<br />Psycology<br />Computer Science<br />P...
Philosophy <br />Psychology <br />Neuroscience<br />7/2/2010<br />6<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
Evolution & Cognition<br />“Cognition is survival instinct a consequence of carefully crafted modules dedicated to solving...
Evolutionary Cognitive Science<br />Conditioned taste aversion<br />Garcia discovered that animals learned to avoid novel ...
What is the seat of Cognition?<br /><ul><li>Trepanning done in South America over 10,000 years
To let the bad spirit out that tormented the brains</li></ul>7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />9<b...
Surgical Papyrus<br /><ul><li>Surgical Papyrus the oldest medical writing 1600 BC the first known descriptions of cranial ...
Head and spine trauma and their effect</li></ul>7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />10<br />
Alcmaeon of Croton (500 BC)<br /><ul><li> Brain as the site of sensation
 Optic nerve as hollow carried the information to the brain where sensory modalities had its own localization
 human soul was immortal and partook of the divine nature, because like the heavenly bodies it contained in itself a princ...
Brain vs. Heart<br />Hippocrates 460-377 BC<br />“Men ought to know that from the brain and from the brain only arise our ...
Galen 130-200 AD<br />7/2/2010<br />13<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
Brain as hollow organ : Nemesius (circa 320)<br />7/2/2010<br />14<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
Leonardo Da Vinci (1452 –1519 )<br />7/2/2010<br />15<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564 CE)<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />16<br />
Phrenology : Gall-1806<br />Complex traits such as combativeness, spirituality, hope, and conscientiousness are controlled...
Beginning of Modular theory<br />Paul Broca 1868<br />7/2/2010<br />18<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
Brodmann’s area<br />In the early part of the twentieth century KorbinianBrodmann divided the human cerebral cortex into 5...
Brain Mapping<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />20<br />
Lateralization of brain functions<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />21<br />
Modern Phrenology<br />7/2/2010<br />22<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
Imaging of brain CT Scan<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />23<br />
MRI Brain<br />7/2/2010<br />24<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
fMRI<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />25<br />
PET scan<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />26<br />
Descartes: Brain and Mind<br />(1596-1650)<br />7/2/2010<br />27<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
Bioelectricity:  Galvani 1737-1798<br />7/2/2010<br />28<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
Discovery of Neuron<br />RamonyCajal and Camillo Golgi 1906 Noble Price<br />7/2/2010<br />29<br />Cognitive Neurophysiolo...
Nerve Cell<br />7/2/2010<br />30<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
Natural Neural Network<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />31<br />
Study of Cognitive Neural Science<br />Single cell recording of behaving animal<br />Cellular study of brain architecture<...
Objectives<br /> To know <br />Organization of Nervous system<br />Nerve signal processing<br />Sensory processing : Physi...
1. Functional Organization of NS<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />34<br />
1. Structural Organization of NS<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />35<br />
2.Nerve signal processing<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />36<br />
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Cognitive neuroscience introduction

2,541

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,541
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
77
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Some of the first psychological studies to demonstrate that learning is not mediated by general-purpose learning mechanisms were conducted several decades ago and mark what might be considered the beginning of evolutionary thinking in psychology; they also contributed greately to what has become known as the cognitive revolution.In his landmark study, Garcia discovered that animals learned to avoid novel food products that made them ill in as little as one learning conditioning trial, something that had not been demonstrated with any other stimulus class previously. Labeled conditioned taste aversion, this effect describes an adaptive problem that has since been demonstrated in almost every species tested (the exception to this rule appears to be crocodilians; see Gallup &amp; Suarez, 1988). This adaptation serves an important function: don’t eat food that makes you ill, or you might not survive to reproduce and pass on your genes. In other words, being ill could result in a number of fitness disadvantages such as death, inability to avoid predation, inability to search and secure mates, and loss of mate value.In a similar discovery, Seligman demonstrated what he referred to as prepared learning. Prepared learning is a phenomenon in which it is easier to make associations between stimuli that possess a biological predisposition to be conditioned because of a role these stimuli played in an organism’s evolutionary history. Seligman and his colleagues demonstrated that it was much easier for humans (and animals) to form conditioned emotional responses and associative fear responses to evolutionarily relevant threats such as snakes, insects, and heights than it took to condition fear to present-day threatening stimuli that subjects were much more likely to be have encountered and be harmed by, such as cars, knives, and guns. In other words, it was easier to condition humans to fear snakes, spiders, and heights than it was to condition them to fear guns, cars, and knives.These two series of studies demonstrated that psychological traits, like the design of bodily organs, were crafted by evolutionary forces into adaptations that allowed our ancestors to flourish. That is, the information- processing mechanisms designed to deal with situations such as poisonous food or potential threats to survival evolved as part of our ancestors’ recurrent experience with such situations. These studies refute a key premise of the standard social science model, emphasizing that there is no general-purpose learning mechanism. Rather, all learning is a nsequence of carefully crafted modules dedicated to solving specific evolutionary problems (see Barkow, Cosmides, &amp; Tooby, 1992; Pinker, xiv Preface 2002). Our brains have evolved to be efficient problem solvers, and the problems they are designed to solve are those that our ancestors recurrently faced over human evolutionary history. Hence, those among our ancestors who were psychologically adaptated to solve these problemssurvived and passed the genes for those traits on to offspring.
