Temporal lobe ppt
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Temporal lobe ppt

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Dr .Virinchi Sharma

Dr .Virinchi Sharma

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    Temporal lobe ppt Temporal lobe ppt Presentation Transcript

    • TEMPORAL LOBE PRESENTOR:- DR VIRINCHI SHARMA MODERATOR:- Dr. V S RAJ 1
    • 0VERVIEW• ANATOMY(parts)• FUNCTIONAL AREAS• LOOPS & PATHWAYS• FUNCTIONS• DISORDERS 2
    • • The Temporal lobes are one of the most heterogeneous regions of the Neocortex.  • Input for the Limbic and Para-Limbic cortex.  • This is the lobe that is credited with being the seat of human para-Psychological and Psychic abilities!  • The temporal lobe, Is considered in its broadest context, links the present sensory and emotional experience of our world 3
    • M Y A T O N A OF B E L LO R A P OT E M 4
    • • The temporal lobes, are the part of the cerebral cortex in the left and right hemispheres of the brain lying inside the temples.• Directionally, the temporal lobes are anterior to the occipital lobes, inferior to the frontal lobes and parietal lobes, and lateral to the Fissure of Sylvius, also known the lateral sulcus 5
    • • SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR TEMPORAL SULCI DIVIDE TEMPORAL LOBE INTO 3 LOBES• SUPERIOR TEMPORAL LOBE• MIDDLE TEMPORAL LOBE• INFERIOR TEMPORAL LOBE 6
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    • SUPERIOR TEMPORAL LOBE• involves areas 41,42,22• Primary auditory area (area 41)• On the left side of the brain this area helps with generation and understanding of individual words.• On the right side of the brain it helps tell the difference between melody, pitch, and sound intensity 8
    • MIDDLE TEMPORAL LOBEThe region encompasses most of the lateral temporal cortex, a region believed to play a part in auditory processing and language.• Language function is left lateralized in most individuals.• Brodmann area 21. 9
    • INFERIOR TEMPORAL LOBE• It refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined temporal region of cerebral cortex. In the human it corresponds approximately to the inferior temporal gyrus.• Brodmann area 20.• The region encompasses most of the ventral temporal cortex, a region believed to play a part in high-level visual processing and recognition 10
    • MEDIAL PART OF TEMPORAL LOBE• The medial temporal lobe comprises the hippocampus and amygdala, as well as the entorhinal, perirhinal and 11
    • Amygdala 12
    • Amygdala• The fear & flight response• Inputs: The association areas of visual, auditory, and somato sensory cortices are the main inputs to the amygdala.• Outputs: The main outputs of the amygdala are to the hypothalamus and brainstem autonomic centers, including the vagal nuclei and the sympathetic neurons.• The amygdala is also involved with mood and the conscious emotional response to an event• The amygdala is also extensively interconnected with frontal cortex, medio dorsal thalamus, and the medial striatum. 13
    • • The deep group, which includes the lateral, basal, accessory basal nucleic• Func: collects input from sensory cortex.• The more dorsal group, which includes the central & medial nuclei• Func: receives projections from the deep group and sends the signal out to autonomic centers. 14
    • • The amygdala is the heart of the emotional system. It processes and interprets all sensory data.• It modulates the flow of emotional information between the cerebral cortex and the hypothalamus, and in doing that, it modulates autonomic, endocrine, and affective responses.• Lesions in amygdala lead to-- agitation, irritability, anxiety, mood disorders, paranoia, and psychosis. 15
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    • The Hippocampus• The hippocampus is a scrolled structure located in the medial temporal lobe.• The hippocampus can be divided into at least five different areas.• The dentate gyrus is the dense dark layer of cells at the "tip" of the hippocampus. Areas CA3 and CA1 are more diffuse; the small CA2 is hard to distinguish between them. (CA stands for cornu ammonis, from its rams horn shape.)• The subiculum sits at the base of the hippocampus, and is continuous with entorhinal cortex, which is part of the 17
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    • FUNCTIONAL AREAS OFTEMPORAL LOBE 19
    • • AUDITORY – primary & Association• OLFACTORY - primary & Association• VISUAL (Recognition & association)• MEMORY• EMOTIONAL & SOCIAL• Link past and present sensory and emotional experiences into a 20
    • LANGUAGE & COMPREHENSION• LANGUAGE AREAS• A specialized integration area called Wernickes area is found in the posterior temporal lobe of one hemisphere (usually the left). Commonly called the "speech area, " Wernickes area surrounds and encompasses part of the auditory association area.• AFFECTIVE LANGUAGE AREAS• Affective language areas involved in the nonverbal emotional components of language - appear to be present in the hemisphere opposite Brocass and Wernickess areas.• These "mirror images" allow the lilt of tone of our voice and our gestures to express our emotions when we speak, and permit us to comprehend the emotional content of what we hear. 21• Lesions to this area result in aprosodia, a condition in
