Samkhya philosophy
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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • There is a correction required in slide number 29 - there are two circles for Rajas. One should be for Sattvic i guess
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  • Dear doctor, Presentation is very good. It will be very informative if you explain samkhya in terms of physiology of perception., physiology of stimulus-responds, the role of neurons,sensory centers ,mind and intelligence at brain centers.I would appreciate if you can explain how perception takes place on the basis of physiology as pancha thanmatra and pancha bhuta are segregated in to one origin(tamo ahamkara )and pancha indriya and karmendriya in to other(satwa ahamkara )thanks bipin
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  • Very Good Presentation.
    To my knowledge Sankhya is about number and Samkhya is about philosophy.
    Lord Krishna in Bhagavatgita says that Samkhya is very old. Lord Krishna's dating is 5000 B.C, hence I believe it should be older than that because, he is also associated with Vasishta of Threthayuga. Kapila is very very old, date is not yet clear.
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  • its really gud sir
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  • Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य, IAST: Sāṃkhya - Enumeration) is one of the six schools of classical Indian philosophy. Sage Kapila is traditionally considered to be the founder of the Sankhya school, although no historical verification is possible. It is regarded as the oldest of the philosophical systems in India.This was later incorporated as being one of the six orthodox (astika) (that which recognizes vedic authority) systems of Hindu philosophy with the major text of the theistic school being the extant SankhyaKarika, written by Ishvara Krishna, circa 200 CE. There are no purely Samkhya schools existing today in Hinduism, but its influence is felt in Yoga and Vedanta schools of philosophy. Its philosophy regards the universe as consisting of two eternal realities: Purusha and Prakrti; it is therefore a strongly dualist and enumerationist philosophy. The Purusha is the centre of consciousness, whereas the Prakriti is the source of all material existence.The Samkhya school has deeply influenced the Hindu Yoga school of philosophy. They are sometimes referred together as Samkhya - yoga school.
  • Evolution of the Samkhya SchoolOne of the Six Schools of traditional Hindu philosophy, Samkhya philosophy is also considered to be the oldest.  Samkhya emerged before the 2nd century b.c.e., and Samkhya-type ideas have been around since at least the 6th century b.c.e, since Guatama Buddha was familiar with Samkhyan-type ideas.  Proto-Samkhya speculation also appears in the Katha Upanishad (about 4th century b.c.e.), where reference is made to the following ascending sequence:senses (indriyas) sense objects (elements) mind (manas) intellect (buddhi) great self (mahan atman) the unmanifest (avyakta) the Person (Purusha) Although the school of Samkhya as such was systematized by the legendary Kapila, and the Samkhya-sutra traditionally attributed to him, in its present form it is not his original work, but dates from the 15th century.Evolution of the Samkhya SchoolOne of the Six Schools of traditional Hindu philosophy, Samkhya philosophy is also considered to be the oldest.  Samkhya emerged before the 2nd century b.c.e., and Samkhya-type ideas have been around since at least the 6th century b.c.e, since Guatama Buddha was familiar with Samkhyan-type ideas.  Proto-Samkhya speculation also appears in the Katha Upanishad (about 4th century b.c.e.), where reference is made to the following ascending sequence:senses (indriyas) sense objects (elements) mind (manas) intellect (buddhi) great self (mahan atman) the unmanifest (avyakta) the Person (Purusha) Although the school of Samkhya as such was systematized by the legendary Kapila, and the Samkhya-sutra traditionally attributed to him, in its present form it is not his original work, but dates from the 15th century.Classical Samkhya is based on the Samkhyakarika of Ishvarakrishna, written sometime in the third to fifth century c.e.  This is the earliest available Samkhya text.  In Classical Samkhya, the one Conscious Spirit or Purusha is re-placed by a multiplicity of pure Consciousness souls or purushas, possibly due to Jain influence - the Jainist idea of a multiplicity of souls or jivas [Larson, Classical Samkhya, p.93].  Reality is reduced to two fundamental principles: a multiplicity of Original Subjects, passive individual centres of pure consciousness, or purushas; and a single Original Object, a non- conscious principle of unmanifest "nature" or substance, or prakriti, from which all psychic and physical realities arise.Well-known commentaries are Gaudapada'sbhasya, VacaspatiMisra'sTattwa-kaumudi, Vijnanabhiksu'sSamkhya-pravacanbhasya, and Mathara'sMatharavrtti.  