IMPACTS OF BASALTIC VOLCANISM ON INCISED FLUVIAL SYSTEMS<br />DOES THE RIVER GIVE A DAM?<br />Kyle House, Nevada Bureau of...
Goal of this talk	<br />Describe the characteristics of the response of the Owyhee River, OR to the incursion of voluminou...
‘When lava met valley’<br />Intracanyon lavas create extreme disruption of ‘normal’ fluvial processes<br />Geomorphic effe...
‘When lava met valley’<br />Morphological effects<br />Channel and valley re-paving<br />River diversion / realignment<br ...
Intracanyon flows: ‘When lava met valley’<br />Hydrological effects / Ecological effects<br />Hey, there’s a lake!<br />Wh...
‘When lava met valley’<br />Regional effects<br />Master stream forced to cut lava for 10ks of years<br />‘Normal’ vertica...
The Owyhee River<br />Tributary to the Snake River<br />Junction of Nevada, Oregon, and Idaho<br />Drainage area 8600 sq. ...
Middle Owyhee River: Quaternary lava flows<br />Many late Cenozoic flows on the plateau, but only 6 extensive and well-pre...
Re-Paving courtesy of Bogus Lavas<br />
The Bogus Lava paleovalley: upstream view<br />
Intracanyon lava flow stratigraphy: flow margins<br />
Middle Owyhee River: Quaternary lava dams<br />6 principal intacanyon lava flows<br />5 extant lava dams / deltas<br />Gre...
Saddle Butte Lava Dam<br />
Hello, water? It’s me…lava!<br />Passage zone<br />Subaerial lava<br />40 m<br />Lava delta<br />‘foresets’<br />Saddle Bu...
Saddle Butte lava dam<br />Subaerial lava<br />Lava delta<br />Dam Forebay<br />Fluvio-lacustrine sediments<br />landslide...
Greeley Bar lava dam<br />Greeley lava flow and lava delta<br />Bogus Rim lava<br />
West Crater Lava Dam<br />
West Crater lava dam stratigraphy<br />West Crater <br />lava delta<br />Fossil<br />tributary<br />Paleovalley divide<br ...
West Crater lava delta and fossil tributary<br />
Lava dam models: Crow et al., 2008<br />
Type section of lava dam failure?<br />Mile 192, Colorado River in Grand Canyon<br />
Grand Canyon lava dam failure deposit<br />
Grand Canyon lava dam failure deposit<br />
Lava dam models: Crow et al., 2008<br />Owyhee lava dams<br />
Spillway gravels on Bogus Lavas<br />
Bogus Rim lava spillway gravels<br />human<br />
Spillway Gravels, West Crater lava<br />Yep, that’s a fault<br />
1400 sq. km<br />
West Crater lava dam lake seds<br />Saddle Butte lava<br />West Crater lava dam (60-80 ka)<br />47 ka<br />55 ka<br />25 m...
Why does the river give a dam?<br />
The gift that keeps on giving:The lava-landslide link<br />Lava flows in the Owyhee lead to landslides<br />River diversio...
West Crater Lava Margin FAIL<br />
Capping basalt<br /><ul><li>Displacement
Undercutting
‘Rebound’
Lava Unloading</li></ul>Sediments<br />Valley wall landslide<br />Intracanyon<br />Lava flow<br />undercutting<br />displa...