    • AUDITORY SENSES• PRIMARY AUDITORY AREA (area 41) Essential to detect changes in frequency , & to know the direction from which sounds originate.• AUDITORY ASSOCIATION AREA (area 42)• HIGHER AUDITORY ASSOCIATION 22
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    • VISUAL SENSES• Processing of our recognition of objects occurs in a path on the lower, dorsal stream in the temporal lobe; here you find areas sensitive to faces vs. objects,• Area MT (right) performs processing on motion. Subjects without an area MT describe seeing motion as discontinuous 24 pictures – eg.having to
    • OLFACTORY SENSESThe rightmost greenspots are the location incortex where smell isprocessed. 25
    • GUSTATORY SENSES• The sensation of taste is processed in insular cortex 26
    • connections of the Temporal Lobes• Five main types:• Hierarchical sensory pathway• Dorsal auditory pathway• Polymodal pathway• Medial (mesial) temporal pathway• Frontal lobe projection
    • • Hierarchical sensory pathway• connections from• primary(sensory neuron) and secondary auditory and visual cortical• through the lateral temporal cortex• terminate in the temporal pole
    • • visual travels inferior temporal gyrus•• auditory travels e suprior temporal gyrus• Major destinations:• amygdala and hippocampus• This results in the integration of information into: memory, retrieval of stored information, emotional tone• Ultimate effect stimulus recognition• The familiar conscious experience of knowing, assimilating, and feeling
    • • Dorsal auditory pathway• Forms important functional connections with the posterior parietal cortex• Enables location of sounds in space• Promotes orienting and initiation of movements relative to sound location
    • Polymodal Pathway• connections emerging from the auditory and visual hierarchical pathways• Directed towards the neurons enfolded within the superior temporal sulcus• Polymodal nature of neurons• Assigns stimuli to specific category of classes, linked to and can be retrieved by memory
    • • Medial Temporal Projection• Projections from auditory and visual areas into the limbic regions• E.g., amygdala and hippocampus• Directions of projectionsPeripheral cortex entorhinalcortex amygdala/hippocampus• Perforant pathway• forms the main projection to thehippocampus• Damage in this region severely affects memory formation
    • • Frontal-lobe Projection• Neurons from the temporal lobe have strong connections with the frontal lobe• Posterior temporal cortex• Projects to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex• anterior temporal cortex• Projects to the orbital frontal cortex• Damage leads to terrible life decisions
    • DISORDERS OFTEMPORAL LOBE 39
    • 8 principal symptoms of temporal lobe damage:• Disturbance of auditory sensation and perception• Disturbance of selective attention of auditory and visual input• Disorders of visual perception• Impaired organization and categorization of verbal material• Disturbance of language comprehension• Impaired long-term memory• Altered personality and affective behaviour• Altered sexual behaviour 40
    • Manifestations of temporal lobe lesions• Disorders of auditory perception: – Lesions of the left superior temporal gyrus produce problems of speech perception with difficulty in discriminating speech and the temporal order of sounds is impaired.• Lesions of the right superior temporal gyrus can produce disorders of perception of music with inability to discriminate melodies and produce prosody• The inferior temporal cortex is responsible for visual perception and lesions produce inability to recognise faces, called prosopagnosia.• There may be disturbance of visual and auditory input selection. This presents as impairment of short term memory, 41
    • disorders of memory• The medial and inferior temporal cortex and hippocampus are responsible for memory.• There is complete anterograde amnesia following bilateral removal of medial temporal lobes, including hippocampus & amygdala.• There is difficulty recalling information.• The left side is responsible for verbal material and the right for non-verbal memory such as faces, tunes and drawings. 42
    • • temporal lobe personality. There is egocentricity, pedantic speech, perseveration of speech, paranoia, religious preoccupations and a tendency to aggressive outbursts, especially after right temporal lobectomy.• temporal lobe lesions can present with visual field defects in the form of superior quadrant loss, sometimes called the "pie in the sky defect."• Stroke normally reduces libido but temporal 43
    • APHASIA• Any disturbance in the comprehension or expression of language caused by a brain lesion.• NONFLUENT APHASIA, i.e. in lesion to Brocas area results in slow speech, difficulty in choosing words, or use of words that only approximate the correct word.e.g., a person may say "tssair" when asked to identify a picture of a chair.• A lesion to Wernickes area may result in FLUENT APHASIA, in which a person speaks normally, and sometimes excessively, but uses jargon and invented words, that make little 44
    • Kluver-Bucy syndrome Kluver-Bucy syndrome results due to a bilateral destruction of the amygdaloid body and inferior temporal cortex. It is characterized by Visual agnosia, Placidity, Hypermetamorphosis, Hyperorality Hypersexuality. causes: cerebral trauma; infections including herpes and other encephalitides; Alzheimers disease and other dementias; Niemann-Pick disease 45 and cerebrovascular disease.
