Operating System Platforms from UNIX Into Cloud
A Perspective of Linux
Dr. PK Mishra (pkmishra@adapro.in)
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Unix linux talk_by_pk_mishra_v1.8

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Introduction to evolution of UNIX To Linux To Cloud. Essential facts a student should know in order to be a decent developer on these platforms. Organized as a talk to students who are studying with major in Computer Science or IT.

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Unix linux talk_by_pk_mishra_v1.8

  1. 1. Operating System Platforms from UNIX Into Cloud A Perspective of Linux Dr. PK Mishra (pkmishra@adapro.in) Chief Technology Advisor Adapro Consulting Used during my talks to students of BIT Mesra, Patna Campus and Central University of Bihar Patna, Campus at Patna, Bihar, India on 12-13th August 2013
  2. 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 2 What is ● UNIX is a computer operating system, control program that works with users to run programs, manage resources, and communicate with other computer system.   ● It is a set of enabling technologies first developed at AT&TIt is a set of enabling technologies first developed at AT&T that have been incorporated into several legally distinct butthat have been incorporated into several legally distinct but closely related operating systems, each of which can beclosely related operating systems, each of which can be considered to be a “UNIX system.” If it looks like UNIX,considered to be a “UNIX system.” If it looks like UNIX, operates like UNIX, runs common UNIX utilities and programs,operates like UNIX, runs common UNIX utilities and programs, and is developed with UNIX as a model, it’s UNIX.and is developed with UNIX as a model, it’s UNIX.
  3. 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 3 History of UNIX Work on UNIX started way back in 1969, when Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and others started working on the “little-used PDP-7 in a corner” at Bell Labs and gradually the product got to be known as UNIX Dennis Ritchie Ken Thompson
  4. 4. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 4 UNIX was Born Here
  5. 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 5 UNIX / Linux Architecture
  6. 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 6 Key UNIX Characteristics Multitasking UNIX lets a computer do several things (many processes) at a time such as printing out one file while the user edits another file. Thus users do not wait for one application to end before starting another. All these happen very smoothly and in a time continuous manner. Multiuser The computer is used by a number of users, appearing as if it is fully owned by him — to run programs, access files, and print documents. All users are isolated from each other and there is no unwanted interference between programs run by them. Interactions between users and processes are allowed strictly as defined by various IPC mechanisms. Portability It is possible to implement UNIX on almost every new hardware as almost 99% of the code is written in C, a language designed for portability. Changes in code is minimal. The modularity of the OS components allows easy updates and upgrades. Programs, Tools, Utilities, Libraries UNIX has hundreds of programs, utilities and tools. Most utilities like shell interpreter behave similar across all implementations. Most programs written in C, use a common layer of libraries of functions and system calls that interact with kernel to get the user initiated tasks executed. Over years they have been standardized so that most developers can extend the functions of the OS by writing these components.
  7. 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 7 Contemporary UNIX Versions ● UNIX is over 40 years old and pretty mature, has many accolodes and influenced many new products ● Now UNIX Trademark is owned by The Open Group, even though many successful UNIX versions existed around the world some prominent ones are – AT&T UNIX, BSD, ULTRIX, OSF/1, Digital UNIX, Tru64UNIX, IRIX, UnixWare, SCO UNIX... ● Current generation of UNIX are massively scalable, highly reliable, very secure and are used for large scale mission critical commercial applications. But they are also quite costly to own and run and have a shrinking market share ● UNIX versions conform to almost all published standards. A few relevant standards from our purpose are – POSIX, Single-UNIX-Specifications 2005 ● As of 2013 just about 3 popular commercial versions exist
  8. 8. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 8 Evolution in Server Side Key Performance Index for Services Delivery - Reliability - Availability - Scalability - Security - Interoperability GRID Cloud
  9. 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 9 IT Deployment Priorities Performance ScalabilityReliability Cost Availability Security
  10. 10. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 10 COST SECURITY CHOICE RELIABILITY Standards Re-use No lock-in Freedom ROI TCOPeer review Flexibility Open Source – Key Advantages
  11. 11. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 11 What is Linux / Why Linux ? ● A Modern Operating System that runs on almost every modern processor ● x86, x86-64, PowerPC, SPARC, Alpha, ARM etc. ● Started as UNIX clone in early 1990s with GNU style licensing ● Linus Torvalds is effectively the father of Linux kernel and still closely controls Linux Kernel Development, now in version 3.8 ● Open Source Model – any one can get, use and modify the source code ● A Linux Distribution has Linux kernel and most other components from GNU and other Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) projects. ● Many people therefore call it GNU/Linux ● Cost of Linux OS is low – in most cases free. One may still need to buy support ● Known for High Value Proposition (TOC, ROI) relative to UNIX / Windows ● Popular Linux Distributions ● Enterprise Grade - Redhat, SUSE, Oracle ● Free / Unsupported – Fedora, openSUSE, Ubutnu, Slackware, BOSS ….
