STORIES

                  Storytelling
            Frameworks for
          Digital Pedagogies

                      Dr....
Learning across life through
stories
Who are we?

• Educator
• Technical staff
• Instructional Designer
• Developer
• Other
Cultural identity



Personal narrative

                 Knowledge
  Collective consciousness
                 management...
Digital Storytelling
 … the practice of combining narrative
 with digital content, including
 images, sound, and video, to...
Digital Pedagogies
 … those instructional frameworks
 that are used specifically within
 technology-mediated learning
 set...
Community of Practice


“… a process of social learning that
 occurs when people who have a
 common interest in some subje...
Storytelling as..
                    Product


                    Process

                    Instructional
           ...
How can we make
  sure learning
    happens?
How instruction
typically gets attention
There will be a test!
There will be a test!
What                       What
             Transfer of
 students     learning
                            students
   kn...
Stories & Real World

• What to do + why to do it
• What is valued
• Often informal yet enculturated
 o Measurement of wha...
Story as…
       scenario




                  problem
Traditions
    Values
    Norms




                 Integrated
                  real world
  Individual      situations
...
Shared           Community      Culture
Knowledge        • Practice &   • History &
• Intellectual     Learning       Refe...
Shared          Community         Culture
Knowledge       • Mentoring       • Creating new
• Bookmarking   • Collaborating...
Publication Model of Community




  Learner
               Peer Critique   Dissemination
construction
Portfolio Model of Community




       Learner
                        Peer/Expert Critique   Dissemination
Collection/Re...
Structure and Design
       What works
What we know about stories
           …
  Beginning – Middle -End

  Characters

  Context/environment cues

  Attention g...
A
                          Dramatic
                          Question
7 elements of
 storytelling
                 Pacin...
structure   design
Empirical
Evidence




Fidelity
Connect
Empirical
                       message to
Evidence
                         details




            Fidelity
Connect
            message to
              details

                            Connect
Empirical
                      ...
Connect          Connect
            message to     consequence
              details       to message



Empirical       ...
Connect
                  consequence
                   to message
      Connect
                                Values r...
Connect
                  consequence
                   to message
      Connect
                                Values r...
Design Frameworks
Learner                Designer
• Citizen Journalism   • Inquiry
• How-to teaching      • Learner as Exp...
Journalistic Storytelling
Connect
                     outcome to
                        goal
       Connect
                                  Valu...
Is a digital story ever
        done?
     Re-telling and learning
Re-telling

Legend            Parable


          Fable
Re-telling?
Different
archetypes?
(Pearson, 1998)


            Archetypal plots
Archetype   Plot Structure                    Gift
Orphan      How I suffer...
Design Frameworks
Learner             Pedagogy
• Self-reflection   • Peer
                      feedback/interv
• Journali...
Does it matter how a
   story is told?
    Process and intention
Telling a fable

   Message       Turning Point    Context




  Context (3)   Reverse/Resolve




  Message (3)       Slo...
Story structure frameworks




 Histrionic

               Digressive


                            Polytrophic
Teleologic...
Dialogic storytelling
Type                   Dialogue as
Inclusive-divergent    Conversation
Inclusive-convergent   Inquir...
O’Neill, 2002
                         HIGH Need Fulfillment


                                                  TIME
 A  ...
?
Heuristic       Algorithm
Socratic
        Method



Case-              Scenario-
based                based



        Problem-
         based
Just because we use
      a method
Doesn’t mean we are telling an
effective story or that students
          are learning
Telling + teaching


ENGAGEMENTof the
listener/learner
through multiple
means
PREPARATION of the
listener/learner for
futu...
Co-narration

 Select story
                                 Individually
(spontaneous                                    ...
What about the learners?
Focus on discrete
                  details
                  Capture empirical
Novices           information
            ...
Have deep and complex
                 memory of information
                 Have situational and
Experts          applie...
Routine    • Automatic recall
            • Declarative knowledge
Expertise   • Predictable situations




