01 nerve singnal processing
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01 nerve singnal processing

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    01 nerve singnal processing 01 nerve singnal processing Presentation Transcript

    • Objectives 1. Introduction and organization of Nervous system 2. Nerve signal processing 3. Sensory processing : Physical, chemical, EM 4. Motor control mechanism voluntary and involuntary 5. Consciousness, sleep, emotion reproduction 6. Cognitive function: Language, Memory… 7. Development of NS and Genetics 8. Cognitive Neurophilosophy 9. Recent development
    • Nerve Cell
    • Ion distribution across cell membrane A. Effect of concentration difference B. Electrical potential difference affecting negative ions C. Pressure difference
    • Ion movement across cell
    • Giant Nerve Cells of Squid
    • Resting membrane Potential
    • Patch-clamp setup A pipette containing acetylcholine (ACh) is used to record transmitter-gated channels in skeletal muscle. (Adapted from Alberts et al. 1989.)
    • Action Potential
    • Propagation of AP
    • Saltatory conduction
    • The Refractory Period
    • Synapse
    • Electrical synapse
    • Chemical Synapse
    • Neurotransmitter release
    • Post synaptic receptor
    • Depolarization & Repolarization of Post Synaptic Neuron
    • Excitatory and Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential
    • Excitatory and inhibitory currents have competitive effects in a single nerve cell. (Adapted from Eckert et al., 1988.)
    • Second Messenger
    • Stretch Reflex
    • Inhibition
    • Reverberatory (Oscillatory) Circuit as a Cause of Signal Prolongation.
    • Neurotransmitters 1. The substance must be present within the presynaptic neuron 2. The substance must be released in response to presynaptic depolarization, and the release must be Ca2+-dependent. 3. Specific receptors for the substance must be present on the postsynaptic cell
    • Major classes of NT
    • Neruopeptide
    • Acetyl Choline
    • Cholinergic Receptors in Normal Brain
    • Alzheimer's disease
    • Serotonin System •originate in the median raphe of the brain stem •project to many brain and spinal cord areas, especially to the dorsal horns of the spinal cord and to the hypothalamus •acts as an inhibitor of pain pathways in the cord, and an inhibitor action in the higher regions of the nervous system •believed to help control the mood of the person, perhaps even to cause sleep.
    • Dopamine System •secreted by neurons that originate in the substantia nigra. •The termination of these neurons is mainly in the striatal region of the basal ganglia. •The effect of dopamine is usually inhibition •Parkinsonism is due to degeneration of substantia nigra with reduced dopamine •Schizophrenia there is increased dopamine
    • Norepinephric System •secreted by the terminals of many neurons whose cell bodies are located in the brain stem and hypothalamus •help control overall activity and mood of the mind, such as increasing the level of wakefulness •In most of these areas, norepinephrine probably activates excitatory receptors, but in a few areas, it activates inhibitory receptors instead •Norepinephrine is also secreted by most postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system, where it excites some organs but inhibits others
    • Glutamate System •the prominent glutamatergic pathways are: the cortico- cortical pathways; •the pathways between the thalamus and the cortex; and the extrapyramidal pathway o •other glutamate projections exist between the cortex, substantia nigra, subthalmic nucleus and pallidum. •Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter
    • GABA System •Widespread in the brain and spinal cord •Inhibitory by increasing permeability to Cl
    • Nerve Conduction Study
    • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
    • SSEP
    • Auditory Evoked Response BAEP
    • VEP
    • Selected Reading