VII Sem BE Biotechnology          under VTU, Belgaum 06BT74 Food Biotechnology                        Unit 5Synopsis of Co...
Sl Bacterial groups Features                              % G + Occurrence                   Special                      ...
4 Alteromonas       Gram negative,            43-48         Marine/coastal    Require sea                    motile rods, ...
6 Campylobacter        Gram negative,                30-35 Soil borne,        Genus  (Formerly vibrios)   spirally curved ...
C. perfringesDr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology,                                        5           NHCE, Nov 2011
9   Corynebacterium Gram positive, rods,        51-63 Spoilage of    Mostly                                               ...
12 Erwinia         Gram negative rods                  53-54 Associated           Cause bacterial                         ...
E. coliDr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology,                                        8           NHCE, Nov 2011
15 Hafnia         Gram negative rods, only 48-49 Enteric,                  species: H alive, is           spoilage of     ...
LAB: Lactobacillus,   Homofermentative (LA                 Production of dairy       Bergey’sLeuconostoc,          only), ...
Leuconostoc                      Gram positive, catatase           Spoilage of                                 negative co...
21   Proteus       Gram negative rods,                        Enteric,      often display                   aerobic, motil...
23 Salmonella           Gram negative, enteric, 50-53 Human             I: S. typhi,   S. enteric sub sp-   causes salmone...
Salmonella (EM image)      Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology,                                              14          ...
25 Shewanella       Gram negative,                   44-47 Aquatic/marine   S.putrefaciens   straight/curved rods,        ...
27 Staphylococcus        Gram positive, catalase                                Foodborne   S aureus              positive...
29 Yersinia                         45.8- Foodborne Human plague   Y.pestis                         46.8 gastroenterit age...
Foodborne molds    Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology,                                            18               NHCE,...
Molds• Mucoraceae (reproduction by zygospores):  – Mucor, Rhizopus• Trichocomaceae (reproduction by ascospores):  – Byssoc...
Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology,Conidiospores,            Arthrospores,                  Sporangiospres   20         ...
Zygospores of Rhizopus  Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology,                                          21             NHCE...
Common occurrence   Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology,                                           22              NHCE, ...
Sl.no       Gerena                 Features             Occurrence and remarks1           Alternaria             Large bro...
Sl.no     Gerena                      Features                Remarks3         Botrytis                    Produce pigment...
Sl.no       Gerena                  Features                       Remarks6           Colletotrichum          Simple , elo...
Sl.no Gerena                    Features                 Remarks9    Mucor                      Produce                  M...
Sl.n     Gerena                              Features                      Remarkso11       Rhizopus                      ...
Sl.no   Gerena          Features                           Remarks12      Trichothecium                                   ...
Foodborne yeasts    Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology,                                            29               NHCE...
Sl.no Gerena               Features                               Remarks1    Brettanomyces         B. intermedius is the ...
2   Candida                             • Candida famata (Torulopsis    (Ascomycetous imperfect             candida; T. fa...
Sl.no   Gerena                            Features                    Remarks3       Debaryomyces.:                    one...
Sl.no   Gerena          Features                  Remarks4       Kluyveromyces                             Most prevalent ...
Sl.no Gerena                       Features                      Remarks6    Saccharomyces                                ...
References• James M Jay. 2005. Modern Food Microbiology. CBS Publishers,  New Delhi. pp 13-37.• Norman N Potter and Joseph...