Owyhee landslide dam breach<br />
Fluvial Incision History: river scale<br />Cooper Brossy figure<br />
Fluvial incision chronometers<br />1.8 Ma<br />1146 m<br />240 ka<br />972 m<br />70 ka<br />930 m<br />915 m<br />
Lava Flow profiles: Reach-scale<br />Meters<br />Meters<br />
The Bogus Lava background rate<br />80 m<br />220 m<br />
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Intracanyon lava flows: Does the river give a dam

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Talk given at GSA about intracanyon lava flows on the Owyhee River, OR

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  • Very cool Kyle - I've signed up so that I can download your show... I was going to ask for copies of some of those gorgeous outcrop photos!!! Kathy
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Intracanyon lava flows: Does the river give a dam

  1. 1. IMPACTS OF BASALTIC VOLCANISM ON INCISED FLUVIAL SYSTEMS<br />DOES THE RIVER GIVE A DAM?<br />Kyle House, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology<br />Cooper Brossy, Fugro /WLA, Inc.<br />Liz Safran, Lewis & Clark College<br />Lisa Ely, Central Washington University<br />Jim O’Connor, U.S. Geological Survey<br />Owyhee River Interstate Geological Investigation Network<br />
  2. 2. Goal of this talk <br />Describe the characteristics of the response of the Owyhee River, OR to the incursion of voluminous basaltic lava flows.<br />Thanks to input from<br />NinadBondre<br />Kathy Cashman<br />Duane Champion<br />Ryan Crow<br />Natalia Deligne<br />Cassie Fenton<br />Nick Foit<br />Gordon Grant<br />Chris Henry<br />Keith Howard<br />Karl Karlstrom<br />Caitlin Orem<br />Shannon Othus<br />Tabitha Prosser<br />Terry Spell<br />Brent Turrin<br />
  3. 3. ‘When lava met valley’<br />Intracanyon lavas create extreme disruption of ‘normal’ fluvial processes<br />Geomorphic effects<br />Hydrological effects / Ecological effects<br />Regional landscape effects<br />
  4. 4. ‘When lava met valley’<br />Morphological effects<br />Channel and valley re-paving<br />River diversion / realignment<br />Channel Blockage and damming<br />
  5. 5. Intracanyon flows: ‘When lava met valley’<br />Hydrological effects / Ecological effects<br />Hey, there’s a lake!<br />What the…there’s no sediment!<br />Uh-oh, the new dam is leaking!<br />!<br />
  6. 6. ‘When lava met valley’<br />Regional effects<br />Master stream forced to cut lava for 10ks of years<br />‘Normal’ vertical and lateral erosion thwarted<br />Huge rock and sediment pulse to manage<br />Deceleration of landscape lowering<br />
  7. 7. The Owyhee River<br />Tributary to the Snake River<br />Junction of Nevada, Oregon, and Idaho<br />Drainage area 8600 sq. miles<br />Bulk of watershed on volcanic plateau<br />Miocene rhyolite lavas<br />Dispersed lacustrine basins<br />Mio-Pliocene plateau basalt<br />Pliocene river canyon<br />Plio-Pleistocene intra-canyon basalt flows (6-8)<br />Idaho<br />Oregon<br />Nevada<br />
  8. 8. Middle Owyhee River: Quaternary lava flows<br />Many late Cenozoic flows on the plateau, but only 6 extensive and well-preserved Quaternary intracanyon flows at surface<br />Greeley lava<br />Qbg: .78 to 1.8 Ma<br />Coffee Pot<br />Qbcp &lt; 7 ka<br />Bogus Rim Qbr: 1.8 Ma<br />Clarks Butte Qbc: 240 ka<br />Rocky Butte Qbrb: 30 ka<br />Saddle Butte Qbs:145 ka<br />West Crater Qbw: 60 ka<br />10 km<br />
  9. 9. Re-Paving courtesy of Bogus Lavas<br />
  10. 10. The Bogus Lava paleovalley: upstream view<br />