Topics traditionally emphasized by Kapila, Isvarakrishna, and later writers are the theory of causation, the metaphysical duality of conscious souls (purushas) and non-conscious nature (prakriti), the evolution of the world ou of prakriti, the concept of liberation (kaivalya), and the theory of knowledge.While many people believe that it was always an atheistic school of thought, in fact Samkhya passed through both theistic and atheistic stages of development as Gupta explains: "In the classical Sāṃkhya both dualism and atheism are visible in clear and vivid forms. The complete passivity and disinterestedness of Puruṣa and the acceptance of triguṇātmikāPrakṛti, as the independent cause of all inner and outer manifestations of the world, are the important characteristics of the classical form. It is also realistic in its attitude towards the phenomenal world. The pre-classical Sāṃkhya on the other hand, has passed through different forms and stages such as theistic and monistic, atheistic and semidualistic, and so on."[1], written sometime in the third to fifth century c.e.  This is the earliest available Samkhya text.  In Classical Samkhya, the one Conscious Spirit or Purusha is re-placed by a multiplicity of pure Consciousness souls or purushas, possibly due to Jain influence - the Jainist idea of a multiplicity of souls or jivas [Larson, Classical Samkhya, p.93].  Reality is reduced to two fundamental principles: a multiplicity of Original Subjects, passive individual centres of pure consciousness, or purushas; and a single Original Object, a non- conscious principle of unmanifest "nature" or substance, or prakriti, from which all psychic and physical realities arise.Well-known commentaries are Gaudapada'sbhasya, VacaspatiMisra'sTattwa-kaumudi, Vijnanabhiksu'sSamkhya-pravacanbhasya, and Mathara'sMatharavrtti.  Topics traditionally emphasized by Kapila, Isvarakrishna, and later writers are the theory of causation, the metaphysical duality of conscious souls (purushas) and non-conscious nature (prakriti), the evolution of the world ou of prakriti, the concept of liberation (kaivalya), and the theory of knowledge.While many people believe that it was always an atheistic school of thought, in fact Samkhya passed through both theistic and atheistic stages of development as Gupta explains: "In the classical Sāṃkhya both dualism and atheism are visible in clear and vivid forms. The complete passivity and disinterestedness of Puruṣa and the acceptance of triguṇātmikāPrakṛti, as the independent cause of all inner and outer manifestations of the world, are the important characteristics of the classical form. It is also realistic in its attitude towards the phenomenal world. The pre-classical Sāṃkhya on the other hand, has passed through different forms and stages such as theistic and monistic, atheistic and semidualistic, and so on."[1]The original school of Samkhya as founded by Sage Kapila. There has no philosophical place for a creationst God in this system. The Samkhyan's argue that the existence of Ishvara cannot be proved and hence cannot be admitted to exist. The school also argues that an unchanging Ishvara as the cause cannot be the source of a changing world as the effect.Later on followers of Samkhya adopted theism and included Ishvara within the system. The concept of Ishvara was incorporated into the Sankhya viewpoint only after it became associated with the theistic Yoga system of philosophy.
  • Epistemology of SamkhyaAccording to the Samkhya school, knowledge is possible through three pramanas (means of knowledge) -Pratyaksha - direct sense perception Samkhya cites out two types of perceptions:1. Indeterminate (nirvikalpa) perceptions and determinate (savikalpa) perceptions.Indeterminate perceptions are merely impressions without understanding or knowledge. They reveal no knowledge of the form or the name of the object. There is only external awareness about an object. There is cognition of the object, but no discriminative recognition.For example, a baby’s initial experience is full of impression. There is a lot of data from sensory perception, but there is little or no understanding of the inputs. Hence they can neither be differentiated nor be labeled. Most of them are indeterminate perceptions.2. Determinate perceptions are the mature state of perceptions which have been processed and differentiated appropriately. Once the sensations have been processed, categorized and interpreted properly, they become determinate perceptions. They can lead to identification and also generate knowledge.Anumana - logicalinferenceSabda - verbal testimony
  • Nature of DualityAccording to Samkhya, the efficient cause of the world is Purusha and the material cause is Prakriti. Here Purusha stands for the ‘Supreme Self’ and Prakriti stands for ‘Matter’. Purusha (Self) is the first principle of Samkhya. Prakriti is the second, the material principle of Samkhya.Two ultimate realities accounts for all experiencesPurush (Spirit)Prakrati (Matter)As a logical principle and serve as a the source out of which everything evolveEvolution of matter from its cosmic cause as a processes of unfolding, a projection of potentialities into realitiesSomething cannot come out of nothing
  • Samkhya and Western DualismThe radical dualism between the sentient and insentient entities as postulated by Samkhya is comparable with Cartesian mind and body dualism of the West. But there are differences between the Samkhya and other forms of dualism. In Western philosophy the main focus of discussions about dualism concern dualism between the mind and the body. In Samkhya, however, it is between the self (purusha) and matter, and the latter incorporates much of what Western thought would normally refer to as "mind". This means that the Self as the Samkhya understands it is more transcendent than "mind". It is sometimes defined as 'that which observes' and the mind is the instrument through which this observation occurs.
