06c emotion stress and relaxation

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06c emotion stress and relaxation

  1. 1. Emotion Stress and Relaxation
  2. 2. What is Emotion? Cognition Conation Response Stimulus Affect
  3. 3. Emotional Arousal and Performance
  4. 4. Model of the basic neural systems control of emotions Filtering and Evaluation Effectors Neocortical processing Skeletomotor and Periphery Stimulus Autonomic control Subcortical processing
  5. 5. Theory of Emotion <1800 Cognition 1 2 3 Conation/Affect Response Stimulus
  6. 6. Theory of Emotion: James Lange 1884 4 Cognition Affect 3 1 2 Conation Response Stimulus
  7. 7. Cannon Bard Theory: 1920 Fight or Flight Response Subconscious Stimulus Cognition Affect
  8. 8. Cannon Bard: Sham Rage Animal
  9. 9. The Hypothalamus Coordinates the Peripheral Expression of Emotional States : Stephen Ranson 1932, Walter Hess 1940
  10. 10. Hypothalamic control of ANS
  11. 11. Schachter Singer Cognitive Theory of Emotion (1960)
  12. 12. Arnold Appraisal Theory of Emotion Subconscious Stimulus Response Appraisal Conscious Affect Appraisal
  13. 13. The Search for Cortical Representation of Feeling Has Led to the Limbic System
  14. 14. Papez Circuit
  15. 15. Papez Circuit of Emotional Response
  16. 16. Limbic system expanded
  17. 17. Kluver Bucy Syndrome 1939 Bilateral removal of the temporal lobes in monkeys—including the amygdala and the hippocampal formation, as well as the nonlimbic temporal cortex the monkeys, which had been quite wild before the procedure, became tame and fearless and their emotions flattened Mouthing, Hypersexuality, compulsive visual attention
  18. 18. Seat of Emotion: Amygdala
  19. 19. Learned Emotional Responses Are Processed in the Amygdala
  20. 20. Auditory emotional conditioning pathway
  21. 21. Model of associative learning in the amygdala
  22. 22. The Amygdala Mediates Both the Autonomic Expression and the Cognitive Experience of Emotion
  23. 23. The Amygdala Is the Part of the Limbic System Most Specifically Involved With Emotional Experience
  24. 24. The Amygdala May Be Involved in Both Pleasurable and Fearful Responses to Stimuli
  25. 25. Two Pathway of Emotion
  26. 26. Emotional Pathway
  27. 27. Listening to Heart
  28. 28. The Frontal, Cingulate, and Parahippocampal Cortices Are Involved in Emotion
  29. 29. Emotional Expressions: Pyramidal and Extrapyramidal Contributions
  30. 30. Nervous system that organize emotional experience and expression
  31. 31. Cortical Lateralization of Emotional Functions
  32. 32. :Plutchik
  33. 33. What is Stress? •Stress is reaction to something considerd a challenge or a threat. •Anything that causes a change in your life causes stress •Stress is a natural way for us to adjust to changes so we can keep in balance •Change may be real or virtual, good or bad
  34. 34. STRESS EVENT VALUES 1. DEATH OF SPOUSE 100 2. DIVORCE 60 3. MENOPAUSE 60 4. SEPARATION FROM LIVING PARTNER 60 5. JAIL TERM OR PROBATION 60 6. DEATH OF CLOSE FAMILY MEMBER OTHER THAN SPOUSE 60 7. SERIOUS PERSONAL INJURY OR ILLNESS 45 8. MARRIAGE OR ESTABLISHING LIFE PARTNERSHIP 45 9. FIRED AT WORK 45 10. MARITAL OR RELATIONSHIP RECONCILIATION 40 11. RETIREMENT 40 12. CHANGE IN HEALTH OF IMMEDIATE FAMILY MEMBER 40 13. WORK MORE THAN 40 HOURS PER WEEK 35 14. PREGNANCY OR CAUSING PREGNANCY 35 15. SEX DIFFICULTIES 35 16. GAIN OF NEW FAMILY MEMBER 35 17. BUSINESS OR WORK ROLE CHANGE 35 18. CHANGE IN FINANCIAL STATE 35 19. DEATH OF A CLOSE FRIEND (not a family member) 30 20. CHANGE IN NUMBER OF ARGUMENTS WITH SPOUSE OR LIFE PARTNER 30 21. MORTGAGE OR LOAN FOR A MAJOR PURPOSE 25 22. FORECLOSURE OF MORTGAGE OR LOAN 25 23. SLEEP LESS THAN 8 HOURS PER NIGHT 25 24. CHANGE IN RESPONSIBILITIES AT WORK 25 25. TROUBLE