  • The best and most important documental proof about this knowledge comes from the famous Surgical Papyrus, discovered by archeologist Edwin Smith [6], and which was written around 1.600 BC in Egypt. It contains the first known descriptions of cranial sutures, the external brain surface, brain liquor (CSF) and intracranial pulsation. Its author describes further 30 clincal cases of head and spine trauma, noting how the several brain injuries were associated to changes in the function of other parts of the body, especially in the lower limbs, such as hemiplegic contractures, paralysis, miction and ejaculation and priapism, due to trauma inflicted to the spinal medulla.
  • Transcript of "Cognitive neuroscience introduction"

    1. 1. Introduction to Cognitive Neurophysiology <br />Dr PS Deb MD, DM (Neurology)<br />
    2. 2. What is Cognition?<br /><ul><li>Middle English cognicion, from Anglo-French, from Latin cognition-, cognitio, from cognoscere to become acquainted with, know, from co- + gnoscere to come to know
    3. 3. The act or process of knowing; perception.
    4. 4. the product of such a process; something thus known, perceived,
    5. 5. Faculty for processing information
    6. 6. Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism become aware of or obtain knowledge (MeSH)
    7. 7. A conscious intellectual act , mental process of knowing learning, thinking, judging</li></ul>7/2/2010<br />2<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    8. 8. What is Cognition?<br />Part of speech: noun<br />Definition: understanding<br />Synonyms: <br />acknowledgment, apprehension, attention, awareness,   cognizance,  comprehension, discernment,  insightintelligence,  knowledge , mind,  need,  note, notice, observance, observation,  perception, percipience, reasoning, recognition,  regard<br />Antonyms: ignorance, unawareness<br />Roget's 21st Century Thesaurus, Third Edition <br />7/2/2010<br />3<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    9. 9. Spectrum of Cognition<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />4<br />
    10. 10. 7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />5<br />Neuro Science<br />Psycology<br />Computer Science<br />Philosophy<br />Genomics<br />Cognitive Science<br />
    11. 11. Philosophy <br />Psychology <br />Neuroscience<br />7/2/2010<br />6<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    12. 12. Evolution & Cognition<br />“Cognition is survival instinct a consequence of carefully crafted modules dedicated to solving specific evolutionary problems” <br />7/2/2010<br />7<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    13. 13. Evolutionary Cognitive Science<br />Conditioned taste aversion<br />Garcia discovered that animals learned to avoid novel food products that made them ill in as little as one learning conditioning trial, something that had not been demonstrated with any other stimulus class previously. <br />Prepared learning<br />Seligman demonstrated a phenomenon in which it is easier to make associations between stimuli that possess a biological predisposition to be conditioned because of a role these stimuli played in an organism’s evolutionary history <br />7/2/2010<br />8<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    14. 14. What is the seat of Cognition?<br /><ul><li>Trepanning done in South America over 10,000 years
    15. 15. To let the bad spirit out that tormented the brains</li></ul>7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />9<br />
    16. 16. Surgical Papyrus<br /><ul><li>Surgical Papyrus the oldest medical writing 1600 BC the first known descriptions of cranial sutures, the external brain surface, brain liquor (CSF) and intracranial pulsation
    17. 17. Head and spine trauma and their effect</li></ul>7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />10<br />
    18. 18. Alcmaeon of Croton (500 BC)<br /><ul><li> Brain as the site of sensation
    19. 19. Optic nerve as hollow carried the information to the brain where sensory modalities had its own localization
    20. 20. human soul was immortal and partook of the divine nature, because like the heavenly bodies it contained in itself a principle of motion</li></ul>7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />11<br />
    21. 21. Brain vs. Heart<br />Hippocrates 460-377 BC<br />“Men ought to know that from the brain and from the brain only arise our pleasures, joys, laughter and jests, as well as our sorrows, pains, grieves and tears”. <br />Aristotle 384-322 B.C <br />“the heart as the organ of thinking, of perception and feelings,”<br />“brain could cool the passion of heart”<br />7/2/2010<br />12<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    22. 22. Galen 130-200 AD<br />7/2/2010<br />13<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    23. 23. Brain as hollow organ : Nemesius (circa 320)<br />7/2/2010<br />14<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    24. 24. Leonardo Da Vinci (1452 –1519 )<br />7/2/2010<br />15<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    25. 25. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564 CE)<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />16<br />