Adaptive    • C...
Mental Function and Skill
Level: Five Stage Model




                (Dreyfus & Dreyfus, 1980, p. 15)
SOLO Taxonomy
 Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes




   Pre-         Uni-        Multi-                  Extended
  ...
HURRIER
Model of
Listening
              Respond          Hear




       Evaluate     TRANSFER          Understand




  ...
Process of
Digital
Processing                   See/h
               Contribute
                              ear




    ...
Design Frameworks
Learner      Pedagogy
 Portfolio    Peer/Expert
              critique
 Cases
              Cooperation
...
Engage
Public




Owned                                Interpreted




                            Collaborative/
   Communicativ...
Situational
Awareness
Transfer/Apply
MIT Museum w/o Walls
Critical Reflection
                                     Question accepted assumptions
                                   ...
Critical Reflection
                                    Question accepted assumptions
                                Citi...
Connectedness            Wisdom
                                 Understanding
                                   principl...
Building Community
   • Design for growth & change
   • Create and maintain feedback loops
   • Empower members over time
...
Contributive Pedagogy
• Social Justice Action
• Citizen Journalism
• Mentoring
• How-to Teaching
• Social Network
Jennifer Poo
Thank you!
Patricia.mcgee@utsa.edu
Storytelling frameworks for digital pedagogies
Storytelling frameworks for digital pedagogies
Storytelling frameworks for digital pedagogies
Storytelling frameworks for digital pedagogies
Storytelling frameworks for digital pedagogies
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Storytelling frameworks for digital pedagogies

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Our lives are replayed through our stories, suggesting that stories used in learning experiences help to integrate new meaning into existing schemas. This session draws upon research analyzing theory and methods of storytelling for learning, and illustrates instructional applications within digital learning environments an to support communities.

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  • Hi Patricia,

    I'm a teacher educator in Queensland Australia and am very impressed by what you have put together with this presentation.
    I was wondering if you would give me permission to adapt what you have here and make it into a voice narrated slidecast as it tells the digital storytelling better than any other resource I've found to date?

    I would of course provide the appropriate attribution.