  11. 11. Intracanyon lava flow stratigraphy: flow margins<br />
  12. 12. Middle Owyhee River: Quaternary lava dams<br />6 principal intacanyon lava flows<br />5 extant lava dams / deltas<br />Greeley Bar<br />Qbg: .78 to 1.8 Ma<br />Iron Point<br />Qbcp &lt; 7 ka<br />Ryegrass<br />Qbr: 1.8 Ma<br />Sand Spring<br />Qbc: 240 ka<br />Granite Ck<br />Qbrb: 30 ka<br />Qbw: 60 ka<br />Qbs:145 ka<br />10 km<br />
  13. 13. Saddle Butte Lava Dam<br />
  14. 14. Hello, water? It’s me…lava!<br />Passage zone<br />Subaerial lava<br />40 m<br />Lava delta<br />‘foresets’<br />Saddle Butte lava-water interaction features<br />
  15. 15. Saddle Butte lava dam<br />Subaerial lava<br />Lava delta<br />Dam Forebay<br />Fluvio-lacustrine sediments<br />landslide<br />Earlier advance<br />
  16. 16. Greeley Bar lava dam<br />Greeley lava flow and lava delta<br />Bogus Rim lava<br />
  17. 17. West Crater Lava Dam<br />
  18. 18. West Crater lava dam stratigraphy<br />West Crater <br />lava delta<br />Fossil<br />tributary<br />Paleovalley divide<br />Saddle Butte lava<br />
  19. 19. West Crater lava delta and fossil tributary<br />
  20. 20. Lava dam models: Crow et al., 2008<br />
  21. 21. Type section of lava dam failure?<br />Mile 192, Colorado River in Grand Canyon<br />
  22. 22. Grand Canyon lava dam failure deposit<br />
  23. 23. Grand Canyon lava dam failure deposit<br />
  24. 24. Lava dam models: Crow et al., 2008<br />Owyhee lava dams<br />
  25. 25. Spillway gravels on Bogus Lavas<br />
  26. 26. Bogus Rim lava spillway gravels<br />human<br />
  27. 27. Spillway Gravels, West Crater lava<br />Yep, that’s a fault<br />
  28. 28. 1400 sq. km<br />
  29. 29. West Crater lava dam lake seds<br />Saddle Butte lava<br />West Crater lava dam (60-80 ka)<br />47 ka<br />55 ka<br />25 m of lacustrine sediments with Cascadian tephra layers. Evidence for long-lived lake<br />
  30. 30. Why does the river give a dam?<br />
  31. 31. The gift that keeps on giving:The lava-landslide link<br />Lava flows in the Owyhee lead to landslides<br />River diversion<br />Undercutting<br />Lateral Unloading<br />Landslide-rebound<br />Stratigraphic loading<br />
  32. 32. West Crater Lava Margin FAIL<br />
  33. 33. Capping basalt<br /><ul><li>Displacement
  34. 34. Undercutting
  35. 35. ‘Rebound’
  36. 36. Lava Unloading</li></ul>Sediments<br />Valley wall landslide<br />Intracanyon<br />Lava flow<br />undercutting<br />displacement<br />unloading<br />Lava<br />margin landslide<br />The Lava-Landslide Link<br />
  37. 37. Owyhee landslide dam breach<br />
  38. 38. Fluvial Incision History: river scale<br />Cooper Brossy figure<br />
  39. 39. Fluvial incision chronometers<br />1.8 Ma<br />1146 m<br />240 ka<br />972 m<br />70 ka<br />930 m<br />915 m<br />
  40. 40. Lava Flow profiles: Reach-scale<br />Meters<br />Meters<br />
  41. 41. The Bogus Lava background rate<br />80 m<br />220 m<br />
  42. 42. Long term incision rate from Bogus Rim lava<br />270m in 1.8 Ma<br />0.15 mm /yr<br />
  43. 43. Incision Rates at Dogleg Bend<br />T5<br />Spillway<br />38.13 ka<br />50<br />T4<br />34.95 ka<br />Meters above river surface<br />40<br />30<br />1 mm/yr<br />20<br />T3<br />T2<br />14.77 ka<br />11.1 ka<br />10<br />T3<br />T4<br />T5<br />T2<br />
  44. 44. Thwarted Erosion<br />That which may have transpired in absence of intracanyon lava flows<br />What is the tangible influence of extrafluvial processes?<br />What isn’t in the landscape because of this?<br />From Hamblin, 1994<br />

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