  12. 12. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 12 Some Key Personalities Linus Torvalds
  13. 13. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 13 Common Use Cases • Linux as Network / Edge Servers – DHCP, DNS, Routing, Firewall • Application Servers (Databases, Middleware, Web) – Oracle, DB2, Sybase, SAP, BEA, Apache, JBoss • File & Print Server • Windows Interoperability • Mail, Messaging and Collaboration Server • Storage Consolidation • Server Consolidation using Virtualization, Host for Cloud Services • Gateway to Proprietary UNIX / Mainframe / Windows Servers • Linux on Desktop – Workstations, Home Computers, Games etc. • Host for all types of applications C/C++/FORTRAN/Java Apps to Linux
  14. 14. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 14 Profile of Linux Adoption Over Years Enterprise-Wide IT Infrastructure Simple Web Infrastructure Network Storage Application Hosting Linux Server • Integrated network services • Centralized management • Identity-driven security • Seamless interoperability with UNIX, NetWare and Windows • Virtualization (Storage, Server, Network) • System fabrics (Utility computing) • Third party application services • Enterprise server support • Basic fail-over (a/a, a/p 2 node cluster) • Integration with systems management frameworks • Basic DNS, DHCP, firewall • Web infrastructure: Apache, Tomcat Windows Server Mainframe Integrated Network Services Linux DesktopDBMS Linux Server Linux Server ERP / SAPRDBMS NOW
  15. 15. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 15 Linux Server Functional Layout
  16. 16. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 16 Enterprise Editions Highly Scalable, Robust & Feature-Rich • OS Features – Standard Linux Commands, Tools, utilities, Compilers – Fully Supported LAMP Stack – Can Host most popular ISV products (5000+) – Linux Standards Base 3.2 / 4.0 – RAS Features comparable to UNIX / Windows – Carrier Grade Linux (CGL 4.0) like SUSE Enterprise • Virtualization / Cloud Support – Normally Bundle Xen / KVM / VirtualBox – High Performance Virtual Machine Host & Guest – Vmware / Hyper-V certfied VM types – Fully support cloud models openstack/eclipse/opencloud etc. – Very Decent Tools for Management – Certfied for workload like SAP, DB2, Oracle • Easy Deployment and Management – Automated Deployment, Management – GUI Tools for Standards Based Management • Trusted Security – Enhanced App Security using AppArmor, SELinux – Some are EAL4+ Certified – Network Detection, Monitoring, Filtering – Support for Priviledge user monitoring • Highest Performance and Scalability – Proven with 1024+ CPUs, 24TB RAM – Full use of new multicore CPU from Intel/AMD – Very popular as Top500 HPC Nodes • Drivers For Most OEM Hardware – x86, x86-64, ia64, ppc, ppc64, s390x – Certified for most storage, network, graphics • High Availability / Mission Critical Featues – HA solution with many sophisticated technologies – Clustered File System OCFS2, LVMS2 – Clusters can cover VM and Metro LANs • Interoperability – Access to & from UNIX / Windowss (NFS / SAMBA) – Active Directory / LDAP / Kerberos integration – Can run many MS .NET Applications ( Mono) – Run most Java Apps (supports all JVM options) – MS Office file format compatibility
  17. 17. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 17 Linux Desktops Very Capable & Productive ● Works in any Network environment - Windows, Linux, UNIX, Mainframe ● With additional software / configuration, seamlessly authenticates in LDAP / Active Directory / NIS environments ● Seamlessly connects to Windows SMB/CIFS, UNIX NFS and Novell File & Print services ● Supports all major Browsers – Firefox, Chrome, Opera ● Seamless mail exchange with most servers - MS Exchange, Novell GroupWise, Lotus Notes, UNIX / Linux mail ● With Novell Client tightly integrates with Novell NetWare / OES2 based services ● Readily handles Microsoft Office document formats ● Handles most popular media formats (may need to install additional codecs) ● Enterprise grade client software if installed support major ISV offerings like Oracle, SAP, IBM, GroupWise, eDirectory, Citrix, ZENWorks, VPN Clients etc.