    Best,

    Scot. Aldred
    CQUniversity Australia.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
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  • Our lives are replayed through our stories, suggesting that stories used in learning experiences help to integrate new meaning into existing schemas. This session draws upon research analyzing theory and methods of storytelling for learning, and illustrates instructional applications within digital learning environments an to support communities.
  • My interest in lifelong learning is situated in the segmentation of markets that require us to learn new systems, processes, ways of interacting as we go through our lifelong development process. Technology, I believe, should not draw attention to itself.My inquiry examined multiple disciplines, highlighting significant thoughts, models, strategies, and research. Much of the language reflects the original context from which it was drawn, i.e. discourse analysis, curriculum studies, adult learning, cognitive science, neuroscience, etc. It is up to the audience to make connections to their own unique and specific applications of storytelling.
  • The value and power of storytelling is universal across cultures (MacDonald, 1997), across disciplines (Brown & Duguid, 2000; Sanchez & Blayer, 2002) and over time; there is evidence that preliterate cultures relied on storytelling to educate their members and that these oral retellings were exceptionally accurate (Egan, 1989). In the 20th century telling stories in the form of entertainment is something we know and understand from our earliest memories and experiences - we grow up learning from stories as a form of instruction, within our families, in our religious training, and as a part of our social community. Campbell and Moyers (1988) view stories as cultural mythology that shape our view of what is real as a part of a collective consciousness as well as our individual experience – stories help to form us. Others see stories as forms of discourse that give meaning to our interactions (Barthes, 1993) - stories reveal something about us. These two perspectives are presented in this paper through the examination of stories as social tool, and stories as source of inter- and intra-personal epistemology. When considering learning, the impact of story must be considered for individual impact. Arguably, we share our own personal, social, and professional identity stories as we meet new people, and represent ourselves to the world. Arendt (1958) claimed that the meaning of action (as depicted in a narrator’s story) is made real and enduring through the documentation and re-telling of an original story. In this way, storytelling is a form of disseminating meaning across the lifespan. If our life is replayed through our stories, then it makes sense that stories used in learning experiences help us to integrate new meaning (Hopkins, 1994) into existing schemas. Yet research in this area is fragmented and situated in a variety of fields, and is therefore difficult to understand as an instructional method.
  • The questions posed mirror the titles of current popular literature designed to aid the employee in overcoming challenges placed before them: How to deal with difficult people (Brinkman & Kirschner, 2006), Who moved my cheese? (Johnson & Blanchard, 1998), What color is your parachute? (Bolles, 2008), and Workplace warrior (Hammer, 2000). If these themes endure, then so it is likely that the oral narratives through which they are communicated will also endure. Therefore, situating instructional stories within enduring themes potentially enhances retention, learning and transfer.
  • The need for storytelling in the workplace comes from the requirements of knowledge dissemination and utilization for purposes of efficiency, effectiveness, and improved performance. Whether in the workplace or in traditional education the learner is “learning to be” and therefore requires more than just content. We know we have learned if we take and pass a test, do better than others, or perform an intended outcome successfully. Given the ubiquitousness of storytelling, we can appreciate its potential impact on teaching and learning, regardless of the context. But because of the very nature of its familiarity, I am not sure that we tell and use stories in such a manner that results in learning. What is the ‘test’ of learning through a story?
  • From the foundations of learning through storytelling in formal education, the transition to storytelling in the workplace makes sense and we see evidence in many professions: archeology (Gibb, 2000), cognitive psychology (Tversky, & Marsh, 2000), counseling (Sue & Sue, 2007), dentistry (Whipp, Ferguson, Wells, & Iacopino, 2000), general medicine (Churchill, & Churchill, 1989), journalism (Hanson, 1997), marketing (Woodside, Sood, & Miller, 2008), military (Cianciolo, Prevou, Cianciolo, & Morris, 2007), and nursing (Schmidt Bunkers, 2000).
  • Omodei and Wearing (1995 as cited in Elliott, 2005) characterized high risk work environments as having dynamicity (unrelenting complexity that requires continual decision-making and upon which subsequent decisions reside on previous ones), uncertainty (potential for available information to be incomplete or inaccurate), and distribution of tasks (due to the situation’s complexity, multiple individuals are involved in the decision-making). Such environments are considered naturalistic and there is a vigorous field of study dedicated to examining decision making under these conditions. Stories have the potential to help explain and model decision-making in complex situations and are valued for their contributions in high-risk work environments
  • Virtual Army Experience allows prospective recruits to experience what being a soldier is all about. The Ann Myers Medical Center in Second Life. Thee-Learning Faculty of Imperial College London created a spectacular and useful Second Life tool in medical education.