    26. 26. Phrenology : Gall-1806<br />Complex traits such as combativeness, spirituality, hope, and conscientiousness are controlled by specific areas in the brain, which expand as the traits develop. <br />This enlargement of local areas of the brain was thought to produce characteristic bumps and ridges on the overlying skull, from which an individual's character could be determined. <br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />17<br />
    27. 27. Beginning of Modular theory<br />Paul Broca 1868<br />7/2/2010<br />18<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    28. 28. Brodmann’s area<br />In the early part of the twentieth century KorbinianBrodmann divided the human cerebral cortex into 52 discrete areas on the basis of distinctive nerve cell structures and characteristic arrangements of cell layers<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />19<br />
    29. 29. Brain Mapping<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />20<br />
    30. 30. Lateralization of brain functions<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />21<br />
    31. 31. Modern Phrenology<br />7/2/2010<br />22<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    32. 32. Imaging of brain CT Scan<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />23<br />
    33. 33. MRI Brain<br />7/2/2010<br />24<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    34. 34. fMRI<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />25<br />
    35. 35. PET scan<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />26<br />
    36. 36. Descartes: Brain and Mind<br />(1596-1650)<br />7/2/2010<br />27<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    37. 37. Bioelectricity: Galvani 1737-1798<br />7/2/2010<br />28<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    38. 38. Discovery of Neuron<br />RamonyCajal and Camillo Golgi 1906 Noble Price<br />7/2/2010<br />29<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    39. 39. Nerve Cell<br />7/2/2010<br />30<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    40. 40. Natural Neural Network<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />31<br />
    41. 41. Study of Cognitive Neural Science<br />Single cell recording of behaving animal<br />Cellular study of brain architecture<br />Cognitive genetics<br />Study of behavior of patient with specific lesion the brain <br />Imaging of brain of normal and abnormal <br />Computer modeling <br />7/2/2010<br />32<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    42. 42. Objectives<br /> To know <br />Organization of Nervous system<br />Nerve signal processing<br />Sensory processing : Physical, chemical, EM<br />Motor control mechanism voluntary and involuntary<br />Consciousness, sleep, emotion reproduction<br />Cognitive function: Language, Memory…<br />Development of NS and Genetics<br />Cognitive Neurophilosophy<br />Recent development<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />33<br />
    43. 43. 1. Functional Organization of NS<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />34<br />
    44. 44. 1. Structural Organization of NS<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />35<br />
    45. 45. 2.Nerve signal processing<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />36<br />
    46. 46. 3. Sensory Signal Processing<br />Laws of specific sense energies – Muller 1826<br />“Each nerve fiber is activated primarily by a certain type of stimulus and each makes specific connections to structures in the central nervous system whose activity gives rise to specific sensations”<br />7/2/2010<br />37<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    47. 47. 4. Motor Control <br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />38<br />Voluntary<br />Involuntary<br />
    48. 48. 5. Consciousness, Sleep, Emotion Reproduction<br />7/2/2010<br />39<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    49. 49. 6. Higher Cognitive Functions: Language, Memory<br />7/2/2010<br />40<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    50. 50. 7. Brain Development and Genetics<br />7/2/2010<br />41<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    51. 51. 8 Cognitive Neurophilosophy<br />7/2/2010<br />42<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    52. 52. 9. Recent advances<br />7/2/2010<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />43<br />
    53. 53. Selected Reading<br />7/2/2010<br />44<br />Cognitive Neurophysiology Introduction<br />
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×