Ch. 1 An introduction to chemistry


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Chapter one goes over Scientific method, Measurements and Precision as well as Units of Measurement

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  • Picture illustrates different type of research. Observation and research are essential for collecting
  • The hypothesis must be based on the observations otherwise it is pointless.
  • Research and experimentation must be done in to test the original hypothesis but, it is not required to concur with the original hypothesis.
  • You must refine the hypothesis based on the information gathered during experimentation. Then retest the new hypothesis.
  • Then you record results and if possible publish results on the web, therefor it can be accessed by everyone including the instructor.
  • Science is an excellent tool for discovery and one could be perfectly content with it serving the purpose simply based on discovery but, if there is an application that would make life easier for the general public it would make Scientific research far more productive because the public would support it.
  • A kilometer is therefore more appropriate for describing the average distance to the moon: 384,403 kilometers rather than 384,403,000 meters.
  • Ch. 1 An introduction to chemistry

    1. 1. Textbook: Baker
    2. 2. Section 1.1
    3. 3.  Chemistry is the study of the structure and behavior of matter
    4. 4.  Chemistry allows you to ◦ Ask questions  Questions about how the natural world works & why ◦ Answer questions  Answer the same questions you posed ◦ Solve problems  Mechanical, Technical and Social problems can be elucidated
    5. 5. Section 1.2 – 1.3
    6. 6. The properties of matter mustbe measured correctly andreported without ambiguity.Section 1.4
    7. 7.  Value- A quantities description that includes both a number and a unit Units- quantities defined by standards that people have agreed to use to compare one event/object to another
    8. 8.  The Customary system was based on: ◦ Inch (unit) = width of average thumb (standard) ◦ Foot = typical length of an adult foot (which varied) Metric system ◦ Created by the French in the 18th Century ◦ Consistent and systematic set of standards
    9. 9.  Meter (Greek metron, “a measure”) ◦ Originally one ten-millionth of the distance from the North pole to the equator ◦ Today it is defined as the distance light travels in 1/299,792,458 second
    10. 10.  A modern elaboration of the original metric system, was set up in 1960 Base units- Units from which all other units are derived
    11. 11.
    12. 12.  SI base units and derived units are not always a convenient size for making measurements ◦ A way deriving new units that are larger and smaller has been developed  Scientist attach prefixes to base units which multiply and divide a base unit by a power of 10
    13. 13.
    14. 14.  Mass is the measure of the amount of matter in an object Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space Weight is a measure of the force of gravitational attraction between it and a significantly large body
    15. 15.  An objects weight on the surface of a celestial body (i.e. Earth) depends on its mass and on the distance between it and the center of a celestial body. Mass is also defined as the property of matter that leads to gravitational attractions between objects; this always gives rise to weight In SI system mass is described by units such as kilogram, milligram and gram
    16. 16.  Mass is a constant and will remain the same As the distance between an object and its celestial body increases its weight decreases ◦ Weight is actually the measure of the force of gravitational attraction for a body, it can be described with force units  SI unit newton, N Weight is not really a concern of Chemist, therefor it won’t be mentioned much in Chemistry
    17. 17.
    18. 18.  The temperature of an object is a measure of the degree of motion of its particles ◦ As the motion decreases; the temperature of an object decreases Absolute zero is the point beyond which the motion of the particles, and therefor the temperature cannot be decreased ◦ Therefor all Kelvin temperatures are positive
    19. 19. Section 1.5
    20. 20.
    21. 21.  Sometimes it is necessary to use trailing zeros to show the uncertainty The accuracy or uncertainty are often showed on the device of measuring
    22. 22. 1. Define all of the terms in the chapter2. Describe how science is general is done3. Use the SI base units and their abbreviations to describe length, mass, time, temperature, and volume4. Describe the relationship between liters and cubic meters5. State the numbers of fractions represented by the following metric prefixes, and write their abbreviations: gigi, mega, kilo, centi, milli, micro, nano, and pico6. Describe the relationships between the metric units that do not have prefixes (such as meter, gram, and liter) and units derived from them by the addition of prefixes.