  • Theory of ExistenceThe Samkhya system is based on Satkaryavada. According to Satkaryavada, the effect pre-exists in the cause. Cause and effect are seen as different temporal aspects of the same thing - the effect lies latent in the cause which in turn seeds the next effect.More specifically, Samkhya system follows the Prakriti-ParinamaVada. Parinama denotes that the effect is a real transformation of the cause. The cause under consideration here is Prakriti or more precisely Mula-Prakriti (Primordial Matter). The Samkhya system is therefore an exponent of an evolutionary theory of matter beginning with primordial matter. In evolution, Prakriti is transformed and differentiated into multiplicity of objects. Evolution is followed by dissolution. In dissolution the physical existence, all the worldly objects mingle back into Prakriti, which now remains as the undifferentiated, primordial substance. This is how the cycles of evolution and dissolution follow each other.Sankhya theorizes that Prakriti is the source of the world of becoming. It is pure potentiality that evolves itself successively into twenty four tattvas or principles. The evolution itself is possible because Prakriti is always in a state of tension among its constituent strands -Sattva - a template of balance or equilibrium; Rajas - a template of expansion or activity; Tamas - a template of inertia or resistance to action. All macrocosmic and microcosmic creation uses these templates. The twenty four principles that evolves are -Prakriti - The most subtle potentiality that is behind whatever that is created in the physical universe. Mahat - first product of evolution from Prakriti, pure potentiality. Mahat is also considered to be the principle responsible for the rise of buddhi or intelligence in living beings. Ahamkara or ego-sense - second product of evolution. It is responsible for the self-sense in living beings. Manas or instinctive mind - evolves from the sattva aspect of ahamkara. Panchjnanaindriya or five sense organs - also evolves from the sattva aspect of Ahamkara. Panch karma indriya or five organs of action - The organs of action are hands, legs, vocal apparatus, urino-genital organ and anus. They too evolve from the sattva aspect of AhamkaraPanchtanmatras or five subtle elements - evolves from the Tamas aspect of Ahamkara. The subtle elements are the root energies of sound, touch, sight, taste and smell. Panchmahabhuta or five great substances - ether, air, fire, water and earth. This is the revealed aspect of the physical universe. The evolution of primal Nature is also considered to be purposeful - Prakrti evolves for the spirit in bondage. The spirit who is always free is only a witness to the evolution, even though due to the absence of discriminate knowledge, he misidentifies himself with it.The evolution obeys causality relationships, with primal Nature itself being the material cause of all physical creation. The cause and effect theory of Sankhya is called
  • Non existence cannot be brought into existence by the causeThe effect must have its appropriate material causeThere must be causal relationship between cause and effectThe effect must be potentially contained in the cause, because a particular cause can produce a particular effectThe effect is never different from the causeMilk cannot be produced from sandTo produce butter milk is sought forSatkaarya-vaada (theory of existent causes), and holds that nothing can really be created from or destroyed into nothingness - all evolution is simply the transformation of primal Nature from one form to another.The evolution of matter occurs when the relative strengths of the attributes changes. The evolution ceases when the spirit realises that it is distinct from primal Nature and thus cannot evolve. This destroys the purpose of evolution, thus stopping Prakrti from evolving for Purusha.Samkhyan cosmology describes how life emerges in the universe; the relationship between Purusha and Prakriti is crucial to Patanjali's yoga system. The evolution of forms at the basis of Samkhya is quite unique. The strands of Sankhyan thought can be traced back to the Vedic speculation of creation. It is also frequently mentioned in the Mahabharata and Yogavasishta.Sankhya also has a strong cognitive theory built into it; curiously, while consciousness/spirit is considered to be radically different from any physical entities, the mind (manas), ego (ahamkara) and intellect (buddhi) are all considered to be manifestations of Prakrti (physical entity).