  • Fischer (1987) articulates five criteria of narrative fidelity:Empirical evidence is implied or clearly stated. Facts and details that support large claims are crucial to acceptance.
  • Clearly articulated connection between the story details and the message being conveyed. Details must, in the end, have contributed to the message rather than distract.
  • Consequences are reasonably related to message so that listener is convinced to accept prescribed values, beliefs or actions. In a sense, the story is selling a way of thinking to the recipient.
  • Values espoused in story correlate to those held by the audience. Within an instructional setting, it may be challenging to present values that mirror those of the listener, particularly given new/novice learners and experienced/expert storytellers. Values are well integrated into thinking and acting and may be unconsciously transmitted in stories, particularly those stories that are just-in-time or just-in-need where taking action or learning a lesson operates at lower levels of thinking.
  • Transcendence of values so that they can be seen as related to the highest order; the value is shared and aspirational.
  • Transcendence of values so that they can be seen as related to the highest order; the value is shared and aspirational.
  • Generations of Heroes is a project that offers South Carolina educators and students a chance to document the living memories of heroes and civilians who have served the United States from World War II to today’s soldiers serving in the Global War on Terrorism.ETV’sKnowitall.org and the SC National Guard teamed up with Perry McLeod, a history teacher at Richland Northeast High School in Columbia, SC to develop the project. After two years of production and taping, Mr. McLeod’s students have produced over 30 interviews with veterans. The documentaries capture the experiences of veterans who have fought and continue to fight bravely and selflessly to save the world for future generations.On the Generations of Heroes site, students can take their place alongside the writers and producers of television documentaries and interactive media on Knowitall.org. By utilizing digital technologies, teachers and students have the opportunity to create content at a professional level.
  • Fidelity mirrors what learning theory informs us about instruction. It is ‘game pedagogy’ that is enduring or applicable to 21st century learners, it is STORY pedagogy.
  • A LEGEND focuses on an outer reality that is believable and situated in truth around a localized episode (Tangherlini, 1990). Legends typically represent a shared belief or representational experience of many people and reaffirm the values of the group to whom the story belongs. In a legend an individual is a vehicle for making a narrative point. A FABLE differs from a legend in that fables focus on an inner reality that has some possibility of outer reality (Blackham, 1985) and is related through an element of irony (Tangherlini, 1990). The individual (typically an animal character) enacts or experiences the narrative point. Fables are not necessarily situated in reality and conclude with a moral, leaving no ambiguity about the message of the story. PARABLES are fables in which the main character is human. Regardless of the veracity of the story, or the nature of the characters, folklore often utilizes archetypes as devices to personify character, situation, or behavior. Archetypes can be an effective narrative element because in an archetype, there is something that each person wants to become (Snowden, 2001).
  • Archetypes are powerful in that they convey something that each person wants or wants to become. In an educational setting, the learner has a goal in mind, and to be provided stories of how to get there or what it is to be there (successfully) facilitates the process of ‘becoming.’Archetypes can serve instruction in several ways: they can cue the learner to the type of message, relieve cognitive load by following a pre-ordained format, and facilitate recall. Such plots relate directly to real world situations, conditions, and challenges.
  • How we deliver a story may also impact its acceptance and intended outcome.
  • Message - The underlying messages which permeates the story itself and which does not always have to be precise. Once upon a time there were three little pigs and the time came for them to leave home and seek their fortunes. Before they left, their mother told them \" Whatever you do , do it the best that you can because that's the way to get along in the world.Context (3) - Three anecdotes assembled in ascending sequence of impact, drawn from intended message and context which in no way reveal the message but which draw the audience into the context of the story to prepare them for the message. Elucidate the context. The first little pig built his house out of straw because it was the easiest thing to do.The second little pig built his house out of sticks. This was a little bit stronger than a straw house. The third little pig built his house out of bricksMessage (3) - Three anecdotes assembled in ascending sequence of impact, which deliver the message through successive revelation without revealing the message itself. Big Bad Wolf visits each pigTurning Point - The story turns, a clear incident signals to the audience that the story is moving from context to message. Wolf cannot blow down brick housReverse/Resolve- An old story trick, the message is thrown into sharp relief when the resolution appears to be achieved but is suddenly cast into doubt before being restored. This reminds the audience of the core message. But the wolf was a sly old wolf and he climbed up on the roof to look for a way into the brick house.Slogan – A simple phrase such as “social context, social obligation” which is easily memorised. “The way to get along in the world is to do things as well as you can.\"Context - Storyteller creates a relationship with the audience and sets up the message without revealing it.
