BEAR ENGINEERIN G, CE498 TEAM10US 231, NEW CONSTRUCTION I-64 TO SR 56, DIVISION II            PHASE II   D U B O I S C O U...
TA B L E O F C ON T E N TSTable of Contents..................................................................................
L I S T OF F I G U R E SFigure 1-1: Reduced Median for HCWC traverse.........................................................
L I S T OF A P P E N D I C E SAppendix 1- Environmental Concerns and Mitigation and Pavement SelectionAppendix 2- Structur...
E XE C U TI V E S U M M A R Y                                 BEAR ENGINEERING COLLABORATION          US 231, in Dubois Co...
I N T R OD U C TI O N                                 BEAR ENGINEERING COLLABORATION        The purpose of the Phase II En...
to a 22 foot median is 2900 feet in the northbound and southbound travel lanes. Aerial photographsconfirm no crossings or ...
the compacted topsoil. Forty pounds of seed will be applied per acre in order to attain 80 % vegetativecover as per Indian...
Wetland Complex. If additional mitigation is needed for other impacted wetlands, this site will be wellsuited to fulfill a...
With a construction time of the mitigated site estimated at 20 days, the project will not be able to beginuntil approximat...
The three horizontal curves designed for the realignment of the mainline near Straight River canbe seen in Figure A2-1 of ...
calculated, an appropriately sized girder could be chosen for the bridge. Using the AISC SteelConstruction Manual, a W44x3...
inches tall. There will be two rows of shear stud connectors per girder spaced at 1 foot 3 inches on center.The design cal...
Figure 2-2: Straight River Bridge Elevation          As discussed previously, the realignment of the mainline near Straigh...
P AV E M E N T C O N S I D E R A TI O N                       P AV E ME NT SEL ECT I ON BY DA N IEL C RO NIN        While ...
There were three main categories of inputs used to analyze the pavement design: traffic, climate, and structural data. Tab...
shows the final asphalt pavement cross-sectional dimensions. The pavement passed in all criteria testedby MEPDG. A sample ...
The intersection profile includes considerations such as approach grade, storage and turning lanesand cross-section transi...
intersections, thereby reducing the conflict area and increasing the safety of the facility. A slotted left-turn lane incr...
C U LV E R T C O N S I D E R A TI ON S                                      BY TU N YAP O R N D EC H AVA S        Culverts...
From the analysis, two barrels of 8 feet x 5 feet reinforced concrete box were chosen for structure     No. 27-25, and an ...
be found in Appendix 4-2. The elevations of the bottom edge of the headwall were estimated based on the   culvert sizes wi...
F O UN DATI O N C ONS ID ER ATI O N              For the culvert design, proper foundation is required because the base su...
Table 4-5: Roadside Safety Design-Guardrails distancesStructure     Distance prior to          Distance beyond            ...
the maximum distance that bulldozers will push material. Above that line, articulated trucks will haul thematerial. Averag...
Table 5-1: Haul Data                                  Haul                Distance (m)     Quantity (m3)                  ...
Equipment Type                         Model                     Number Required               Dump Truck                 ...
C O S T E S TI M A T E                                        BY DA N IE L PAU LS E N        The total project cost is est...
REF ER ENC ES[1] – “AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.” Washington, DC. AASHTO. 2010.[2] – “AISC Steel Construction...
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Senior Design Project

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This is my Senior Design Project at Purdue University. This is the Phase II report for the design of New US 231 in southern Indiana.

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Senior Design Project

  1. 1. BEAR ENGINEERIN G, CE498 TEAM10US 231, NEW CONSTRUCTION I-64 TO SR 56, DIVISION II PHASE II D U B O I S C O U N T Y, I N N OVEMBER 30, 2010 DANIEL CRONIN (TEAM LEADER) TUNYAPORN DECH AVAS DANIEL PAULSEN ANDREW SENTER ROSS WAGNER
  2. 2. TA B L E O F C ON T E N TSTable of Contents.........................................................................................................................i  List of Figures.............................................................................................................................ii  List of Tables..............................................................................................................................ii  List of Appendices .................................................................................................................... iii  Executive Summary...................................................................................................................iv  Introduction ................................................................................................................................1  Environmental Considerations ....................................................................................................1  Structural Considerations ............................................................................................................5  Pavement Consideration............................................................................................................10  At-Grade Intersection................................................................................................................12  Culvert Considerations..............................................................................................................15  Construction considerations ......................................................................................................19  Cost Estimate............................................................................................................................23  References ................................................................................................................................24   i
  3. 3. L I S T OF F I G U R E SFigure 1-1: Reduced Median for HCWC traverse........................................................................1  Figure 2-1: Deck Design for the Straight River Bridge................................................................7  Figure 2-2: Straight River Bridge Elevation ................................................................................9  Figure 4-1: Planview of Wingwalls and Side-tapering.................................................................1  Figure 4-2: Riprap Design Profile View ......................................................................................1  Figure 5-1: Haul Diagram .........................................................................................................20  Figure 5-2: Mass Diagram.........................................................................................................20   L I S T OF TA B L E STable 2-1: Maximum Live Load Moment Demand for Straight River Bridge..............................6  Table 2-2: Factored Moment Demand for Straight River Bridge .................................................7  Table 3-1: MEPDG Input..........................................................................................................11  Table 3-2: Climatic Input ..........................................................................................................11  