  • When prakrti's initial equilibrium is disturbed, it sets in motion a pattern of evolution which creates both the exterior physical world and the interior psychological world. From prakrti emerges mahat ("the great one"), which has as its psychological counterpart the subtlest form of mental activity (buddhi). From buddhi evolves ahamkar, which contains the first real ideas of individual identity. From ahamkar evolves the mind (manas), the sense organs (jnanendriyas), the organs of action (karmendriyas), and the subtle elements; from the last evolve the gross elements which actually make up the material world. All of these evolutes--material or psychical--have a differing balance of the three primordial qualities (gunas), which ultimately determines their character as wholesome, active, or unwholesome. Throughout this process of evolution purusha remains unchanged, a mere witness to prakrti's unceasing transformations. Their mutual functioning is described using the metaphor of the lame man (purusha) being carried by the blind man (prakrti)OntologyBroadly, the Samkhya system classifies all objects as falling into one of the two categories: Purusha and Prakriti. Metaphysically, Samkhya maintains a radical duality between spirit/consciousness (Purusha) and matter (Prakrti).PurushaPurusha is the Transcendental Self or Pure Conciousness. It is absolute, independent, free, imperceptible, unknowable, above any experience and beyond any words or explanation. It remains pure, “nonattributive consciousness ”. Purusha is neither produced nor does it produce.PrakritiPrakriti is matter. Matter is inert, temporary, and unconscious. It is composed of three qualities (gunas) corresponding to creation, sustenance, and destruction. They are: sattva (goodness) – pure, elevating, enlightening rajas (passion) – motivates us to create, acquire and enjoy tamas (ignorance) – dirty, degrading, deluding, and destructive. All physical events are considered to be manifestations of the evolution of Prakrti, or primal Nature (from which all physical bodies are derived). Each sentient being is a Purusha, and is limitless and unrestricted by its physical body. Samsaara or bondage arises when the Purusha does not have the discriminate knowledge and so is misled as to its own identity, confusing itself with the physical body - which is actually an evolute of Prakriti. The spirit is liberated when the discriminate knowledge of the difference between conscious Purusha and unconscious Prakriti is realized.Originally the three gunas were in complete balance. Prakriti was undis-turbed. This original condition is known as prakriti-pradhana or mula-prakriti, which is the natural foundation. When purusha came near, prakriti began to change.Once purusha activates prakriti, the first evolute arises; the first thing to appear out of the natural foundation of prakriti-pradhana is mahat, the great principle. This is also known as buddhi or the awakened intelligence. Mahat is intuition, or cognition, but it is not consciousness. Only purusha is conscious. But, because of mahat's great intelligence and luminosity, it is often mistaken for consciousness.From buddhi evolves ahamkara; the "I-maker." Ahamkara creates the sense of self (with a small "s"), also known as ego. In this respect, ahamkara pretends to be purusha (which is Self with a big "S"). So now your car starts to act as if it's the boss. Perhaps here our analogy begins to break down, but you probably know some people for whom their car is the boss. A small scratch on the fender can send some owners into great angst, and they act quickly to repair the superficial damage. It is at the level of ahamkara that subjects and objects arise. "I" becomes the subject, and the rest of the world provides its objects. At this level individualism arises because inherent in the subject/object duality there is separation.From ahamkara evolves manas, the mind, and the ten senses (the indriyas). Manas here is the lower mind, which we have seen in the kosha model. It is often described as the eleventh sense. [2] Also out of ahamkara arise the five elements (bhuta) and the five energy potentials (tanmatra). The elements we have seen before: space, air, fire, water, and earth. The five energy potentials are new to us. These are the tanmatras, the substances upon which the senses function. They are what is touched, what is tasted, what is smelled, what is heard, and what is seen1--While there are countless separate and individual purushas in the Samkhya philosophy, these cannot be said to be either subjects or objects. While individual and separate, they are connected because each purusha is eternal and infinite. This, however, is one area where Samkhya was found wanting. How can there be countless individual purushas, each one all-knowing and infinite, without each purusha running afoul of all the other purushas. Samkhya's strict adherence to its pluralistic purusha was one of its major downfalls. Another problem was its atheistic nature: there is no creator god in this cosmology. Every purusha is equal and equivalent to every other purusha. The final problem with Samkhya was its strict dualism. If purusha is distinct from prakriti, how can it ever become entangled in the first place?2 -- It is interesting to consider mind as a sense. What does the mind sense? Consciousness? But that is purusha! Perhaps the sages meant that the mind senses thoughts.