  • Most commonly, stories are structured from a teleological framework; however, in popular culture we see variations, such as the never-ending story best personified in soap operas where the end is not in sight and the beginning may be long forgotten by the viewer (Leitch, 1986). Other variations include the histrionic story in which discourse rather than plot is paramount, the ironic story that is full of asides to the central plot and overcomes it, and the digressive story in which frequent plot interruptions focus attention on subplots, making the central plot superfluous. Consider the script of a standup comedian and you can envision the styles embodied in these variations.Leitch suggests a polytrophic principle that structures a story as a roller coaster ride – it is thrilling, full of unexpected events, and allows for no control or input from the listener and to whom the storyteller is unresponsive.
  • Convergent– the storyteller provides one condoned point of view as a consolidation of multiple possible truths into one. Divergent - open-ended stories that can involve multiple perspectives and meanings that can be open to interpretation. Inclusive – brings together the listeners into a shared point of view or consensus.Critical – divides listeners into opposing positions
  • Descriptive stories that have low color and low need fulfillment can offer much useful detailed information for the learner/employee; however, the lack of color indicates missing structural elements that detract from impact. O’Neill believes that this can cause doubt or stress because the importance of story is understated. When only the details are provided without elaboration, humor, or any sense of larger impact then a need is not being fulfilled and the story will not be retold.iClicker – which type of story is most impactual?
  • Heuristic - involving or serving as an aid to learning, discovery, or problem-solving by experimental and especially trial-and-error methods” (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/heuristic).Algorithm - “… a step-by-step procedure for solving a problem or accomplishing some end” (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/algorithm).
  • Macro strategiesSocratic Method deals mostly in epistemology (what an individual knows that separates him/her from knowing and how we acquire knowledge) and ontological (what is real independent of my own experience: the nature and structure of the world) questions
  • Strum (1998) identifies factors of storytelling under which listeners are more likely to enter an altered (and engaged) state: “storytelling style; activation of listener’s memories; sense of comfort or safety; story content; storyteller’s ability and involvement; and listener’s expectations” (p. vi). Laski (1961) identified ‘triggers’ for altered states of conscious that include EMOTIONAL STIMULATION of story, connection to PREVIOUS EXPERIENCES or memories, conveyance of a world view or perspective to which the listener adheres, closely replicates a dream or fantasy, includes information that is illogical, requires listener to FILL IN DETAILS, stimulates visuals, and touches on the mysteries of life that are not easily understood. Stallings (1988) found that emotive ability, pacing, gestures and facial expressions, eye contact, and emotional tone can also add missing information and contribute to the listeners altered state. PREPARATION FOR FUTURE LEARNING
  • Dudukovic, Marsh, and Tversky (2004) found that when a listener is prompted to be prepared for re-telling (for either accuracy or entertainment) prior to hearing a story, he or she is more likely to recall and retell the story in a manner that supports the intended outcome. When asked to retell for accuracy, listeners are less descriptive but more factually accurate, although they rate stories as less entertaining. Those retelling for accuracy are more hesitant in their retelling, reflecting an intention to ‘get it right’ when recalling details and include more accurate details than do the entertainment stories. When asked to retell for entertainment, those re-telling stories use more descriptive and emotional language; stories are more highly entertaining when present tense is used and there is less hesitation in the storytelling. Entertainment stories are, overall, less accurate and include a higher degree of exaggeration. Such evidence suggests that learners should be prepared for future learning (PFL) in order to increase achievement when learning for understanding rather than for rote recall (Schwartz, Bransford, & Sears, 2005).
  • Learning of declarative knowledge (the basis of routine expertise) requires repetition of discrete information and therefore stories intending to reinforce declarative knowledge should use repetitive devices as detailed in discourse traditions. Stories that develop adaptive expertise should, in turn, provide a variety of contexts with unexpected and unfamiliar details as a model of how decisions can be made in these situations.Novices are not prepared for innovation, nor can they perform as efficiently, resulting in high levels of frustration when asked to deal with either situation, suggesting that stories can scaffold and model thinking that occurs at a higher level of expertise. Behavior at this level involves constant monitoring on the part of the learner who comprehends what they are learning but are limited in how they can relate what they are learning to practical and practiced learning. Instructors must provide feedback and scaffolding in order for novice to be aware of their developing skills and areas for improvement. Stories told for the novice then, should include basic concepts that are key to what is being learned and simple rules that guide the use of concepts. FOLKLORE works well for novices