  18. 18. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 18 Few UNIX/Linux Commands
  19. 19. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 19 Command Mapping DOS/Windows ~ UNIX/Linux
  20. 20. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 20 What Should a Student Do? ● It is essential to know the platform better than an ordinary user. ● A typical Linux (UNIX) Server or Desktop provides ample of opportunity to do this. Gain a lot by using the command prompt. ● Learn at least one programming language and one scripting language well – helps you to learn methodical problem solving – Languages : C / C++ / Java – Scripting : UNIX Shell, Perl, Python, Javascript – IDE & Development Tools : GNU, Eclipse, NetBeans ● Practice Cross Platform Development for Windows / Android / iOS can be tried by using systems like Mono, Xamarin (any .NET/C# developer can do it)
  21. 21. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 21 What Is Virtualization ? How Does It Relate to Cloud? OS OS OS OS OS VM Virtualization Layer Hardware A A A A A A A  Partitioning of Resources  Abstraction of a Physical Machine that exists in the Virtualization layer  Virtual machine monitor (hypervisor)  Helps in Utilizing resources like CPU and Memory Better. Helps consolidation on fewer HW Boxes, reduces energy consumption and floor space utilization  Improved reliability and availability of virtual machines  Flexibility in resource allocation and workload management  In line with Green Computing Ideas Cloud Computing uses Virtualization as an important underlying technology to manage workloads on virtual machines, number and capacity of which are elastic and demand driven.
  22. 22. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 22 How Do These Relate To Cloud? ● Cloud computing manifests in three major forms – Infrastructure as Sevice (IaaS) – Platform as Service (PaaS) – Software as Service (SaaS) ● In an IaaS scenario you still worry about the OS platform. Linux is very relevant in this context ● PaaS services can be hosted on a variety of platforms, may have interoperability concerns and are normally based on your platform preferences - you choose the OS ● SaaS model is almost agnostic of the OS platform and all you care about is your application services and their behaviour in your context. Platform OS considerations normally do not bother you. ● Thankfully, SaaS model is increasingly getting popular in mass scale use of computers
  23. 23. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 23 Summary - We discussed a bit of UNIX, Linux and their evolution - We talked about contemporary systems, some of their features and how they can be leveraged - We discussed the leading trend of push into the cloud with virtualization as a key enabling technology - We also prepared a list of things a student should do
  24. 24. _________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright Adapro Consulting 24 References With sincere thanks, I acknowledge using contents / ideas and style of depiction from foils – Of public presentations I made for Novell as an Employee during 2006 through 2011 – Www.slideShare.net ● UNIX By Yan Feng, 17, Mar, 2012 ● UNIX & C Revisited By Jim Huang, 22, Oct, 2012 ● Love the Terminal By Mike West, Dec, 2007 – Www.google.com Thank You

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