  • The Samkhyan Theory of EvolutionIn Samkhyaevolution involves prakriti alone.  The purusha remains unchanged, a mere witness to prakrti's unceasing transformations. Their mutual functioning is described using the metaphor of the lame man (purusha) being carried by the blind man (prakrti). Most of the Samkhyan cosmology is concerned with the unfolding of the prakriti principle; or more precisely mulaprakriti or unmanifest root-nature (equivalent to the Greek concept of Hyle or formless matter).  Mulaprakriti is described as "unmanifest" (avyakta), "uncreated" or "unmade" (avikriti), and "the chief one" (pradhana) [Gerald J. Larson, Classical Samkhya, pp.160-1, (MotilalBanarsidass, Delhi, 1979)].  It is the original primordial root-nature from which everything else arises through a process of self-unfolding, triggered through the proximity of the purusha or centre of consciousness.  All things, and all subsequent tattwas or evolutes, are contained within Mulaprakriti, but in a subtle or unmanifest form.  Here then we have a theory of creation that begins not with the Absolute Reality itself (as in all the monistic emanationist cosmologies), but with the principle of Unmanifest "Nature".  Because of that, it is probably more correct to understand the Samkhyan theory of creation in terms of an evolution or unfolding rather than an emanation. Mulaprakriti itself contains or is made up of three primary qualities, the three constituents or strands, called gunas.  In the unmanifestMulaprakriti these exist in a state of equilibrium and balance, and so there is no manifestation.  When the gunas are disturbed however through the presence of the purusha the equilibrium is destroyed, and creation, both gross and subtle, comes about.  Here we have a parallel with the Chinese Yin-Yang cosmology and the emergence of the universe through the manifestation of the polar opposites of Yin and Yang from the originally unmanifest Tao. The creation hoiwever is not simple but involves a series of 23 fuurthertattwas, the later ones being derived from or unfolding out of the earlier ones.  The basic series is as follows: From prakrti emerges mahat ("the great one"), also called buddhi.  This is the subtlest form of mental activity, and the source of will and the unconscious.  From buddhi evolves ahamkara, the "I-maker", which is the source of the sense of ego or individual identity.  From ahamkara there is a four-fold unfolding into mind (manas), sense organs (jnanendriyas), the organs of action (karmendriyas), and the subtle elements (tanmatras).. Of these the mind and senses are predominantly sattva, the organs of action rajas, and the subtle elements tamas.  These latter are the source from which evolve the five gross elements of the material world. The Samkhyan thesis of evolution has been widely adopted by other schools, usually witha  strong theistic interpretation, in which God is both the source of consciousness and the material world.
  • If this looks difficult: If this information is new to you, and looks difficult or confusing, please keep in mind that there are only a small number of principles on the charts above (about 25-30, depending on how you count them). While they might seem overwhelming, this really is a manageable number of principles to gradually learn. By comparison, think of how you have learned to use the browser software with which you look at this web page. When I count the number of pull-down options on the menu of Internet Explorer, there are about 75 different commands that I have gradually come to use, and I'm no computer expert. To type a paper in Word, there are over 100 commands in the pull-down menus that I now know how to use. This is not to say that self-awareness training is as easy as learning to use a computer. However, please don't feel too overwhelmed by the handful of principles of self-awareness. Gradually, understanding comes, and it comes through repetition and practice, just like learning to use your computer. One of the beautiful parts of this process is that there really are only a handful of these principles through which consciousness gradually moves so as to then experience its true nature. Cultivating such a perspective makes the process simple to see, though not necessarily easy to do. However, understanding the simplicity sure is a nice place to start! Summarizing the process of retracing: It is not possible to thoroughly describe the retracing process of the evolutes of Prakriti in this paper, as that would mean, at a minimum, recapping the entire Yoga Sutra here in this small section. However, in the spirit of keeping it simple, it is very useful to summarize in straightforward terms, so as to have a basic grasp of the evolutes and their involution so that the practices can be done. Shortcuts: It is important to note and remember that, while the retracing method of Sankhya-Yoga leads one systematically inward to direct experience, there is also the shortcut from bestowing of direct experience, grace, or shaktipat, whether you hold that as coming from God, Guru, or some other explanation of such gift. The sage Vyasa, the most noted commentator on the Yoga Sutras, mentions this in his comments on Sutra 3.6. Means of Retracing Prakriti to Purusha: The journey of Self-realization, or discrimination of pure consciousness (Purusha) from unmanifest matter (Prakriti) is one of systematically using attention to encounter, examine, and transcend each of the various levels of manifestation, ever moving attention further inward towards the core of our being (See Yoga Sutras 2.26-2.29 and 3.53-3.56). The descriptions below are intended to give you a feel for this inner process, not to be literal, step by step instructions. While the systematic process below is accurate, the specific practices are the subject of the Yoga Sutras. Hopefully, by better understanding the general process below, the meditation processes and practices of the Yoga Sutras will be clearer.