WITH IN-LAWS,OR WITH CHILDREN 25 26. OUTSTANDING PERSONAL ACHIEVEMENT 25 27. SPOUSE BEGINS OR STOPS WORK 20 28. BEGIN OR END SCHOOL 20 29. CHANGE IN LIVING CONDITIONS (visitors in the home, change in roommates, remodeling house) 20 30. CHANGE IN PERSONAL HABITS (diet, exercise, smoking, etc.) 20 31. CHRONIC ALLERGIES 20 32.TROUBLE WITH BOSS 20 33.CHANGE IN WORK HOURS OR CONDITIONS 15 32. MOVING TO NEW RESIDENCE 15 35.PRESENTLY IN PRE-MENSTRUAL PERIOD 15 33. CHANGE IN SCHOOLS 15 34. CHANGE IN RELIGIOUS ACTIVITIES 15 35. CHANGE IN SOCIAL ACTIVITIES (more or less than before) 15 36. MINOR FINANCIAL LOAN 10 37. CHANGE IN FREQUENCY OF FAMILY GET-TOGETHERS 10 38. VACATION 10 39. PRESENTLY IN WINTER HOLIDAY SEASON 10 40. MINOR VIOLATION OF THE LAW 5
  35. 35. Physiology of Stress Stress
  36. 36. Acute stress •Acute stress is the reaction to an immediate threat, commonly known as the fight or flight response. The threat can be any situation that is experienced, even subconsciously or falsely, as a danger. – noise, – crowding, – isolation, – hunger, – danger, – infection, – imagining a threat or remembering a dangerous event.
  37. 37. Chronic Stress on-going highly pressured work, long-term relationship problems, loneliness, and persistent financial worries
  38. 38. Cardio respiratory response
  39. 39. Immune response
  40. 40. Other responses
  41. 41. Heart Disease Precipitates – Angina – Heart attack – Arrhythmias – Sudden death Hypertension
  42. 42. Psychological effect Depression Anxiety Sleep disturbance Forgetfulness
  43. 43. Other effect of Stress Stroke Susceptibility to infection Immune disorders Cancer GI Problems Endocrine problem Metabolic problem
  44. 44. Who are at risk? Psychological -Early nurturing, Personality trait Genetic factor Immunological Age – Young and old Sex - Women Social – minorities, single Economical - poor Education – Less educated Geographical – Cities
  45. 45. Work Risk Factors Having no participation in decisions that affect one's responsibilities. Unrelenting and unreasonable demands for performance. Lack of effective communication and conflict- resolution methods among workers and employers. Lack of job security. Long hours. Excessive time spent away from home and family. Office politics and conflicts between workers. Wages not commensurate with levels of responsibility.
  46. 46. An Absent Relaxation Response Deficiency of a protein nociceptin in the brain
  47. 47. Smoking , Alcohol and Stress
  48. 48. Stress like disorders Anxiety Depression Post Traumatic stress disorder
  49. 49. Identify the magnitude of problem Identify sources of stress, Questioning the Sources of Stress. how serious a problem stress is for you. Do you feel under constant stress, or is it 'on and off'? try to decide if you are under more stress now than you were a year or two ago. If you are, have the pressures changed, or just your attitude toward them?
  50. 50. Learn to handle stress Talking about your problems Learn to recognize when you are coming under stress Look at the list of things that cause you stress When dealing with a major problem, try to break it down into smaller parts Schedule your time realistically
  51. 51. Handling stress Take occasional short breaks from your work Learn how to relax. One way is to practice doing certain things slowly Learn to say no Develop other interests that will help you forget about your problems for a while Consider outside help, such as counseling or group 'clinics
  52. 52. Food and Mood
  53. 53. Exercise
  54. 54. Establish a Support Network
  55. 55. Relaxation Techniques
  56. 56. Deep breathing (Pranayama)
  57. 57. Progressive Muscle relaxation
  58. 58. Meditation
  59. 59. Biofeedback

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