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  • 1. Electromagnetism Topic 12.1 Electromagnetic Induction
  • 2. Induced Electromotive Force (e.m.f.)
    • What is electromagnetic induction?
    • The diagram shows a copper rod connected to an ammeter:
    • There is no battery in the circuit.
  • 3.
    • What happens when you move the copper rod downwards, to cut across the horizontal magnetic field?
    • The pointer on the meter makes a brief `flick' to the right, showing that an electric current has been induced.
  • 4.
    • What happens when you move the rod upwards?
    • The meter again gives a `flick', but this time to the left.
    • You have now induced a current in the opposite direction.
  • 5.
    • If you hold the rod stationary, or if you move the rod along the field lines, there is no induced current.
  • 6. Why does electromagnetic induction occur?
    • When you move the copper rod, its free electrons move with it.
    • But when a charge moves in a magnetic field it experiences a force on it
    • (the B Q v force).
    • You can use Flemings Left hand Rule to show that the force on each electron is to the left as shown in the diagram
    • (Remember that an electron moving down has to be treated like a positive charge moving up.
  • 7.  
  • 8.
    • So electrons accumulate at one end of the rod, making it negative.
    • This leaves the other end short of electrons and therefore positive.
    • There is now a voltage (potential difference) across the ends of the moving rod.
    • If the ends of the moving rod are joined to form a complete circuit, the induced voltage causes a current to flow round the circuit as shown by the flick of the ammeter.
  • 9.
    • The induced voltage is a source of electrical energy ‑ an e.m.f
    • When a conductor is moving in a magnetic field like this, an e.m.f is induced, even if there isn't a complete circuit for a current to flow.
  • 10. Formula for a Straight Conductor
    • Consider a conductor of length l that moves with velocity v perpendicular to a magnetic flux density or induction B as shown in the figure.
  • 11.
    • When the wire conductor moves in the magnetic field, the free electrons experience a force because they are caused to move with velocity v as the conductor moves in the field.
    • F = e v B
  • 12.
    • This force causes the electrons to drift from one end of the conductor to the other, and one end builds‑up an excess of electrons and the other a deficiency of electrons.
    • This means that there is a potential difference or emf between the ends.
    • Eventually, the emf becomes large enough to balance the magnetic force and thus stop electrons from moving.
  • 13.
    • evB = eE ( from F = evB and F = eE)
    • Therefore E = Bv
    • If the potential difference (emf) between the ends of the conductor is ε then
    • ε = E L (from E = V/d)
    • By substitution we have
    • ε = B v L
  • 14. Magnetic Flux
    • The magnetic flux ( Φ ) through a region is a measure of the number of lines of magnetic force passing through that region.
    • Φ = AB cos θ
    • where A is the area of the region and θ is the angle of movement between the magnetic field and a line drawn perpendicular to the area swept out.
    • The unit of magnetic flux is the weber Wb.
  • 15.
    • For a single conductor in the magnetic flux density, it can be seen that
    • ε = - ΔΦ / Δ t (the rate of change of flux density)
    • For N number of conductors as in the case for a solenoid, the term flux‑linkage is used.
    • Then
    • ε = - N Δ ( Φ / Δ t)
    • This is Faraday’s Law
    • The minus sign shows us that the emf is always produced so as to oppose the change in flux.
  • 16. Time-changing Magnetic Flux
    • Therefore the production of an emf is produced by a time changing magnetic flux.
    • This could be due to the wire or coil moving through a magnetic field
    • Or by an increasing or decreasing magnetic field of an electromagnet next to a wire or coil.
  • 17. Faraday’s Law
    • We know that an e.m.f. is induced when there is a change in the flux linking a conductor.
    • Faraday's law makes the connection between the size of the induced e.m.f. and the rate at which the flux is changing.
    • It states that:
    • the magnitude of the induced e.m.f is directly proportinonal to the rate of change of magnetic flux or flux linkage.
  • 18. Linking
    • For a single conductor in the magnetic flux density, it can be seen that
    • ε = - ΔΦ / Δ t (the rate of change of flux density)
    • And ε = B v l
    • Therefore - ΔΦ / Δ t = B v l
  • 19. Lenz’s Law
    • Faraday's law tells us the size of the induced e.m.f., but we can find its direction using Lenz's law
    • The direction of the induced e.m.f is such that it will try to oppose the change in flux that is producing it.
  • 20.  
  • 21.
    • Lenz's law is illustrated in the diagrams: As you move the N‑pole into the coil, an e.m.f. is induced which drives a current round the circuit as shown.
    • Now use the right‑hand grip rule
    • Can you see that the current produces a magnetic field with a N‑pole at the end of the coil nearest to the magnet?
    • So the coil repels the incoming magnet, and in this way the induced current opposes the change in flux.
  • 22.
    • Why is the current reversed as you move the N‑pole out?
    • By Lenz's law, the coil needs to attract the receding N‑pole
  • 23.
    • Lenz's law is a result of the conservation of energy. If you move the magnet into the coil, you feel the repulsive force.
    • You have to do work to move the magnet against this force.
    • And so energy is transferred from you (or the system that is moving the magnet) to the electrical energy of the current.
  • 24.  
  • 25.  
  • 26.  
  • 27.
    • Interactive Faraday
    • Emf
    • Faraday