Table 3-3: Structural Input ........................................................................................................12  Table 3-4: Cycle times for through traffic .................................................................................14  Table 3-5: Cycle times for slotted left-turn traffic......................................................................14  Table 4-1: Culvert - Channels properties ..................................................................................15  Table 4-2: Culvert Inlet Design Dimension ...............................................................................16  Table 4-3: Riprap Design Dimension ........................................................................................17  Table 4-4: The bearing capacity test and foundation design.......................................................18  Table 4-5: Roadside Safety Design-Guardrails distances...........................................................19  Table 5-1: Haul Data.................................................................................................................21  Table 5-2: Equipment Recommendation Summary ...................................................................21  Table 5-3: Cost Summary .........................................................................................................23   ii
  4. 4. L I S T OF A P P E N D I C E SAppendix 1- Environmental Concerns and Mitigation and Pavement SelectionAppendix 2- Structural ConsiderationsAppendix 3- Pavement Design and At Grade IntersectionAppendix 4- Culvert DesignAppendix 5- Construction and CostAppendix 6- Bear Engineering Phase I Report*See first page of each appendix for detailed list of contents iii
  5. 5. E XE C U TI V E S U M M A R Y BEAR ENGINEERING COLLABORATION US 231, in Dubois County, Indiana, currently produces substandard statistics in regards to traffic accidents,fatality rates and levels of service. This report provides final construction and design considerations for a proposedalignment of US 231 alleviating the aforementioned issues. Environmental impacts and mitigation were considered throughout the design of new US 231.Approximately 2.7 acres of forested wetland were impacted in the Hunley Creek Wetland Complex. The medianwas reduced from 80 feet to 22 feet in order to minimize adverse impacts. A construction plan was designedincluding tree protection for all trees within 50 feet of construction. Silt fence, temporary seeding, riprap chutes, anda construction ingress were designed in order to prevent erosion, sedimentation, and other adverse impacts. Themitigation for the impacted wetland is designed to take place 10000 feet upstream on a 15.1 acre site. Pin Oak treeswill be the focus of the 5 year vegetation based mitigation plan. The total cost for the mitigation project is estimatedat $400,000. No endangered species will be negatively impacted due to the project. For the structural aspects of this project a twin structure bridge over Straight River was designed. Thisbridge will be 85 feet long and 41 feet wide. Five W44x335 steel girders were made composite with a reinforcedconcrete deck. The bridge will rest on shallow reinforced concrete foundations with a bearing capacity of 26,800pounds per square foot each. The clay under the foundations will undergo approximately 2.2 inches of consolidationsettlement. The approaches to carry SR 162 over the mainline were also designed. The approaches will have a gradeof +2% for the roadway. The side slopes of the approaches will have a grade of 4H:1V. This grade was determinedto be stable with a factor of safety of 7.6. Both an economic and site analysis were performed to determine whether rigid or flexible pavement shouldbe used. Flexible pavement was chosen because the soil where the road is constructed is highly corrosive toconcrete, and rigid pavement is initially twice as expensive as flexible pavement. The Mechanistic EmpiricalPavement Design Guide (MEPDG) was used to analyze the pavement over the design life of the roadway.Dimensions for the pavement are: 1.5” top asphalt layer, 2.5” intermediate asphalt layer, 8” base asphalt layer, 4.5”crushed gravel subbase layer, 3.5” crushed stone subbase layer, and a clay subgrade. The at-grade intersection considered was at proposed US 231 and Schnellville Rd. The design vehicle wasthe IDV WB-65 Interstate Route Semitrailer. The intersection is signalized, has four legs, has left turn lanes on allapproaches, right turn lanes on the northbound (NB) and southbound (SB) approaches, and proposed US 231intersects Schnellville Rd. perpendicularly. There is a 100’ taper lane, 680’ deceleration lane, and 100’ storage lanefor the NB and SB approaches of proposed US 231. There is a 100’ storage lane for the eastbound (EB) andwestbound (WB) approaches of Schnellville Rd. The total cycle time for the intersection is 150 seconds with 100sec. green cycle, 3 sec. yellow cycle, and 47 sec. red cycle for the NB and SB through lanes and a 27 sec. greencycle, 3 sec. yellow cycle, and 120 sec. red cycle for the EB and WB through lanes. The intersection will contain aslotted left-turn lane and a raised median to increase the level of service and safety of the intersection. Culvert analyses were performed to ensure that the proposed culverts are cost effective while meetingperformance needs. Structure 27-25 and Structure 27-26 were analyzed in depth. Based on flow rates for the onehundred year event and the channel properties, two 8 feet by 5 feet barrels were used for Structure 27-25 and one 8feet by 5 feet culvert for Structure 27-26 was designed. Rectangular concrete slab headwalls and squared-edgewingwalls at a 45 degree angle will be constructed at both the inlet and outlet of the culvert structures. Class-IIriprap will also be placed along the channel both upstream and downstream. Additionally, a bearing capacity testwas performed, and soil replacement was suggested. The replacement material shall be saturated sand with mediumdensity. End guardrails shall be placed along the road to ensure driver safety with total distance of 260 feet and 235feet for Structures 27-25 and 27-26, respectively. Considerations were made for the construction of proposed US 231. A haul road was designed, which willbe composed of the compacted subgrade and maintained by motorgraders. Sample haul and mass diagrams weremade for a ½ mile segment, simulating the transportation of soil. Over the sample segment, articulated trucks willmove approximately 150000 cubic meters of soil an average of 492 meters. Bull dozers will move approximately32500 cubic meters of soil an average of 110 meters. A construction plan was made for the transport and placementof the Straight River bridge beams. A list of equipment was made based on the required output and themanufacturer’s specifications. The project duration will be 21 weeks, assuming that the bridges and overpasses willbe constructed simultaneously with the 4 lane roadway. This also assumes 40 hour weeks. The total project cost was found to be 42.4 million dollars. iv