  • 1 Pre-structural: here students are simply acquiring bits of unconnected information, which have no organization and make no sense.2 Unistructural: simple and obvious connections are made, but their significance is not grasped.3 Multistructural: a number of connections may be made, but the meta-connections between them are missed, as is their significance for the whole.4 Relational level: the student is now able to appreciate the significance of the parts in relation to the whole.5 At the extended abstract level, the student is making connections not only within the given subject area, but also beyond it, able to generalise and transfer the principles and ideas underlying the specific instance
  • Remembering, recalling, and recollecting are all facets of active listening and situated reflection, and all are grounded in neurological functions throughout the brain (Cozolino, 2002; Rubin & Greenberg, 2003). Seigel (1999) says that narratives provide an opportunity for cross-neural transfer; the more that learning involves different functions of the brain, the more likely the learner is to remember, recall, and utilize the knowledge learned.
  • Remembering, recalling, and recollecting are all facets of active listening and situated reflection, and all are grounded in neurological functions throughout the brain (Cozolino, 2002; Rubin & Greenberg, 2003). Seigel (1999) says that narratives provide an opportunity for cross-neural transfer; the more that learning involves different functions of the brain, the more likely the learner is to remember, recall, and utilize the knowledge learned.
  • MIT as a dynamic museum whose “exhibits” will be constructed collaboratively — not just by museum curators and other experts but also by the entire MIT community. A rich repository of digital information and stories (indexed by location, time and thematically) will make possible a truly “Infinite Corridor,” meaning almost limitless ways to explore and understand the Institute — past, present and future. The real goal, however, is a system that any institution can use.What if you could walk around MIT and hold its history in your hand?The MIT Museum Without Walls project is inspired by the idea of in situ exploration, meaning that one would use a mobile device while actually on the campus but it will also be as powerful on a desktop computer halfway around the world.
  • Storytelling also supports critical reflection (Brookfield, 1995). Brookfield (1987, 1991, 1995) sees critical reflection enacted through three “interrelated processes:”  The process by which adults question and then replace or reframe an assumption that, up to that point, has been uncritically accepted as representing commonsense wisdom, The process through which adults take alternative perspective on previously taken for granted ideas, actions, forms of reasoning and ideologies, and The process by which adults come to recognize the hegemonic aspects of dominant cultural values and to understand how self-evident renderings of the ‘natural’ state of the world actually bolsters the power and self-interest of unrepresentative minorities (p. 376). For the learner, stories have the potential to trigger deeper learning and self-reflection and the awareness that can improve receptiveness to new learning, provide confidence regarding progress, and assist in putting personal knowledge in perspective within the organization.
  • Storytelling also supports critical reflection (Brookfield, 1995). Brookfield (1987, 1991, 1995) sees critical reflection enacted through three “interrelated processes:”  The process by which adults question and then replace or reframe an assumption that, up to that point, has been uncritically accepted as representing commonsense wisdom, The process through which adults take alternative perspective on previously taken for granted ideas, actions, forms of reasoning and ideologies, and The process by which adults come to recognize the hegemonic aspects of dominant cultural values and to understand how self-evident renderings of the ‘natural’ state of the world actually bolsters the power and self-interest of unrepresentative minorities (p. 376). For the learner, stories have the potential to trigger deeper learning and self-reflection and the awareness that can improve receptiveness to new learning, provide confidence regarding progress, and assist in putting personal knowledge in perspective within the organization.
  • The greater an individual’s connections and understanding of the workplace, the greater is his or her wisdom. Processing information results in non-declarative knowledge requiring lower levels of thinking; patterns and principles require increasingly higher orders of thinking such as analysis and evaluation. The more an individual knows, the more others respect, seek out, and trust his or her judgments, increasing status. There is evidence that social ranking is related to fidelity and to whom the learner is more likely to believe. Stories for instructional purposes tend to work toward non-declarative knowledge, from a position of wisdom or expertise. It may be that the focus of a story told in the workplace indicates the expertise, status, or knowledge of the storyteller in their professional identity within the institution (Holmes, 2005) and the acknowledgement of that identity by others, superseding the content of the intended message. Stories told for status recognition are less likely to result in learning by the listener. Curci and Bellelli (2004) examined secondary emotion sharing through storytelling that occurs when listeners hear an emotion-laden narrative and subsequently respond emotionally. This type of response has been associated with relationship formation (Christophe & Rime, 1997 as cited in Curci & Bellelli, 2004) and social networks (Christophe, Di Giacomo, & Amatulli, 2001 as cited in Curci & Bellelli, 2004).
  • Storytelling frameworks for digital pedagogies