  • Soul of the universe, the animating principle of the natureIt breaths like into matterSource of consciousnessSubjective aspect of natureIt is eternal, all pervasive, indestructibleWithout activity and attribute, without parts and formIt is uninvolved and cannot evolveIt is not the cause of any new mode of beingIt is the ultimate principle of intelligence that regulate, guides and directs the process of cosmic evolution.It accounts for the intelligent order of the thingsIt gives the appearance of consciousness to all manifestations of matterIt gives us the feeling of persistenceIt is the static background of all manifest existence, the silent witness of the natureSince everything produced is for the use of other, there must be a universal spirit to use the produce of the PrakratiSince all manifestation of the Prakrati are objects composed of Gunas, there must be a knower of these objects devoid of the GunasThere must be controller of the objective worldSince the Prakrati is in capable of experience, there must be something else to accounts for universal experience
  • Prakriti: The other of the two companion principles, Prakriti is the unconscious, unmanifest, subtlest of the material aspect of energy. It is the primordial state of matter, even prior to matter as we know it in the physical sense. Prakriti manifests as the three gunas and the other evolutes. Pra = before , Kr = produceWhich existed before anything was producedThe primary source of all things the original substance out of which all things will eventually returnAlso called Pradhan = Primary matter and Avyakt = Non manifest Something cannot come out of nothingMaterial universe evolve from the Prkrati
  • Mahat is the first motion that arises in the supreme ideal universeIt is the first product of cosmic substanceIt is the first appearance in the universe, the order that fulfills the ultimate destiny of natureIt pervades all space and permeates all manifestationsIt is the stage where the undifferentiated energy determines upon a definite direction, towards a well defined line of evolutionIt is caused by a spiritual (karmic) stress that upsets the equilibrium of the Cosmic substance and sets in motion Rajas guna which manifest as pure light.Mahat or Buddhi: This is the purest, finest spark of individuation of Prakriti (primordial matter). It is very first of the evolutes of Prakriti. It is individuation, but yet, without characteristics. Buddhi is the word, which applies to the individual person, while mahat refers to the universal aspect of this process. Is the uncaused causeIs eternal, indestructibleIt is formless limitless, immobile and immanentIt has position but no magnitudeIt is seat of all manifestation, the normal cause of phenomenal worldIt is not produce, yet it brings everything else into existence
  • Prakrati has three Gunas to accounts for diversified object of experienceSattva – which is real or existence, it is the power of nature and devoid of excitement and cause of equilibrium. It manifest itself as light. It has no motion of it’s ownRajas – the power of nature which moves, the activating principle which makes other constituent manifest. Tamas – that restrain, obstruct the other two to evolve. It is binding potency of nature. It is cause of mass weight and inertia. When the balance of nature is first disturbed Rajas guna is activated and tries to make Sattvaguna manifest, which is restrained by tamasgunaSattvaguna predominates and control Tamas during early stage of manifestation Sattva and Tamas interact as expansion and contraction by the RajasGunas are root of all changes, the foundation of reality the existence of all thingsThey in perfect balance before the manifestation of objective worldDis-equilibrium cause manifestation The predominance of the one or the other of theses accounts for various stages in the process of cosmic evolution.They coexisted in everything one or other predominates
  • Individual principle that limits, separates and forms the dualistic state of the un- manifest universeAhamkara: This is the process of ego, by which consciousness can start to (incorrectly) take on false identities. Here, the word ego is used not to mean the actual qualities such brother or sister, or loving or cruel, but the capacity itself to take on the countless identities.