  6. 6. I N T R OD U C TI O N BEAR ENGINEERING COLLABORATION The purpose of the Phase II Engineering Report is to provide an alternative to the existing US231, producing a safer and more efficient mode of transportation through southern Indiana. US 231traverses Dubois County, Indiana, bisecting the cities of Jasper and Huntingburg where congestion is anissue. Levels of service and traffic accident rates in these areas are substandard compared to statewideaverages. This report will propose comprehensive design considerations for a new US 231 alignment.Many considerations will be made to ensure the proposed US 231 alignment meetssafety and efficiency standards that are well above the statewide averages. This report will detail thefollowing considerations: environmental impacts and mitigation, structural considerations, pavementselection and design, at-grade intersection considerations, culvert design, construction plans, and projectcost. E N V I R O N M E N TA L C O N S I D E R A TI ON S BY DA N IE L C RO N IN In order for the benefits of the proposed project to continue to outweigh the costs, manyenvironmental considerations were analyzed. The following section discusses in detail methods used tominimize environmental impacts, construction considerations, and a mitigation plan. After the selection of alternative 27, an alignment adjustment was made in the vicinity of theHunley Creek Wetland Complex (HCWC). See Bear Engineering Phase I Report dated October 14, 2010in Appendix 6 for further details. In order to further reduce wetland impacts in the HCWC, the 80 foot median was reduced to a 22foot median with concrete barriers while traversing the impacted site. A taper rate of 100:1 was usedwhile reducing the median width. This value surpasses the Indiana Department of Transportation(INDOT) minimum design taper rate of 70:1. The required length for the complete taper from an 80 foot 1
  7. 7. to a 22 foot median is 2900 feet in the northbound and southbound travel lanes. Aerial photographsconfirm no crossings or potential entrances in the 2900 feet northbound or southbound on the proposedalignment. The proposed cross section can be seen in Figure 1-1. The minimum right of way, as specifiedin the Indiana Design Manual, is 15 feet beyond the edge of construction. The construction activities willremain within the proposed road cross section of 90 feet. This minimum right of way necessitates anadditional 15 feet of land beyond the northbound and southbound shoulders. Plotting this width on theproposed alignment (Appendix 1, Figure A1-1) yields 3560 square feet of affected wetland. This result inapproximately 2.7 acres of forested wetland affected. Construction through the Hunley Creek Wetland Complex is designed to minimize disturbancesin the area. Prior to clearing and grubbing, all trees within 50 feet of the proposed right of way will beflagged and marked with orange safety fence and signage. The construction equipment is to remainoutside of the area encompassed by the crown of the trees to protect the trees’ roots. The proposeddrainage pattern allows rainwater to continueto reach the existing vegetation. To begin construction of the 120 footcross section through the Hunley CreekWetland Complex, topsoil stockpiles will beconstructed. Boring log D-10-B (Appendix 1, Figure 1-1: Reduced Median for HCWC traverseFigure A1-2), shows that the soil in the vicinity of the Hunley Creek Wetland Complex has a 5 inchtopsoil layer. After grading, the 75000 cubic feet of topsoil will be reapplied to a depth of four inches andcompacted in order to promote growth. This leaves an excess of 15000 cubic feet topsoil. 580 cubic feetwill be used to fill the 8 inch by 4 inch silt fence trench. The remaining 1440 cubic feet will be dividedinto 12 topsoil stockpiles resting in the proposed median. Any area to remain exposed for longer than one week shall have temporary seeding applied toprevent erosion and downstream sedimentation. The temporary seeding selected is annual ryegrass. Theannual ryegrass seed will begin to germinate in approximately 7-10 days and shall be planted ¼ inch into 2
  8. 8. the compacted topsoil. Forty pounds of seed will be applied per acre in order to attain 80 % vegetativecover as per Indiana Department of Environmental Management’s (IDEM) recommendations. Annualryegrass was chosen due to construction and economic factors as seen in Appendix 1, Table A1-1. A 36 inch geofabric fence will be installed to a depth of 18 inches below the final grade. Thegeofabric will curl and run horizontally towards the construction area at a depth of 8 inches. The trenchwill then be filled with the stockpiled topsoil. The geofabric will trap any eroded soils and particles whileallowing groundwater to flow to the existing vegetation. Riprap lined-chutes are to be placed where theproposed alignment comes in contact with Hunley Creek. The riprap lined-chutes are used primarily tocontrol excess storm water runoff in a high volume event while controlling erosion. The riprap-linedchutes will consist of a 12 inch riprap layer above a 2 inch layer of fine aggregate consisting of CA No. 9,11 & 12. The temporary construction ingress will be constructed to control erosion and minimize adverseimpacts of construction vehicles traversing the wetland complex. The ingress will access the site from CRW 400 S. The ingress will be 20 feet wide, 50 feet in length and 8 inches thick. Geofabric will be placedunder CA No. 2 to construct the ingress, with the first 50 feet adjacent CR W 400 S being top dressedwith CA No. 53. An overall construction plan including details for the Geofabric Silt Fence andConstruction Ingress can be found in Appendix 1. Mitigation for the affected 2.7 acres of forested wetlands in the Hunley Creek Wetland Complexwill take place approximately 10000 feet upstream Strait River. The mitigation site is located in thePatoka Watershed. The watershed contains both the impacted and mitigated sites as recommended by theUS Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Regulatory Guidance Letter dated December 24, 2002. Theproposed mitigation site is currently located on the northwest edge of the Barnes-Seng Wetland complexand is surrounded by forested wetlands on its southern edge, and scrub-shrub wetlands on its northern andeastern sides. The 2.7 acres of directly affected wetland will be mitigated with 15.1 acres of forested wetland.The excess of acreage upstream reduces excessive groundwater flow downstream at the impacted site.The excess mitigation acreage allows an additional affected area spanning 38.7 feet into the Hunley Creek 3
  9. 9. Wetland Complex. If additional mitigation is needed for other impacted wetlands, this site will be wellsuited to fulfill additional mitigation needs. If the project does not necessitate additional mitigation, thearea will be utilized as a contingency plan, as recommended by the USACE. The soil of both the affected site and the mitigated site are recent alluvium deposits. Recentalluvium deposits are soils formed from material deposits near rivers. Both areas have similar drainageclassifications of somewhat poorly drained areas according to the United States Department ofAgriculture’s “Integrating Spatial Educational Experiences”. By accessing the Web Soil Survey, as seenin Appendix 1, the compatibility of the two sites is evident. Both sites contain Bonnie silt loam andStendal silt loam. The slow drainage characteristics in combination with the additional 15.1 acres ofvegetation added will alleviate the added stress of the 2.7 acre loss downstream. The impacted site and mitigation site perform similar hydrologic functions and support similarvegetation. The soil at the impacted site suggests the fully grown vegetation contains Quercus Palustris orthe Pin Oak. The Pin Oak is a known type of “Wetland Vegetation”. Other trees to manage includeSycamores, Cypress, Oaks and Hickory. Additional tree species can be found in Appendix 1. Theaforementioned vegetation will be suitable for the mitigation site. The soil conditions at the mitigationsite suggest hand planted seedlings would have a high mortality rate due to the excessive wetness of thesoil. However, machine planted trees are well suited for the entire mitigation area. Therefore, machineplanting of the Pin Oak will be executed. Due to the large size of the proposed project, many governing agencies are stakeholders.Permitting needs include Construction in a Floodway for the IDNR, National Pollutant DischargeElimination System & Section 401 Water Quality Certification for the IDEM office of Water Quality, andSection 404 Water Quality Certification permit for the USACE. The IDNR Construction in Floodway hasthe longest estimated review time of 150 days. The 150 days includes 120 days for review of the complexproject with a 30 day public hearing due to the numerous local stakeholders involved with the proposedproject. This makes the IDNR construction in a Floodway the critical path for the construction timeline. The USACE recommends mitigation takes place before or while impacting waters of the US. 4