    1. 1. STORIES Storytelling Frameworks for Digital Pedagogies Dr. Patricia McGee (UTSA) IOL Conference Austin, TX 5.21.2009
    2. 2. Learning across life through stories
    3. 3. Who are we? • Educator • Technical staff • Instructional Designer • Developer • Other
    4. 4. Cultural identity Personal narrative Knowledge Collective consciousness management Lifelong learning
    5. 5. Digital Storytelling … the practice of combining narrative with digital content, including images, sound, and video, to create a short movie, typically with a strong emotional component. EDUCAUSE 7things you need to know
    6. 6. Digital Pedagogies … those instructional frameworks that are used specifically within technology-mediated learning settings. • Connectivism • Gaming • Virtual/immersive • Informal learning
    7. 7. Community of Practice “… a process of social learning that occurs when people who have a common interest in some subject or problem collaborate over an extended period to share ideas, find solutions, and build innovations.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community_of_practice
    8. 8. Storytelling as.. Product Process Instructional Framework Community
    9. 9. How can we make sure learning happens?
    10. 10. How instruction typically gets attention
    11. 11. There will be a test!
    12. 12. There will be a test!
    13. 13. What What Transfer of students learning students know can do Facts Critical thinking Procedures Problem solving Principles Creative thinking Strategies
    14. 14. Stories & Real World • What to do + why to do it • What is valued • Often informal yet enculturated o Measurement of what is known o Indicator of what knowledge means o Conveyor of authority structure
    15. 15. Story as… scenario problem
    16. 16. Traditions Values Norms Integrated real world Individual situations history and human response Rationale for Change/Action
    17. 17. Shared Community Culture Knowledge • Practice & • History & • Intellectual Learning Reference capital
    18. 18. Shared Community Culture Knowledge • Mentoring • Creating new • Bookmarking • Collaborating and enduring • Notetakng contributions
    19. 19. Publication Model of Community Learner Peer Critique Dissemination construction
    20. 20. Portfolio Model of Community Learner Peer/Expert Critique Dissemination Collection/Reflection
    21. 21. Structure and Design What works
    22. 22. What we know about stories … Beginning – Middle -End Characters Context/environment cues Attention getting devices MEMORABLE
    23. 23. A Dramatic Question 7 elements of storytelling Pacing Emotional Content Point of View Gift of Economy Voice Power of Sound The Center for Digital Storytelling
    24. 24. structure design
    25. 25. Empirical Evidence Fidelity
    26. 26. Connect Empirical message to Evidence details Fidelity
    27. 27. Connect message to details Connect Empirical consequence to Evidence message Fidelity
    28. 28. Connect Connect message to consequence details to message Empirical Values relate Evidence to listener Fidelity
    29. 29. Connect consequence to message Connect Values relate message to to listener details Empirical Aspired Evidence Fidelity values
    30. 30. Connect consequence to message Connect Values relate message to to listener details Empirical Aspired Evidence Fidelity values
    31. 31. Design Frameworks Learner Designer • Citizen Journalism • Inquiry • How-to teaching • Learner as Expert/ others SME • Persuasion • Debate • Puzzle • Mystery
    32. 32. Journalistic Storytelling
    33. 33. Connect outcome to goal Connect Values relate objective to to learner process Real world Learning Aspired Connections Design values
    34. 34. Is a digital story ever done? Re-telling and learning
    35. 35. Re-telling Legend Parable Fable
    36. 36. Re-telling? Different archetypes?
    37. 37. (Pearson, 1998) Archetypal plots Archetype Plot Structure Gift Orphan How I suffered Resilience How I survived Wanderer How I escaped Independence How I found my way in the world Warrior How I achieved my goals Courage How I defeated my enemies Altruist How I gave to others Compassion How I sacrificed Returned How I found happiness Faith The promised land Innocent Magician How I changed my world Power