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VTU 06BT74 Unit 5 Synopsis of microorganisms

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VTU 06BT74 Unit 5 Synopsis of microorganisms

  1. 1. VII Sem BE Biotechnology under VTU, Belgaum 06BT74 Food Biotechnology Unit 5Synopsis of Common Foodborne Bacteria, Molds and Yeasts Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, NHCE, Nov 2011 1
  2. 2. Sl Bacterial groups Features % G + Occurrence Special C feature1 Acinetobacter Gram negative rods, strict 39- widely distributed Family- aerobes, do not reduce 47 in soil, waters, Moracellaceae nitrates, rod shaped foods (refrigerated (young cultures) or fresh products, coccoid (old cultures), meat products)2 Aeromonas the gas producers; 57- Inhabitants of fish aquatic, gram negative 65 intestines rods, gas formers from sugar fermentation,3 Alcaligenes Mainly Gram negative, 58- In decomposing Genus is rods, ferments sugars to 70 matter, rw milk, heteroge produce alkali. Non- poultry products, neous pigmented fecal matter Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 2 NHCE, Nov 2011
  3. 3. 4 Alteromonas Gram negative, 43-48 Marine/coastal Require sea motile rods, strict water water for aerobes inhabitants, growth found on and in all sea foods5 Bacillus Gram positive 32-62 Foodborne Mostly B. cereus spore forming gastroenteritis mesophiles, B. anthracis rods, aerobes, thermophiles, psychrotrophs also exist B. anthracis B. cereus Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 3 NHCE, Nov 2011
  4. 4. 6 Campylobacter Gram negative, 30-35 Soil borne, Genus (Formerly vibrios) spirally curved rods, vegetables, restructured to C. jejuni sub sp micro-aerophilic- meat and Arcobacter and anaerobic jejuni poultry Helicobacter7 Citrobacter Gram negative rods, 50-52 Enteric, C freundii slow fermenting, vegetables, Citrate as sole C fresh meats source, associated with warm blooded animals8 Clostridium Anaerobic, spore Widely Mesophiles, C. perfringens for formers distributed thermophiles, food poisoning psychrotrophs, and botulism Imp for thermal processing Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 4 NHCE, Nov 2011
  5. 5. C. perfringesDr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 5 NHCE, Nov 2011
  6. 6. 9 Corynebacterium Gram positive, rods, 51-63 Spoilage of Mostly vegetables, mesotrophs meat10 Enterobacter Gram negative, typical of Enteric Coliform Enteriobacteriaceae for representative growth requirements11 Enterococcus Gram positive, ovoid Earlier in cells, singly/pairs/short Streptococcus chain Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 6 NHCE, Nov 2011
  7. 7. 12 Erwinia Gram negative rods 53-54 Associated Cause bacterial with plants soft rot13 Escherichia Gram negative enteric 48-52 GI tract of Fecal coliform, E.coli rods, E.coli: 5 groups of warm Hemorrhagic foodborne illness: blooded, colitis (0157: Enteropathogenic (EPEC), waterborne H7), Travlers’ enterotoxigenic (ETEC), diarrhea enteroinvasive (EIEC), (025:K98: NM) enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), Facultatively enteropathogenic (FEEC)14 Flavobacterium Gram negative rods, Associated Produce yellow mesotrophs and with plants, to red pigments psychrotrophs related to on agar spoilage of refrigerated meats and vegetables Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 7 NHCE, Nov 2011
  8. 8. E. coliDr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 8 NHCE, Nov 2011
  9. 9. 15 Hafnia Gram negative rods, only 48-49 Enteric, species: H alive, is spoilage of motile, refrigerated meats and vegetables16 Lactobacillus Gram positive, catalase Dairy 3 phylogenetic negative rods, in long products, clusters: chains, microaerophilic vegetables, Betabacterium, to anaerobic refrigerated Streptobacteriu stored and m, vacuum Thermobacteri packed meat um Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 9 NHCE, Nov 2011
  10. 10. LAB: Lactobacillus, Homofermentative (LA Production of dairy Bergey’sLeuconostoc, only), EMP products, fermented Manual (IXPediococcus, and Heterofermentative meats, fisheries, pickled Edition) (LA, ethanol, CO2), HMP/PP plant productsStreptococcus,Carobacterium(lactobacilli){Enterococcus,Lactococcus,Vagococcus}streptococciLactococcus Gram positive, non-motile, Dairy products EarlierL. lactis (sub sp catalase negative, spherical Streptococcilactis, cremoris), to oval, homo- genera fermentativeL.plantarum, Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 10 NHCE, Nov 2011
  11. 11. Leuconostoc Gram positive, catatase Spoilage of negative cocci, hetero- wines, vac fermentative packed foodsListeria Gram positive non- <50L. monocytogenes sporulating rods,Micrococcus Gram positive, catalase 66-75 Widely Produce pink positive cocci, mostly distributed I to red mesotrophs, food prep pigments, env Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, NHCE, Nov 2011 11
