Stephen Howard Nature V Nurture

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Brain Research - LTCY 199 - Summer 2009 - Nature vs Nurture

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Stephen Howard Nature V Nurture

  1. 1. How the Brain is Wired: Nature vs. Nurture LTCY 199 Stephen Howard
  2. 2. Definition of Nature/Nurture  Nature: Also known as “nativism” or “innatism”.  The idea that traits or abilities are “native” or coded into human brains at birth.  Nurture: Also known as “empiricism” or “behavioralism”.  The idea that intelligence is obtained, not through birth, but experience.
  3. 3. Tabula Rasa  Term coined by John Locke, Latin for ‘blank slate’.  Center of Nature v. Nurture Argument.  Tabula rasa favors the idea of nurture.  Occasionally considered irrelevant by supporters of nature, because the cerebral cortex has predefined programming.
  4. 4. Elaboration on Nature  Supporters of nature, in the most pragmatic form, believe that individuals are most influenced by biological factors.  Supporters of nature tend to cite the theories of Freud, Piaget and Erikson  Freud supports psychosexual ideology, which believes that humans are fueled through lives via their sexual desires.  Erikson believes in psychosocial ideology, which states that humans go through life, struggling to obtain a suitable social status.  Piaget will also be mentioned briefly, concerning his studies on learning.
  5. 5. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages  Infancy (Birth to 16 Months)  Trust vs. Mistrust  Early Childhood (2 to 3 Years)  Autonomy vs. Shame and Misdoubt  Preschool (3 to 5 Years)  Initiative vs. Guilt  School Age (6 to 11 Years)  Industry vs. Inferiority  Adolescence (12 to 18 Years)  Identity vs. Role Confusion  Young Adulthood (19 to 40 Years)  Intimacy vs. Isolation  Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 Years)  Generativity vs. Stagnation  Maturity (65 to Death)  Ego Integrity vs. Despair Hollitscher, W. (1970). Sigmund Freud, an introduction; a presentation of his theory, and a discussion of the relationship between psychoanalysis and sociology.
  6. 6. Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development  Oral, 0-18 Months.  Focuses on the mouth.  Anal, 18-36 Months.  Focuses on urination and defecation.  Phallic, 3-5 Years.  Oedipus and Electra Complex.  Latency, 6 Years-Puberty.  Identified by suppression of sexual desires.  Genital, Post-Puberty.  Identified by the want to fulfill sexual desires. Syque (2002-2009). Freud's Psychosexual Stage Theory. Retrieved July 9, 2009 from , Web site: http://changingminds.org/explanations/learning/freud_stage.htm
  7. 7. Piaget’s Stages of Development  Sensori-Motor  Birth-2 Years  Pre-Operational  2-7 Years  Concrete Operational  7-11 Years  Formal Operational  11 Years-Onward Atherton, J. (May 23, 2009). Piaget's Developmental Theory. Retrieved July 9, 2009 from , Web site: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm
  8. 8. Concerning Nurture  Science tends to have an obvious bias towards nature, seeing nurture is difficult to research.  Majority of nurture research refers directly to behaviorism
  9. 9. Behaviorism and Behaviorism Theory  Developed during 20th century.  Behaviorism: ‘Response to Stimuli’.  Common theory used in education.  Several different ‘subcategories’ within the behaviorism theory.
  10. 10. Behaviorism Subtopics  Classical  Methodological  Radical  Teleological  Additional subtopics are cited, but these subcategories are considered ‘standard’. Culatta, R. (2009). Behaviorist Learning Theory. Retrieved July Theory. 9, 2009 from , Web site: http://www.innovativelearning.com/teaching/behaviorism.html
  11. 11. Why Does This Matter?  Learning about your nature, your nurture, contributes to your self-awareness.  Self awareness leads to self-actualization.  Reaching self-actualization makes us more proficient learners.
  12. 12. Works Cited  Atherton, J. (May 23, 2009). Piaget's Developmental Theory. Retrieved July 9, 2009 from , Web site: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm  Tabula Rasa. Retrieved July 9, 2009 from Web site: http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Tabula_rasa  Hollitscher, W. (1970). Sigmund Freud, an introduction; a presentation of his theory, and a discussion of the relationship between psychoanalysis and sociology.  Syque (2002-2009). Freud's Psychosexual Stage Theory. Retrieved July 9, 2009 from , Web site: http://changingminds.org/explanations/learning/freud_stage.htm  McDevitt, T. M. & Ormrod, J. E. (2004). Child Development: Educating and Working with Children and Adolescents (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH: Pearson.

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