    38. 38. Design Frameworks Learner Pedagogy • Self-reflection • Peer feedback/interv • Journalism iewing • Creative • Peer reviews Writing • Connected • Multiple POVs storytelling
    39. 39. Does it matter how a story is told? Process and intention
    40. 40. Telling a fable Message Turning Point Context Context (3) Reverse/Resolve Message (3) Slogan (Snowden, 2004)
    41. 41. Story structure frameworks Histrionic Digressive Polytrophic Teleological
    42. 42. Dialogic storytelling Type Dialogue as Inclusive-divergent Conversation Inclusive-convergent Inquiry Critical-divergent Debate Critical-convergent Instruction Burbules (1983)
    43. 43. O’Neill, 2002 HIGH Need Fulfillment TIME A Script Epic R LOW HIGH C Color Color S Descriptive Anecdotal Keller, 1999 LOW Need Fulfillment
    44. 44. ? Heuristic Algorithm
    45. 45. Socratic Method Case- Scenario- based based Problem- based
    46. 46. Just because we use a method Doesn’t mean we are telling an effective story or that students are learning
    47. 47. Telling + teaching ENGAGEMENTof the listener/learner through multiple means PREPARATION of the listener/learner for future learning
    48. 48. Co-narration Select story Individually (spontaneous Reflect Tell the story reflect upon or in together the story advance) Determine story (in Tell the story advance or (guide Individually Reflect in the listeners reflect upon together moment- about what the story teller OR to attend to) listeners)
    49. 49. What about the learners?
    50. 50. Focus on discrete details Capture empirical Novices information Focus on the use of formulas and previously learned strategies Operate at lower levels of thinking Caveat: Learners are not novices at everything
    51. 51. Have deep and complex memory of information Have situational and Experts applied frameworks to quickly retrieve knowledge „See‟ the underlying theory, models, and principles Focus on understanding the problem Caveat: Teachers are not experts at everything
    52. 52. Routine • Automatic recall • Declarative knowledge Expertise • Predictable situations Adaptive • Connective thinking • Non-declarative Expertise • Unpredictable (Hatano, 1998)
    53. 53. Mental Function and Skill Level: Five Stage Model (Dreyfus & Dreyfus, 1980, p. 15)
    54. 54. SOLO Taxonomy Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes Pre- Uni- Multi- Extended Relational structural structural structural Abstract
    55. 55. HURRIER Model of Listening Respond Hear Evaluate TRANSFER Understand Interpret Remember
    56. 56. Process of Digital Processing See/h Contribute ear Evaluate/Rate TRANSFER Comment Connect to Identify other details
    57. 57. Design Frameworks Learner Pedagogy Portfolio Peer/Expert critique Cases Cooperation Debate Collaboration Problem Solving Distributed intelligence Portfolio
    58. 58. Engage
    59. 59. Public Owned Interpreted Collaborative/ Communicative Cooperative/P articipative
    60. 60. Situational Awareness
    61. 61. Transfer/Apply
    62. 62. MIT Museum w/o Walls
    63. 63. Critical Reflection Question accepted assumptions Reframe Replace Take on alternative perspectives (Brookfield 1987, 1991, 1995) Ideas, actions, forms of reasoning and ideologies Understand natural vs. hegemonic Think outside the box
    64. 64. Critical Reflection Question accepted assumptions Citizen reporting Collaborative writing Take on alternative perspectives (Brookfield 1987, 1991, 1995) Virtual/Immersive Worlds Understand natural vs. hegemonic Intergenertional/ Cross-cultural Interactions
    65. 65. Connectedness Wisdom Understanding principles Knowledge Understanding patterns Information Understanding relations Understanding Data (Bellinger, Castro & Mills, 2004)
    66. 66. Building Community • Design for growth & change • Create and maintain feedback loops • Empower members over time Kim, A. J., (2000). Community building on the web.Peachpit Press.
    67. 67. Contributive Pedagogy • Social Justice Action • Citizen Journalism • Mentoring • How-to Teaching • Social Network
    68. 68. Jennifer Poo
    69. 69. Thank you!
    70. 70. Patricia.mcgee@utsa.edu

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