    • Diseases of the Hippocampus• The hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to several disease processes, including ischemia, which is any obstruction of blood flow or oxygen deprivation, Alzheimers disease, and epilepsy.• These diseases selectively attack CA1, which effectively cuts through the hippocampal circuit. 46
    • TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSYTEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY (TLE) WAS DEFINED IN 1985 BYTHE INTERNATIONAL LEAGUE AGAINST EPILEPSY (ILAE) ASA CONDITION CHARACTERIZED BY RECURRENTUNPROVOKED SEIZURES ORIGINATING FROM THE MEDIALOR LATERAL TEMPORAL LOBE.LATERAL TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY : ARISES IN THENEOCORTEXMESIAL TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY:HIPPOCAMPUS,PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS AMYGDALA 47
    • cAuSES• Hereditary• Febrile sezuires• Brain tumors• spinal meningitis,• encephalitis,• head injury or blood vessel malformations• Trauma• congenital brain malformations• Alcohol withdrawl• Sleep deprivation 48
    • SYMPTOM• S Seizures usually simple partial but can be complex partial seizures also• Duration is one to two minutes• Auras• Motionless staring• Anxiety• Emergent past memories• Spiritual religious experience• Most common type comprising 70percent of seizures with 1.5%of population world wide 49
    • TREATMEnT• Antiepilectic drugs• Surgical procedures 50
    • cVA---TEMPORAL LOBE• Middle cerebral artery in farct: – Aphasia or non-dominant hemisphere findings depending on the side. – “Partial” middle cerebral artery syndromes, almost always of embolic origin, may include a) sensorimotor paresis with little aphasia b) conduction aphasia c) Wernicke’s aphasia without hemiparesis. – Wernickes aphasia, caused most often by occlusion of the lower division of the MCA bifurcation or one of its branches. Patients with Wernickes aphasia vocalize smoothly and with expression, but they demonstrate paraphasias or speech with distorted phonetic structure, word substitution, and additional prefixes and suffixes. – The infarct responsible for a classic Wernickes aphasia includes the dominant posterior temporal, inferior parietal, and lateral temporo-occipital regions. 51• Posterior cerebral artery syndrome:
    • TEMPORAL LOBE ABScESS• Brain abscess is a newly formed cavity in brain tissue, filled with pus.• Mastoiditis causes temporal lobe abscess.• Hematogenous abscesses are often multiple. 52
    • TEMPORAL LOBE TUMORS• As many as 50 to 55 percent of patients with temporal lobe tumors experience psychiatric, behavioral, or personality changes• Psychopathology related to temporal lobe tumors can be ictal, that is, seizure associated, or interictal, completely unrelated to seizure activity.• Patients with tumors of the temporal lobe who have temporal lobe seizures often have seizure-associated schizophrenia-like 53
    • SYMPTOMS INCLUDE• Auditory hallucinations and atypical dream-like episodes, depersonalization, blanking-out spells, and dazed feelings• Patients with temporal lobe seizures may present with depression and frontal lobe– like apathy and irritability,• Or with features suggesting hypomania or mania,• Personality changes commonly occur and may be one of the earliest indications of an undiagnosed temporal lobe tumor 54
    • Thank you Thank u……. 55