  12. 12. 21 Proteus Gram negative rods, Enteric, often display aerobic, motile, mostly isolated from pleomorphism mesophiles vegetables, meat products22 Pseudomonas Gram negative rods, 58-70 Fresh Some produce products water soluble (veg, meats, blue-green poultry, sea pigments foods), most imp group wrt spoilage of refrigerated fresh foods Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 12 NHCE, Nov 2011
  13. 13. 23 Salmonella Gram negative, enteric, 50-53 Human I: S. typhi, S. enteric sub sp- causes salmonellosis , pathogens, S.paratyphi A and enteric, produces cytotoxin and commercially S.paratyphi C Other subsp: enterotoxin, transfers prepared, II: host adapted salmanae, easily through animal packed foods, serovars, human arizone, feed and hides Eggs, poultry pathogens indica, and meat most through food also common food III: unadapted vehicles serovars, mainly foodborne24 Serratia Gram negative rods, 53-59 Spoilage of Red pigments S. liquefaciens: aerobic and proteolytic, refrigerated most prevalent veg, meat products Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 13 NHCE, Nov 2011
  14. 14. Salmonella (EM image) Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 14 NHCE, Nov 2011
  15. 15. 25 Shewanella Gram negative, 44-47 Aquatic/marine S.putrefaciens straight/curved rods, habitats motile and non- pigmented26 Shigella Gram negative, enteric, 49-53 Human Shigellosis S dysenteriae Non-motile, produce enteropathogens acid from sugars, , shell fish, F & V, chicken, salads Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 15 NHCE, Nov 2011
  16. 16. 27 Staphylococcus Gram positive, catalase Foodborne S aureus positive cocci, gastroenteritis28 Vibrio Gram negative, 38-51 Seafoods, also Foodborne V . parahaemolyticus straight/curved rods causes extra gastroenteritis, V cholera intestinal other human human illness infections Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 16 NHCE, Nov 2011
  17. 17. 29 Yersinia 45.8- Foodborne Human plague Y.pestis 46.8 gastroenterit agent is, other human illness Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 17 NHCE, Nov 2011
  18. 18. Foodborne molds Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 18 NHCE, Nov 2011
  19. 19. Molds• Mucoraceae (reproduction by zygospores): – Mucor, Rhizopus• Trichocomaceae (reproduction by ascospores): – Byssochlamys, Eupenicillium, Euroticum• Moniliaceae (reproduction by conidia): – Alterneria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Helminthosporium, Monilia, Penicillium Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 19 NHCE, Nov 2011
  20. 20. Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology,Conidiospores, Arthrospores, Sporangiospres 20 NHCE, Nov 2011
  21. 21. Zygospores of Rhizopus Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 21 NHCE, Nov 2011
  22. 22. Common occurrence Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 22 NHCE, Nov 2011
  23. 23. Sl.no Gerena Features Occurrence and remarks1 Alternaria Large brown Causes brown rots of fruits, stem end conidia rot and black rot of citrus. A field fungus, some produce mycotoxins2 Aspergillus Produces chains of Causes Black rot of peaches, citrus fruits, conidia and appear and figs is one of the fruit spoilage yellow to green to conditions black on a large Produced. Some species cause number of foods spoilage of oils, such as palm, peanut, and corn. The A. glaucus–A. restrictus are storage fungi that invade seeds, soybeans, and common beans. Several species produce aflatoxins. A.oryzae and A. soyae are involved in the shogu fermentation and the former in Spores koji. A. niger produces - galactosidase, glucoamylase, invertase, lipase, and pectinase: and A. oryzae produces -amylase Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, NHCE, Nov 2011 23
  24. 24. Sl.no Gerena Features Remarks3 Botrytis Produce pigmented Cause gray mold rot of apples, conidiospores, pears, citrus, grapes etc mycelium is septate4 Byssochlamys Produce clusters of Cause spoilage of high acid canned asci (heat resistant) foods5 Cladosporium Septate hypae with C. herbarum produces “black spot” on dark budding and beef and frozen mutton. Some highly branched spoil butter and margarine, and conidia some cause restricted rot of stone fruits and black rot of grapes. They are field fungi that grow on barley and wheat grains. C. herbarum and C. cladosporiodes are the two most prevalent Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, on fruits and vegetables. NHCE, Nov 2011 24