  10. 10. With a construction time of the mitigated site estimated at 20 days, the project will not be able to beginuntil approximately seven months after permits are submitted (pending initial approval). Construction andpermitting timelines can be found in Appendix 1, Table A1-2. The USACE defines wetlands as “Areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and under normal circumstances, do support aprevalence of vegetation typically adapted for line in saturated soil conditions.” The proposed mitigationsite contains hydric soils and has slow drainage characteristics. With the addition of Pin Oak trees, thearea will meet all requirements defined by USACE. The performance standards for the mitigation site willconsist of tracking Pin Oak development and growth. The monitoring will also log the soil characteristicsto ensure hydric conditions are not lost. The entire mitigation project is estimated to cost $400,000. The calculations and assumptions forthe estimating process can be seen in Appendix 1, Table A1-3. Many other environmental considerations were assessed. The mitigation site is locatedapproximately 7.8 miles north of the Huntingburg Airport. The additional waterfowl that may be attractedto the area will not adversely impact the air traffic as cautioned by the USACE. The Indiana bat, baldeagle, cotton mouth snake and copperhead snake will not be adversely affected by the proposed projectaccording to the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. S T R U C TU R A L C O N S I D E R A TI ON S BY A ND RE W SE NTE R The following structural report is a summary of the design elements for Division II of the US 231New Construction project near Jasper, IN. These elements include: the realignment of the mainline nearStraight River, the bridge superstructure design, the bridge substructure design and the overpass approachdesign. The need and considerations for the realignment and bridge choice can be found in the StructuralConsiderations section of Appendix 6. 5
  11. 11. The three horizontal curves designed for the realignment of the mainline near Straight River canbe seen in Figure A2-1 of Appendix 2, and the calculations for these horizontal curves can be found inAppendix 2-2. All of these curves satisfy the minimum stopping sight distance requirement for the designspeed of 70 MPH, which is 730 feet. [5] The new alignment allows for two single span bridges over Straight River, with one structureserving the northbound traffic and the other serving the southbound traffic. Using aerial photos, site mapsand contour maps, the span length needed for each bridge was determined to be 85 feet. The requiredwidth of each bridge is 41 feet. This width includes two 12 foot travel lanes, a 10 foot outside shoulder, a4 foot inside shoulder and 1.5 feet per side for reinforced concrete parapets. [1] A composite steel bridgedesign, consisting of steel girders and a reinforced concrete deck, was chosen. The shear and momentdiagrams for the dead load and live load configurations for the bridge were calculated. The dead loaddiagrams can be seen in Figures A2-2 and A2-3, and the live load diagrams can be seen in Figures A2-4through A2-8 of Appendix 2. Figures A2-5 through A2-8 display different possible locations of theAASHTO design truck along the length of the bridge. These locations were chosen to give the maximumpossible effect of moment and shear in the bridge. The maximum live load moment effect was found bysuperimposing the diagrams in Figures A2-5 through A2-8 onto the diagram in Figure A2-4. The resultsof this superimposition are summarized below in Table 2-1. Table 2-1: Maximum Live Load Moment Demand for Straight River Bridge Total M-maximum Figure M-maximum (kip-ft) M-midspan (kip-ft) superimposed (kip-ft) A2-5 (CASE I) 645 518 1096 A2-6 (CASE II) 524 448 1035 A2-7 (CASE III) 773 588 1201 A2-8 (CASE IV) 1212 1212 1790 Once the maximum live load moments were calculated, the live load and dead load momentswere combined and increased by the appropriate load factors given in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design [1]Specifications Manual. These calculations can be found in Appendix 2-3. The results of thesecalculations are summarized below in Table 2-2. After the maximum factored moment demand was 6
  12. 12. calculated, an appropriately sized girder could be chosen for the bridge. Using the AISC SteelConstruction Manual, a W44x335 girder was chosen as the most economical size given the momentdemand. [2] A W44x335 girder, which has a factored shear capacity of 1350 kips, will also satisfy the 205kip shear demand of the Straight River bridge. This maximum shear demand was found using the worstcase scenario for shear at the support of the bridge structure. Five girders will be used for the bridge. Thegirders will be spaced 8 feet 9 inches from the center girder. This spacing satisfies the maximum spacinglimit set by AASHTO and INDOT. A cross section of the bridge can be found in Figure A2-9 ofAppendix 2. Table 2-2: Factored Moment Demand for Straight River Bridge Load Case Maximum Moment Demand (kip-ft) Strength I 6004 Service I 3886 Service III 3458 The bridge deck was designed using the empirical method, as per the AASHTO LRFD BridgeDesign Specifications Manual. The results of the application of the empirical design method can be seenbelow in Figure 2-1 and in Figure A2-10 of Appendix 2. Figure 2-1: Deck Design for the Straight River Bridge The epoxy coated, Grade 60 reinforcing bars will be set in a 12 inch by 12 inch grid both in thelongitudinal and transverse direction of the travel lanes. Shear stud connectors will be used to make thesteel girders composite with the reinforced concrete deck. These connectors will be ¾ inch diameter and 5 7