  • Mind: Mind (manas) is the instrument, which is the driving force behind actions, speech, and the thinking process. It is also the recipient of the sensory input. It is useful to know that, here, mind is being used in this more limited way, rather than the whole of the inner process called antahkarana, which includes manas, ahamkara, buddhi, chitta, along with the senses and the five elements.
  • Senses/Instruments: The five senses and five instruments of expression are like ten doors of a building. Five are entrance doors, and five are exit doors. These ten indriyas are evolutes of mind. One way to understand this process of the senses being evolutes of mind is to notice what happens when you fall asleep, into dreamless sleep. What happens to your senses, your ability to perceive through those senses? They seem to go away, yet they return after sleep. Where did they go? It is in that sense that we might say the senses are still there, but that they have receded back into the field of mind from which they arose in the first place. This same process of arising and receding happens not only with the senses, but all of the evolutes of Prakriti. Also, if the senses arise from and recede into the field of mind, then it is also easy to see that during times when the senses are operating, they are also infused with mind, the next subtler level of Prakriti. In other words, senses without mind operating through them simply do not work. The idea of senses operating without mind infusing them seems rather silly, in fact. It is that simplicity that is in the whole concept of Prakriti manifesting outward, and the process of meditation retracing that process inward.
  • Senses/Instruments: The five senses and five instruments of expression are like ten doors of a building. Five are entrance doors, and five are exit doors. These ten indriyas are evolutes of mind. One way to understand this process of the senses being evolutes of mind is to notice what happens when you fall asleep, into dreamless sleep. What happens to your senses, your ability to perceive through those senses? They seem to go away, yet they return after sleep. Where did they go? It is in that sense that we might say the senses are still there, but that they have receded back into the field of mind from which they arose in the first place. This same process of arising and receding happens not only with the senses, but all of the evolutes of Prakriti. Also, if the senses arise from and recede into the field of mind, then it is also easy to see that during times when the senses are operating, they are also infused with mind, the next subtler level of Prakriti. In other words, senses without mind operating through them simply do not work. The idea of senses operating without mind infusing them seems rather silly, in fact. It is that simplicity that is in the whole concept of Prakriti manifesting outward, and the process of meditation retracing that process inward.
  • Elements: A further outpouring of Prakriti is when it bursts forth as the equivalent of space, as experienced in the subtle (non-physical) realm. From, and within that emerges air (thinness, lightness, airiness), then fire (energy), then water (flow, fluidity), then earth (solidity, form). When these five elements are in the subtle realm, they are known as tanmatras. When they further come outward, manifesting into the physical world, they are known as bhutas. From these, all of the many objects of the external world are composed.
  • Ishwara (Creationist God) The original school of Samkhya as founded by Sage Kapila. There has no philosophical place for a creationst God in this system. The Samkhyan's argue that the existence of Ishvara cannot be proved and hence cannot be admitted to exist. The school also argues that an unchanging Ishvara as the cause cannot be the source of a changing world as the effect.Later on followers of Samkhya adopted theism and included Ishvara within the system. The concept of Ishvara was incorporated into the Sankhya viewpoint only after it became associated with the theistic Yoga system of philosophy.

