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The mechanical axis of the knee is a line extending from the center of the hip joint to the middle of the ankle joint. This line is practically perpendicular to the ground.
In a healthy, well aligned knee joint, the mechanical axis passes through the middle of the knee.
Only when the mechanical axis passes through the center of the knee joint, the stresses on the knee joint surfaces are uniform in all areas of the joint and well balanced.
In many knee joint diseases, the mechanical axis is disturbed and does not pass through the center of the joint . This disturbance results in the overload of distinct areas of the knee joint leading to their damage . The patella lies not symmetrically in its groove.
The best way to see if osteoarthritis is present and see the severity is by looking at x-rays of the knee. Osteoarthritis is classified into 5 stages or "Grades":
Grade 0: · Normal knee joint · No loss of cartilage and no deformation Grade 1: · Some loss of articular cartilage · If severe loss of cartilage, joint space narrows · Osteophytes may be seen Grade 2: · More activity in the bone under the cartilage · Increased activity can lead to bone hardening (sclerosis) and cysts · Change in bone density (whitening of bone on x-ray) Grade 3: · Some deformations on edge of bone · Rough edges · Increased joint narrowing Grade 4 : · Complete loss of joint space · Definite deformity of bone ends · Changes in joint shape mean the bone contour has been altered
CT is excellent for demonstrating the degree of osteophytes (bone spur) formation and its relationship to the adjacent soft tissues. -CT is also useful to provide guidance for therapeutic and diagnostic procedures.
With the principle of the Locking Compression Plate (LCP) system with angular stable screws locked within the new TomoFix™ plate, anatomically designed for the medial high tibial valgus correction, stable fixation of the osteotomy without bone grafts or bone substitutes may be achieved.
the plate functions like a bridging internal fixator