  13. 13. inches tall. There will be two rows of shear stud connectors per girder spaced at 1 foot 3 inches on center.The design calculations for these shear stud connectors can be found in Appendix 2-4. The dead load and live load of the bridge superstructure will be transferred to the bridgesubstructure through elastomeric bearing pads. The substructure will consist of a shallow reinforcedconcrete foundation. A cross section of the foundation can be seen in figure A2-11 of Appendix 2. Thefoundation will be 45 feet long and 4 feet wide. The bottom of the foundation will be at a depth of 6 feetbelow the surface. This depth is above the water table and well below the frost penetration depth. Thefoundation will also feature wingwalls to hold the backfill behind the bridge foundation and to protect thebackfill against erosion in the case of a large flood. A plan view of the foundation can be seen in figureA2-12 of Appendix 2. The soil beneath the foundation will be approximately 4 feet of Sandy Silty Clay underlain bySandy Lean Clay to a great depth. Using the soil profile obtained from boring F-2-B (Appendix 2, FigureA2-13) the foundation was determined to have an ultimate bearing capacity of 26,800 pounds per squarefoot. The bearing capacity calculations can be found in Appendix 2-5. Using the shear demand from thesuperstructure design and given the contact area of the foundation, a maximum applied bearing pressureof 5,800 pounds per square foot was calculated. These calculations can be found in Appendix 2-6. The immediate and consolidation settlements of the underlain clay layer were calculated. Thecalculations reveal a total settlement of 6.32 inches. Of this total settlement, 4.14 inches occurimmediately, leaving only 2.18 inches of the settlement to occur from consolidation of the clay layer overtime. This settlement configuration will not adversely affect the performance of the bridge; therefore,deep foundations will not be required. These calculations can be found in Appendix 2-7. An elevation view of the Straight River Bridge can be seen in Figure 2-2 below and in Figure A2-14 of Appendix 2. The 100 year flood elevation for this area of Straight River was determined to be 13.5feet above the mean water elevation. Because of this, the elevation of the lowest part of the bridge will be15 feet above the mean water level. This design provides 1.5 feet of clearance to protect the integrity ofthe bridge. 8
  14. 14. Figure 2-2: Straight River Bridge Elevation As discussed previously, the realignment of the mainline near Straight River will introduce threehorizontal curves within this area. Because of the introduction of horizontal curves, it is advisable thatvertical curves are not also introduced in this area. For this reason, the collector road, SR 162, willoverpass the mainline. No realignment of SR 162 will be required; however, the overpass approachdesign will be discussed in further detail below. The elevation of the overpass must be a minimum of 16.5 feet above the under passing roadwayaccording to the Indiana Design Manual.[8] The approaches will have a +2% grade as vehicles near theoverpass. This grade was chosen based on the maximum grade of +3% according to the Indiana DesignManual. The fill slopes on either side of the approaches will have a grade of 4H:1V, which is thedesirable fill slope grade according to the Indiana Design Manual. A plan and profile view of theapproaches can be found in Figure A2-15 of Appendix 2, and an elevation view of the approaches can befound in Figure A2-16 of Appendix 2. The interior grade of each approach will have a concrete facing tostabilize the sloping soil. Each of the overpass approaches will require approximately 19,200 cubic yardsof soil. These calculations can be found in Appendix 2-8. The stability of the fill slopes on either side of the approaches was calculated using: an internalfriction angle of 30 degrees, a cohesion of 1200 pounds per square foot and a unit weight of 125 poundsper cubic foot. A factor of safety of 7.6 was determined by applying the Method of Slices to the 4H:1V [4]slope. Therefore the slopes are more than adequate for stability requirements. The slope stabilitycalculations can be found in Table A2-1 of Appendix 2. Figure A2-17 accompanies these calculations. 9
  15. 15. P AV E M E N T C O N S I D E R A TI O N P AV E ME NT SEL ECT I ON BY DA N IEL C RO NIN While analyzing the options of flexible and rigid pavement, two main analyses were conducted. Asite analysis was conducted to examine soil characteristics and site specific considerations. An economicanalysis was conducted to determine the practicality of our selection. Both analyses yielded the flexiblepavement option. Both analyses can be found in Appendix 1. The site analysis showed that 94.7% of the soil was “highly” corrosive to concrete. The “high”corrosion risk incorporates chemical and electrochemical characteristics including: sodium and sulfatecontent, texture, acidity, and rate of corrosion. Concrete objects crossing many soil boundaries will have ahigher risk of corrosion. The analysis conducted shows the proposed alignment crossing twenty four soiltypes, as seen in Appendix 1. The economic analysis concentrated on initial costs for the pavement construction. The initialcost of using flexible pavement was found to be $230,500 per mile, while rigid pavement initial cost wasfound to be $490,000 per mile. The initial cost resulted in selecting flexible pavement. Rigid pavement often becomes more economical throughout its lifetime due to the relativelysmall amount of repairs and large time before first major rehabilitation. The aforementioned site analysisshows these benefits would not be relevant to the US 231 project. P AV E ME NT DES IG N BY RO SS WAG N ER After the selection of flexible pavement was made, a full analysis was performed using theMechanistic Empirical Design Guide (MEPDG). See Appendix 3-1 for a description of MEPDG andhow it fits the project needs. MEPDG accepted inputs including traffic volumes, climate data, andpavement cross-section dimensions. An analysis was performed over the pavement design life todetermine if the pavement will meet certain criteria requirements such as thermal cracking and permanentdeformation. This section will outline the specific inputs of the pavement design and the resulting outputsfrom MEPDG. 10
  16. 16. There were three main categories of inputs used to analyze the pavement design: traffic, climate, and structural data. Table 3-1 shows traffic data which was inputted into the program. Table 3-1: MEPDG Input Design Life 20 years The values in Table 3-1 depict the roadway that has been Opening Date Oct. 2011 designed. These figures were found using traffic analysesInitial two-way AADTT 970 vpd Number of Lanes in provided in the Engineer’s Report, and where exact data 4 design directionPercentage of trucks in was unavailable, recommended values from the Indiana 55% design direction Design Manual were used. Other traffic values whichPercentage of trucks in 90% design lane were considered include hourly truck distribution, traffic Operational speed 65mph Traffic Growth Compound 2.8% growth factors, and axle load distribution factors. Climatic data was generated by inputting latitude and longitude, elevation above sea level and an annual average water table depth. From there, three points of interest, or stations, were selected. The selection of stations that are geographically close in differing directions (i.e. north, south, etc.) produced the best interpolation. Three stations were chosen: Evansville Regional Airport in Evansville, IN, Bowman Field Airport in Louisville, KY, and Terra Haute Int’l Hulman Field Airport in Terra Haute, IN. Table 3-2 summarizes the climatic inputs. Table 3-2: Climatic Input Latitude 38 deg. 20 minutes As stated previously, both an economic and Longitude -86 deg. 55 minutes site analysis were performed and resulted in the Elevation (above sea level) 502 ft Depth of water table 5 ft decision to use flexible pavement. Figure 52-13B from the Indiana Design Manual was used as a template to design the first iteration of the pavement. The first iteration included a 3” top asphalt layer, 3” intermediate asphalt layer, 6” base asphalt layer, a 4.5” crushed stone layer, a 7.5” crushed gravel layer, and a CL subgrade. The analysis was run and the MEPDG output indicated the pavement failed in “Surface Down Cracking.” Research was performed to identify the most effective way to fix this problem. A decision was made to decrease the top asphalt layer in depth, increase the asphalt base layer depth and to decrease the crushed stone layer depth. Table 3-3 11