  25. 25. Sl.no Gerena Features Remarks6 Colletotrichum Simple , elongated C.gloeosporioides is the species Conidiophores are produced of concern in foods; it produces anthracnose (brown /black spots) on tropical fruits such as mangos and papayas7 Fusarium Extensive cottony mycelium Cause brown rot of citrus fruits is produced with tinges of and pineapples and soft rot of pink, red, purple, or brown. figs. Produce macroconnidia As field fungi, some grow on (septate fusiform to sickle- barley and wheat grains. shaped)8 Geotrichum Yeasts like fungi, reproduce G. candidum, the dairy mold through vegetative hypae (imparts flavor and aroma to many cheeses), machinery mold. G.albidum involved in citrus and Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, NHCE, Nov 2011 dairy cream spoilage 25
  26. 26. Sl.no Gerena Features Remarks9 Mucor Produce Mucor miehei: lipase sporangiophores, producer, mainly used in food cottony colonies, fermentation (meat, vegetables).10 Penicillium Involved in the spoilage of fruit juice concentrates. Typical colors on foods are blue to blue-green. Blue and green mold rots of citrus fruits and blue mold rot of apples, grapes, pears, and stone fruits, are caused by some species. (P. roqueforti, produces Some species produce citrinin, blue cheese) and other mycotoxins Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, NHCE, Nov 2011 26
  27. 27. Sl.n Gerena Features Remarkso11 Rhizopus R. stolonifer is by far the Produce watery soft most common species in rot of apples, pears, foods. Sometimes stone fruits, grapes, referred figs, and others. to as “bread molds,” Some cause “black spot” of beef and frozen mutton. Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, NHCE, Nov 2011 27
  28. 28. Sl.no Gerena Features Remarks12 Trichothecium The only species, (T. Roseum) pink in color and causes pink rot of fruits. It also causes soft rot of cucurbits and is common on barley, wheat, corn, and pecans. Some produce mycotoxins. Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, NHCE, Nov 2011 28
  29. 29. Foodborne yeasts Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 29 NHCE, Nov 2011
  30. 30. Sl.no Gerena Features Remarks1 Brettanomyces B. intermedius is the They cause spoilage of most prevalent, and it beer, wine, soft drinks, B. bruxellensis is can grow at a pH as low and pickles involved in some as 1.8. sourdough fermentations These asporogenous yeasts form ogival cells and terminal budding. Produce acetic acid from glucose only under aerobic Conditions. Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 30 NHCE, Nov 2011
  31. 31. 2 Candida • Candida famata (Torulopsis (Ascomycetous imperfect candida; T. famata) species) • Candida kefyr (Candida pseudotropicalis, T. kefyr; Torula + Formerly Torulopsis cremoris) • Candida stellata (Torulopsis stellata) • Candida holmii (Torulopsis holmii) Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 31 NHCE, Nov 2011
  32. 32. Sl.no Gerena Features Remarks3 Debaryomyces.: one of the two most prevalent yeast D. hansenii is the most genera in dairy prevalent foodborne species. products. It can grow in 24% NaCl and at an aw as low as 0.65. It forms slime, grows in brines, cheeses, and causes spoilage of orange juice concentrate and yogurt. Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 32 NHCE, Nov 2011
  33. 33. Sl.no Gerena Features Remarks4 Kluyveromyces Most prevalent yeasts in dairy products (kumiss, for lactase production, SCP) Found on a wide variety of fruits, and K. marxianus causes cheese spoilage.5 Rhodotorula R. glutinis and R. The genus contains many mucilaginosa are psychrotrophic the two most species/strains that are prevalent species in found on fresh poultry, foods (produce pink shrimp, fish, and beef. to red pigments) Some grow on the surface of butter Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, NHCE, Nov 2011 33
  34. 34. Sl.no Gerena Features Remarks6 Saccharomyces Bakers’, brewers’, wine, and champagne yeasts are S. cerevisiae. Found in kefir grains, dry cured salami. S. cerevisiae rarely causes spoilage.7 Zygosaccharomyces Some are spoilers of Strong fermenters of mayonnaise and sugars. Some salad dressing, are involved in shoyu especially and miso fermentations Z. bailii, which can grow at a pH of 1.8. Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 34 NHCE, Nov 2011
  35. 35. References• James M Jay. 2005. Modern Food Microbiology. CBS Publishers, New Delhi. pp 13-37.• Norman N Potter and Joseph H Hotchkiss. V Edition. Food Science, CBS Publishers, New Delhi. pp 113-127• Kalisdas Shetty. 2005. Food Biotechnology.CRC Press.• Google Images Dr Pratima Khandelwal, Biotechnology, 35 NHCE, Nov 2011

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