Pedagogy in Blended Courses


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Pedagogical patterns in higher education

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  • team based intervention to promote innovation in learning design and assessment practices by academic course teams.
  • Dynamic FAQ tool - anonymous web-based program and mobile SMS phone through which students can consult with each other and lecturer; students can search system for answers; schedule: concepts lecture, practical; concept lecture, practical; assessed tutorial F2F meeting summaries are posted online for those who did not attend (attendance optional)
  • Acquisition model and Participation Model. Acquisition Model = pre-determined learning activities.Participation Model = focused on learning activities where students interact and communicate with each other in a learning community
  • Pedagogy in Blended Courses

    1. 1. PEDAGOGY IN BLENDED COURSES Patricia McGee, Ph.D. The University of Texas @ San AntonioThis work is licensed under the Creative Commons NonCommercial Sampling Plus 1.0License . To view a copy of this license, visit
    2. 2. 2. Pedagogy Three Studie s 1. Best 3. ModelsPractices
    3. 3. METHOD: PEDAGOGY What pedagogical patterns exist among blended course designs? Qualitative meta-analysis 66+/- cases:  higher education only, any discipline  research  non-research that reports results Levels: 23 graduate, 39 undergraduate, 3 instructor Authors: Institutions, non-academic units, academic units, individual faculty members
    4. 4. DEFINITIONS: BEST PRACTICESTwo variations: Combined elements of face-to-face and online courses Provides a substantial portion (30-79%) of content online, typically relying on discussions within a planned and pedagogically driven design
    5. 5. DEFINITIONS: PEDAGOGY No definition Standard definition: classroom + online Pedagogical Definition, e.g., Adventure Learning, Carpe Diem Intervention Contextual definition, e.g., virtual worlds
    7. 7. ONLINE FOCUS1. Process Content2. Discussion3. Groups/Collaboration4. Assessments
    8. 8. TECHNOLOGY W/A PURPOSE1. Communicating  E.g., Dynamic FAQ tool*2. Disseminating Content E.g., F2F meeting summaries are posted online3. Collaborative/Group/Team work * Ngambi, D., & Brown, I. (2009). Intended and unintended consequences of student use of an online questioning environment. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(2), 316-328.
    9. 9. FOCUSED E-INTERACTIONS1. Discussion2. Narrated PPT3. Group/team 1. Organize in F2F4. Peer2peer
    10. 10. [ONLINE] STRATEGIES?Active Learning ExamplesInquiry LearningCELL (Contributing, Exchanging, and Linking for Learning)Collaborative LearningAcquisition Model + Participation ModelDebate
    11. 11. TIME Frameworks Strategies Many: no mention of  Content review and rehearsal time before F2F  E.g., virtual lab, streaming 50/50 or once a week lecture/podcast, reading, A few flexible quizzes) attendance  “Release the instructor from lecturing “  Optional Attendance  E.g., six optional F2F meetings; 5 units - discussion, assigned article & text readings
    12. 12. HOLDOVERSGuest speakersClassroom content presentations by instructorOnline extension of F2F
    13. 13. MINIMAL ATTENTION TO “BLEND”Template-based pedagogy: 1) Revisit past learning (last week, summary) 2) Integrate current (analysis, interpretation, translation for classmates, creating transparency) 3) Foreshadow (upcoming content; thoughtful reading and summary, aimed at student) Fulkerth, R. (2009). A case study from Golden Gate University using course objetives to facillitate blended learning in shortened courses. JALN, 13 (1), 43- 54.
    14. 14. FLEXIBLE LEARNING? Weekly online lecture, supplemented with an instructor- directed laboratory once a week. Online video lectures (narrated PowerPoint) were accessible by the students via their course website. At the conclusion of each video lecture, students were prompted to submit questions concerning the newly covered content through an electronic posting system. After the completion of the online lectures, students were administered a hybrid online survey. The willing student participants completed the survey. To conclude the course, students were administered the same 50 item comprehensive final examination as the students who participated in traditional instruction Ernst, J. V. (2008). A comparison of traditional and hybrid online instructional presentation in communication technology. Journal of Technology Education, 19(2), 40-49.
    15. 15. SUBTLE DIFFERENCES BEST PRACTICES PEDAGOGYFocus on objectives to Focus on activity todetermine the blend determine the blendIntegration between F2F & Report online, F2Fonline importanceVaried interactivity Pedagogical template vs. routine activityActive learning Active learning
    16. 16. BEST PRACTICE: PEDAGOGYProduct• Focus on practice through isolated or progressive activitiesProcess• Assignments and activities support the development of a well-defined outcome that documents and illustrates the learner’s mastery of course contentProject• Assignments and activities support an ongoing step-by-step set of activities and assignments with benchmarks so students know they have accomplished objectives
    17. 17. IS IT REALLY BLENDED? In the face-to-face class, the professor would first introduce the topic for the week with a short lecture and then pose questions or a short case for students to apply the taught concepts. The weeks topic and concepts were then carried onto the electronic discussion board where the professor poses questions for students to respond to, and for them to work with each other in clarifying each others responses. Hwang, A. A., & Arbaugh, J. B. (2009). Seeking feedback in blended learning: Competitive versus cooperative student attitudes and their links to learning outcome. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 25 (3), 280-293.
    18. 18. Proportion of Content Type of Typical Description Delivered Online Course Traditional Course with no online technology used —0% content is delivered in writing or orally.1 to 29% Web Course which uses web-based Facilitated technology to facilitate what is essentially a face-to-face course. Uses a course management system (CMS) or web pages to post the syllabus and assignments, for example.30 to 79% Blended/Hyb Course that blends online and face- rid to-face delivery. Substantial proportion of the content is delivered online, typically uses online discussions, and typically has some face-to-face meetings. Online A course where most or all of the content is80+% delivered online. Typically have no face-to- face meetings.Allen, Seaman and Garrett, Copyright ©2007 by Sloan-C™
    19. 19. WORKFORCE BLENDED/HYBRIDMODELTwo or more forms of distinct methods of instruction, such as Classroom + online (traditional blended) Online + mentor or coach (e.g., independent study) Simulations with structured classes (e.g., Second Life™ and FTF) On-the-job training + informal learning (e.g., internships) Managerial coaching + eLearning (e.g., practicum) (Maisie, 2002, p. 59)
    20. 20. REVISED DEFINITION?Blended course designs involve mixed delivery modes - typically face-to-face and technology mediated accomplish learning outcomes that are pedagogically supported through assignments, activities, and assessments as appropriate for a given mode bridge course environments in a meaningful manner
    21. 21. YOUR THOUGHTS?
    22. 22. NEXT STEPS Instructor Study Design Study Institutional Study Models Analysis
    23. 23. THANK YOU! Dr. Patricia This work is licensed under the Creative Commons NonCommercial Sampling Plus 1.0 License . To view a copy of this license, visit