  17. 17. shows the final asphalt pavement cross-sectional dimensions. The pavement passed in all criteria testedby MEPDG. A sample collection of the results of the pavement analysis can be found in Appendix 3-2. Table 3-3: Structural Input Top Asphalt Layer 1.5 in. Intermediate Asphalt Layer 2.5 in. Base Asphalt Layer 8 in. Subbase Layer 1 (Cr. Gravel) 4.5 in. Subbase Layer 2 (Cr. Stone) 3.5 in. Subgrade N/A A T- G R A D E I N T E R S E C TI O N BY RO SS WAG N E R This section will outline a proposed at-grade intersection with Schnellville Road and proposedUS 231. The intersection will be a signalized, four-leg intersection with left turn lanes on all approachesand right turn lanes on the US 231 Northbound and Southbound approaches. The design speed at theintersection will be 45MPH. US 231 will be constructed to intersect Schnellville Rd. perpendicularly.Construction considerations include land clearing, grading, paving, finishing, and selecting crews andequipment. Design considerations included in this section are reducing median width at the intersection,determining if right turns should be allowed on red signals, selecting an appropriate turning radius andshoulder width, assigning safe storage and turn lanes and checking that encroachment limitations are met.The following information will provide justification for the design and construction of the at-gradeintersection. The intersection will consist of US 231 being aligned at a perpendicular angle with SchnellvilleRd. This is because an intersection at an acute angle presents additional challenges in design,construction, and cost. These challenges include vehicular turning movements become more restricted,accommodation of large trucks may require additional pavement and channelization, exposure time forvehicles and pedestrians crossing main traffic flow is increased, and the driver’s line of sight for one ofthe sight triangles becomes restricted. 12
  18. 18. The intersection profile includes considerations such as approach grade, storage and turning lanesand cross-section transition. The approach grade shall be 0.5% minimizing issues which includeconsiderations such as flooding of the intersection. The following storage and turning lane lengths shallbe used: on US 231, both in the northbound (NB) and southbound (SB) lanes, taper lane length is 100feet, storage length is 100 feet, deceleration length is 680 feet, and the total turn length will be 880 feet.On Schnellville Rd., in the eastbound (EB) and westbound (WB) lanes, storage lane length is 100 feet,and deceleration lanes are not necessary, giving a total turn length of 100 feet. The calculations for thesestorage and deceleration lane lengths were based on the peak hour traffic volumes for both proposed US231 and Schnellville Rd. See Appendix 3-3 for these calculations. The cross section of the minor road,which in this case is Schnellville Rd., will be transitioned to meet the profile and cross slope of the majorroad (proposed US 231). The selection of the design vehicle was based on the INDOT Standards which consider thelocation and traffic volume of the roadways involved. In this case the design vehicle selected was IDV(WB-65) Interstate-route semitrailer combination. This will be used for both turning onto Schnellville Rd.from proposed US 231 and onto proposed US 231 from Schnellville Rd. Because this intersection islocated in a rural area, the following standards will be met. The turning lanes from Schnellville Road (1lane in each direction) onto US 231 (2 lanes in each direction) were designed such that the design vehiclecan occupy both travel lanes on US 231. The allowable encroachment value is 1 foot. Conversely, theturning lanes from US 231 onto Schnellville Road will not be allowed an encroachment into the adjacentlane because vehicles will be traveling in the opposite direction in this adjacent lane. Furthermore ashoulder with a 10 foot width will be used and will also act as a parking lane. It will be available on bothapproach legs and will be carried through the intersection. A plan view of the intersection with detaileddimensions including a turning radius, typical lane width and median width can be found in Figure A3-1. Because the AADT is greater than 25,000 vehicles per day for this section of proposed US 231, araised median and slotted left-turn lane will be used. A raised median may be able to provide a refugearea for crossing pedestrians. With a raised median, the left turn movements are concentrated at the 13
  19. 19. intersections, thereby reducing the conflict area and increasing the safety of the facility. A slotted left-turn lane increases visibility of opposing through traffic, decreases the possibility of conflict betweenopposing left-turning vehicles and serves more vehicles overall. An analysis was performed to determine if a right turn should be allowed on a red signal.Allowing a right turn on red can increase the level of service of the intersection. The controlling factorfor determining if a right turn on red should be allowed is the Intersection Sight Distance (ISD). The ISDdescribes the distance at which a driver can see oncoming traffic in order to make a turning movement.There are two ISD values to investigate: Design ISD and Actual ISD. If the Actual ISD is greater thanthe Design ISD, or in other words if the sight distance by the driver at the intersection exceeds theminimum required sight distance for a right turn on red, then a right turn on red should be permitted. Inthis case, the Design ISD = 450 feet which is based on the design speed 45 MPH of the intersection. TheActual ISD = 370 feet. Thus, because the Design ISD was more than the Actual ISD, the conclusion wasmade that a right turn on red should not be permitted. Calculations for finding the ISD values can befound in Appendix 3-4. An additional analysis was performed to determine the most appropriate cycle times for thesignals at the intersection. Tables 3-4 and 3-5 depict all the green, yellow and red cycle times for eachdirection including the slotted left-turn lanes. These cycle times were determined using the peak hourtraffic volumes of both proposed US 231 and Schnellville Rd. See Appendix 3-3 for the derivations ofthese times. Table 3-4: Cycle times for through traffic Direction (Through Lanes) Green (sec) Yellow (sec) Red (sec) Total (sec) NB (proposed US 231) 100 3 47 150 SB (proposed US 231) 100 3 47 150 EB (Schnellville Rd.) 27 3 120 150 WB (Schnellville Rd.) 27 3 120 150 Table 3-5: Cycle times for slotted left-turn traffic Direction (Slotted Left-Turn) Green (sec) Yellow (sec) Red (sec) Total (sec) NB (proposed US 231) 15 3 132 150 SB (proposed US 231) 15 3 132 150 14