Samkhya philosophy Samkhya philosophy Presentation Transcript

  • Sage Kapil
  • INTRODUCTION  Oldest school of Hindu philosophy  First attempt to harmonize the Vedic philosophy through reason  First systemic account of process of cosmic evolution  Not purely metaphysical but logical account based on principle of conservation, transformation and dissipation of energy
  • SANKHYA - MEANING Sankhya means number –  Sankhya enumerates the principle of cosmic evolution by rational analysis  It teaches the discriminative knowledge which enables to distinguish between sprit and matter 
  • FOUNDER OF SANKHYA  1000 BC  Kapil son of Kardama and Devdhuti  Kardama was a Rishi  Kapil learned philosophy from mother  Cave temple of Anuradhkapur in Sri Lanka  Sagara an island on the bank of Ganga 90 miles form Calcutta spend later life and meditated  Last day of last month Hindu Magh there is Mela
  • PURPOSE – GYAN YOGA Provide knowledge which remove the cause of misery and release of soul  Misery is  Adhyatmika – intrinsic cause disorder of body and mind  Adhibhutika – Extrinsic cause, men, beast, birds, or inanimate objects  Adhidevika – Supernatural cause , atmosphere or planets 
  • CAUSE OF MISERY Soul is free from suffering  Body is the seat of suffering  Soul suffer due to intimate association of soul and body  Bondage is illusion due to lack of true nature of soul – Ignorance  Knowledge of true nature of soul removes bondage and suffering 
  • EVOLUTION OF SANKHYA Classical Late • Kapil Sutra • Samkhyakarika of Ishvarakrishna • • • • Gaudapada's bhasya Vacaspati Misra's Tattwa-kaumudi Vijnanabhiksu's Samkhya-pravacanbhasya Mathara's Matharavrtti
  • EPISTEMOLOGY OF SANKHYA Prataykshya • Indeterminate (Nirvikalp) • Determinate (Savikalpa) • Logical inference Anuman • Verbal testimony Sabd
  • NATURE OF DUALITY Purush: • • • • • • Supreme self Pure consciousness Inactive Unchanging A passive witness Multiple Prakriti: • • • • Pure objectivity Phenomenal reality Non-conscious One mulprakriti in equilibrium
  • SANKHYA AND WESTERN DUALISM Sankhya • Purush and Prikriti dualism a more transendental Western • Mind and Body dualism
  • THEORY OF EXISTENCE Satkaryavada Prakriti Pariman Vada • The effect pre-exists in the cause • Cause and effect are seen as different temporal aspects of the same thing • nothing can really be created from or destroyed into nothingness • Parinama denotes that the effect is a real transformation of the cause • Prakriti is transformed and differentiated into multiplicity of objects
  • EVOLUTION AND DISSOLUTION Prkriti Tatwa Purush Ahamkar Mahat
  • SANKHYA METAPHYSICS (ONTOLOGY)
  • SANKHYA EVOLUTION (COSMOLOGY)
  • SHANKYA DISSOLUTION
  • PUSUSH (COSMIC SPIRIT) Intelligence Consciousness Subjective Eternal Static No Attribut es
  • PRAKRATI (COSMIC SUBSTANCE) Source of all matter Changing Non manifest One Pradhan
  • MAHATATTVA – COSMIC INTELLIGENCE This is the purest  It is very first of the evolutes of Prakriti.  It is individuation, but yet, without characteristics.  Buddhi applies to the individual person,  Mahat refers to the universal aspect of this process.  Purush Mahat Priakriti
  • GUNAS - PROPERTIES Sttava • • • • Rajas • Power of nature • Activating principle • Cause of manifestation Tamas • • • • Real or Existence Power of nature Devoid of Excitement Cause of equilibrium Restrainer Binding of matter Cause of weight Inertia
  • AHAMKARA - EGO Sat Purush Mahat Prakriti Rajas Ahamkar Tamas Evolution of Objects
  • EVOLUTION OF MIND Tamsic Satvik Rajsic Manas Tanmatra
  • MANAS – COSMIC MIND  The driving force Manas actions  speech  thinking process   Recipient of the sensory input Sense organ Action organ
  • FIVE SENSE ORGNS Hearing Sensation Vision Taste Smell
  • FIVE ACTION ORGANS Speaking Grasping Walking Excreting Procreating
  • MHABHUTES – COSMIC SUBSTANCE Tanmatra Sound Touch Form Taste Smell Mahabhut Space Air Fire Water Earth
  • FIVE ELEMENTS Prithvi earth Akaskh - Ether Apas – water Vayu – air Tejas – fire
  • SANKHYA CATEGORIES (TATWA) avyakta (unmanifest) (1) Purusha (2)Prakriti (Mulaprakriti) vyakta (manifest) (3) Buddhi [Intellect] taijasa or rajas mode of Ahamkara (4) Ahamkara [Ego or "I"-ness] vaikriti or sattwa mode of Ahamkara Manas (5) Buddhindriyas Sense-powers (6-10) Mind or Psyche hearing touching seeing bhutadi or tamas mode of Ahamkara Karmendriyas Tanmatras Bhutas Action-powers Subtle Matter Gross (11-15) (16-20) Elements visible tattwas (21-25) speaking sound space grasping touch air walking form fire tasting smelling excreting generating taste smell water earth
  • CONCEPT OF GOD Athestic Thiestic • An unchanging Ishvara as the cause cannot be the source of a changing world as the effect. • Late influence of Yoga and Puranic philosophy