  20. 20. C U LV E R T C O N S I D E R A TI ON S BY TU N YAP O R N D EC H AVA S Culverts will be used when the roadway structure will be built across a waterway and when abridge is not necessary. Structures 27-25 and 27-26 from the Engineer’s Report were chosen to performsample calculations and design for culvert drainage systems. A N A LYSIS According to the Engineer’s Report, the two structures are located at station 26+324.68 andstation 27+979.60. Channel properties and flow properties are tabulated in Table 4-1. The data in Table 4-1 is used as the input for the HY-8 program to analyze the culvert performance. HY-8 was utilized toanalyze the culverts based on the channel properties and the culvert sizes. Table 4-1: Culvert - Channels properties Structure Q Design Q Bottom Manning Station Elevation Channel Slope No. (cfs) (cfs) Width Values 27-25 26+324 358 500 462 ft 24 ft 0.014 0.015 ft/ft 27-26 27+979 205 300 456 ft 13.5 ft 0.014 0.0186 ft/ft The flow rates for the one hundred year event are shown as Q, and the design flow rate is factored [6]due to the increasing trend of the rainfall in Indiana. The bottom width, the elevation, and the channelslope were estimated from the contour map. The Manning’s values are for concrete culverts range andbased on the culvert sizes. The culverts’ sizing process was also performed throughout the analysis for culverts. Theselection is based on the culverts’ performances and available products, which have been used in pastprojects by INDOT. [7] Based on the results from HY-8, performance curves for the chosen culverts ensured that thewater in the channel will not overtop the roadway. The performance curves can be found in Appendix 4-1. Likewise, the results from HY-8 also provided information for inlet and outlet design including thewater elevations and the outlet velocity. 15
  21. 21. From the analysis, two barrels of 8 feet x 5 feet reinforced concrete box were chosen for structure No. 27-25, and an 8 feet x 5 feet reinforced concrete box was chosen for structure No. 27-26. The two chosen culverts were analyzed and selected based on the performance and economic advantages. DESI GN For inlet design, it is required by INDOT that every reinforced concrete box culvert structure will have headwalls and wingwalls. This helps retain the roadway embankment while preventing projecting [8] sediments into culvert barrels. The headwalls for the two structures will be rectangular concrete slabs. The depth and width are shown in Table 4- 2. These headwalls will be placed on top of the culvert structures. The wingwalls for the two structures will be square edged wingwalls. In addition to wingwalls, the option of tapering inlet was considered. Side-tapering was designed for Figure 4-1: Planview of Wingwalls and Side-tapering [6] the two culverts because it increased the efficiency of the structure and lowered both the outlet flow rate and the outlet elevation of the water. The plan view of the wingwalls and side-tapering can be seen in Figure 4-1. The dimensions corresponding to the design in Figure 4-1 are also presented in Table 4-2. Table 4-2: Culvert Inlet Design Dimension Headwall Wingwall Side-TaperingStructure Control Elevation of Length Face Width Width No. Depth the bottom Width Rise Angle Ratio (L1) (Bf) (B) edge 27-25 7.33 ft 470 ft 14 ft 2 ft 45 deg 4:1 4 ft 16 ft 14 ft 27-26 5.62 ft 462 ft 10 ft 3 ft 45 deg 6:1 3 ft 11 ft 10 ft In Table 4-2, the control depths are the difference between the bottom elevation and the highest elevation found from HY-8 program. Detailed results can 16 Figure 4-2: Riprap Design Profile View [10]
  22. 22. be found in Appendix 4-2. The elevations of the bottom edge of the headwall were estimated based on the culvert sizes with the thickness of the culverts’ walls being one inch. The rise of the headwall was chosen according to the INDOT manual’s specification that the distance from top of the culvert and the roadway must be greater than two inches. For wingwalls, the flare angles between 30 degrees and 60 degrees are known to provide the best flow efficiency. Therefore, the wingwalls angles were decided to be 45 degrees. [8] For side-tapering, the design dimensions, including the taper ratio and face width, were chosen based on the culvert structures and the bottom width of the channel and the control depth. The face width [8] must not exceed 110 percent of the control depth. For outlet design, the designs for headwalls and wingwalls will be the same as the inlet design, but there will not be any tapering. In addition to the inlet and outlet designs, the channel-bank protection was taken into consideration due to the flow rates of the two structures being higher than 50 cubic feet per second. [8] The designed bank protection distances include a distance upstream of 1 channel width and a downstream [8] distance of 1.5 channel widths. The height of the bank protection is required to have a three foot [8] freeboard elevation. The profile view of the riprap design is shown in Figure 4-2 along with the corresponding dimensions in Table 4-3 Table 4-3: Riprap Design DimensionStructure Outlet Distance Distance Face Height Minimum Outlet Protection No. Velocity Upstream Downstream Slope (H) Depth (T) 27-25 11.72 ft/s Class II- RipRap 16 ft 36 ft 2H : 1V 7.5 ft 30 in 27-26 10.65 ft/s Class II- RipRap 8.5 ft 20.1 ft 2H : 1V 6 ft 30 in Based on the outlet velocity, Class 2 riprap is proposed to be the outlet protection material for both structures. [8] The properties of the riprap can be found in Appendix 4-3. The distances upstream and downstream were estimated from the recommended distance, excluding the distance of the wingwalls and tapering. The face slopes for both structures were also based on the recommended slope. [8] The minimum [8] depths of riprap of 30 inches were also recommended for Class 2 riprap. The calculations for riprap design can be found in Appendix 4-4. 17
  23. 23. F O UN DATI O N C ONS ID ER ATI O N For the culvert design, proper foundation is required because the base support must be able to withstand the loading combination of culvert self-weight, design trucks, pavement, and the full water weight within the culverts. The calculation for loading combination can be found in Appendix 4-5. The current soil types were identified based on boring log numbers D-14B and E-4B which are the corresponded logs to the culverts’ stations. The boring logs can be found in Appendix 4-6. Soil replacement was selected as a method to strengthen the foundation. The depth of the replacement is based on the current soil type and bearing capacity was performed, see Appendix 4-7. The results of the bearing capacity test and chosen material are presented in Table 4-4. Table 4-4: The bearing capacity test and foundation design Soil Angle of Internal BearingStructure Boring Replacement Allowable Demand replacement friction for SPT Capacity No. No. Material Load (kips) load (kips) depth value 0f 10 (ksf) Sat. Sand – 27-25 D-14B 15 ft 35 40 22400 663 Medium Density Sat. Sand – 27-26 E-4B 20 ft 35 45.7 18300 461 Medium Density In Table 4-4, from the boring log, the soil replacement depths were suggested for the culverts locations. Saturated sand with medium density was selected as a replacing material; the saturated sand with medium density has an angle of internal friction of 35 degrees for performing bearing capacity calculation. [3] From the bearing capacity calculation, the allowable loads are well greater than the demand load and that the foundation will be able to withstand the loading combination. R OA D SID E S A F ETY In order to ensure the safety of the drivers, end guardrails are to be placed along the roadside. The distances of the guardrails excluding the channel’s length are presented in Table 4-5. Figure 4-3 in Appendix 4-8 shows a plan view of the design. The distances prior to the culverts were designed based on the taper lengths and the wingwalls, which can also be seen in the plan view, and the calculation can be found in Appendix 4-9. 18
  24. 24. Table 4-5: Roadside Safety Design-Guardrails distancesStructure Distance prior to Distance beyond Total Guardrail Channel Width No. culvert (L1) culvert (L2) Length 27-25 211 ft 25 ft 24 ft 260 ft 27-26 197.5 ft 25 ft 13.5 ft 235 ft C O N S T R U C TI O N C ON S I D E R A TI O N S BY DA N IE L PAU LS E N The key to the success of this project is safe, quick, and efficient construction operations.Therefore, the construction must be considered carefully for every operation. This section summarizes theconstruction considerations. This section focuses on the haul road design, a haul and mass diagram for themovement of soil, special considerations for the Straight River Bridge, equipment recommendations, andthe project duration. H AU L R OA D D ESI GN Equipment and materials will be transported along a haul road. The haul road will be located onthe future travel lanes. The haul road will consist of the compacted subgrade. The design of the haul roadis based on the soil bearing capacity. The maximum stress on the haul road is that of the articulatedtrucks, which require 7,016 pounds per square foot (psf) bearing capacity. The available bearing capacityof the soil, given the tire dimensions, is 17,411 psf, as shown in Appendix 1. Therefore, the existing soilis suitable for a haul road. The design is also based on Web Soil Survey. Web Soil Survey is aninteractive map based on soil data from the National Cooperative Soil Survey. According to Web SoilSurvey, the soil may experience severe rutting (1.0 on a 0-1.0 scale). Motorgraders will smooth the haulroad when rutting impedes the construction process. Appendix 5-1-2 provides Web Soil Survey printoutsand an explanation of the soil rating. SOI L T R ANS P O R T ATI O N Haul and mass diagrams were made to simulate the transportation of soil throughout the jobsite.Figure 5-1 and 5-2 show the haul and mass diagrams, respectively. Both represent the same half-milesection. Haul lines are displayed on the mass diagram. The dozer balance line marks 150 meters, which is 19
  25. 25. the maximum distance that bulldozers will push material. Above that line, articulated trucks will haul thematerial. Average haul distances and the total material moved by both dozers and articulated trucks areshown in Table 5-1. The data in Table 5-1 is the basis for estimating the project duration and cost for cutand fill operations. Appendix Section 5-2 shows the calculations used to construct the haul and massdiagrams and find the data in Table 5-1. Figure 5-1: Haul Diagram Figure 5-2: Mass Diagram 20
  26. 26. Table 5-1: Haul Data Haul Distance (m) Quantity (m3) Truck Haul 1 410 127,051 Truck Haul 2 770 23,185 Average Truck Haul 492 150,236 Dozer Haul 1 135 9,298 Dozer Haul 2 100 23,185 Average Dozer Haul 110 32,483 The analysis performed on this section can be performed on the entire distance of proposed US231 in order to find the deficit or surplus of material for the entire jobsite. Simultaneous analysis of allthree phases of proposed US 231 is necessary to accurately estimate the transportation of soil for theproject, as soil is likely be transported between phases. STR A IG H T R I VE R B RID GE C O NST RU CTI ON Special Considerations were made for the construction of the Straight River bridge. 85-footbeams span the bridge. Confirmation was made that the beams can be transported to the jobsite. Thebeams satisfy weight and length requirements for trucking. The beams will be transported down SR 162and will travel 700 feet along a construction road south of the Straight River. The beams will be placedusing two Link Belt RTC-8090 Series 2 cranes situated on either side of the river. The cranes requireapproximately 9,800 pounds of lifting capacity. The cranes have a lifting capacity of 11,500 pounds at therequired boom length and angle. Appendix 5-3-1 contains the calculations required to determine the cranespecifications. A bearing capacity analysis similar to that performed for the haul road confirmed that thesoil has sufficient load bearing capacity to support the cranes. Appendix 5-3-2 documents the bearingcapacity calculations. E QU I PME NT Table 5-2 contains a list of equipment recommendations. This list is only the minimumequipment necessary. The equipment was chosen according to the manufacturer’s specifications and therequired equipment output. The equipment complement shown is that used in the calculation for theproject duration. These quantities can be increased in order to decrease the project duration. Table 5-2: Equipment Recommendation Summary 21
  27. 27. Equipment Type Model Number Required Dump Truck Cat 772 2 Bull Dozer Cat D8 2 Motor Grader Cat 140M 1 Roller Cat CS76 2 Track Loader Cat 963 2 Asphalt Paver Cat AP655D 1 Articulated Truck Deere 300D 5 Rough Terrain Crane Linkbelt RTC 8090 Series 2 2 P RO JE CT D U R AT IO N The project will take approximately 21 weeks to complete. This assumes that the bridges andoverpasses are built simultaneously with the 4-lane highway. If this is not the case, the project durationwill increase. For example, the bridge over the Straight River will add 8 weeks to the project duration if itis constructed in series with the 4-lane roadway. The 21 week duration also assumes 40 hour weeks.Durations were available for elements designed by Bear Engineering; other elements such as the HunleyCreek Bridge were assumed to be parallel construction with the roadway. If these elements are notconstructed simultaneously with the 4-lane highway, accurate project duration requires determining theirduration. The project duration was found by calculating the duration of each individual activity, as shownin Appendix 5-4-1, and adding them in a critical path method with EZStrobe, a discrete event simulator.Additional parameters include the equipment and personnel required and the time between activities.Appendix 5-4-2 contains EZStrobe printouts. Appendix 5-4-3 contains an explanation and justification forthe software. 22
  28. 28. C O S T E S TI M A T E BY DA N IE L PAU LS E N The total project cost is estimated as 42.4 million dollars. Table 5-3 contains a breakdown of thecost estimate according to each operation. Table 5-3: Cost Summary Operation Cost Clearing and Grubbing $136,157 Earthmoving $14,853,276 Grading $3,368,534 Paving $16,101,147 Culverts $976,876 Bridges $6,066,685 Miscellaneous $302,951 Wetland Mitigation $548,148 Total $42.4 Million Operational costs were generally estimated from the unit prices available from RS Means andINDOT. The RS Means unit prices were used because of the comprehensiveness of the informationavailable. When local information was preferable, the INDOT unit price summary was used. Several costswere found by calculating the operation duration and multiplying this value by the hourly personnel andequipment cost. The material cost was then added to attain a total cost for the operation. Appendix 5-5contains the cost calculations. 23
  29. 29. REF ER ENC ES[1] – “AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.” Washington, DC. AASHTO. 2010.[2] – “AISC Steel Construction Manual.” United States of America. AISC. 2008.[3] – “Angle of Internal Friction on the Geotechnical Information Website." Geotechnical Information Website. 2007. http://www.geotechnicalinfo.com/angle_of_internal_friction.html.[4] – “Design Manual 7.” Naval Facilities Engineering Command. 1986[5] – Fricker, Jon and Robert Whitford. Fundamentals of Transportation Engineering. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.[6] – “Indiana, Precipitation, August 1895-2010." NCDC. 2009. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/temp-and- precip/time-series/?parameter=pcp&month=8&year=2009&filter=1&state=12&div=0.[7]: “Pay Items.” INDOT. 2010. http://www.in.gov/dot/div/contracts/pay/index.html.[8] – “The Indiana Design Manual.” Indiana. INDOT. 2010. 24

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