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Final Project
Final Project
Final Project
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Final Project

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This is the final project for my CE 399 class (Oral and Written Communications). This is a proposal for the renovation of I-430 in Pulaski County, AR.

This is the final project for my CE 399 class (Oral and Written Communications). This is a proposal for the renovation of I-430 in Pulaski County, AR.

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  • 1. Final  Proposal         Renovation  project  for   Interstate  430  in  Pulaski  County,  Arkansas     Paulsen  Construction                       Prepared  by  Daniel  Paulsen   Dr.  Cindy  Lawley   CE  399     1    
  • 2. Executive SummaryTraffic accidents pose a major problem to modern society. Accidents result in monetaryloss due to vehicle and other damages, time lost, injury, and occasionally death. Assuch, reasonable measures should be taken to reduce the risk of traffic accidents.Roads should be maintained and improved to decrease the number of automobilecrashes.Interstate 430 in Pulaski County, Arkansas connects Interstate 40, Interstate 30, andInterstate 630. I-430 is one of three bridges in Pulaski County crossing the ArkansasRiver. The I-430 Bridge is the primary route connecting Maumelle and Oak Grove toLittle Rock and West Little Rock. This route, however, proves to be accident prone.Between exits 9 and 12, the highway becomes dangerous to navigate. After crossingthe river heading southwest, the road enters a steep incline of 4.75% grade. Whilecontinuing the incline, the road also curves sharply. The incline and curve are difficult tosafely traverse, especially during unfavorable weather conditions. Occasionally, thehighway is actually shut down due to weather. The road is too dangerous for police toenforce, allowing motorists to travel as fast as they desire. Statistically, the segment ofhighway between Exit 9 and the bridge over the Arkansas River has three times asmany accidents as expected.This proposal offers a remedy for the aforementioned dangers. The highway should belengthened by 2,350 feet, heading further west before continuing southeast. This allowsthe steepest grade of the slope of the highway to be 3.5%. While curving, the grade willonly be 1.5%. To accomplish this, one of the onramps and one of the off ramps willhave to be altered. The solution is superior to other solutions, because it minimizesdisturbance to traffic flow, and does not require modifying the bridge in any way. Theproposal lengthens the road, allowing a safe grade, without interfering with existingroads or structures. The operations can be divided into three phases: clearing theterrain and removing existing pavement, grading the road, and laying the new asphalt.Required for the project are a superintendent, excavator crew, grading crew, asphaltcrew, motor grader crew, and a team of drivers and operators. The equipment neededis listed in the proposal.The project will begin the first month of March and be completed the first month ofAugust. The project spans 22 weeks. During construction, traffic flow will continue. Forthe majority of the project, the highway will be reduced to four lanes, two heading eitherdirection. At all times, all of the onramps and off ramps will be open. One onramp will bedetoured, however.The total cost of the project will be $4,749,590. This cost will be funded by the Arkansasstate government and the federal government. 2    
  • 3. Paulsen ConstructionPaulsen Concrete was founded by engineer and Dutch immigrant Curtis Paulsen. In1917, Curtis began selling concrete products in Richmond Virginia. The companyquickly became a respected manufacturer in central and eastern Virginia. In 1926,Paulsen Concrete entered the construction industry, and the company was renamedPaulsen Construction. The construction business did not take off until the GreatDepression. With the implementation of civil works projects, Paulsen Constructionexploded into one of the nation’s leading construction companies. Since then, PaulsenConstruction has been steadily growing.Paulsen Construction, which is now a design-build firm, is a Fortune 500 company. Wecurrently do work in all fifty states. In the past 10 years, we have also beguninternational work. We now do work in Canada, Europe, and India. The focus of ourwork is highways and roads. However, we also build bridges, tunnels, airports,stadiums, energy plants, waste water treatment plants, and other civil works.Paulsen Construction is known for several things. We are known for the quality of ourwork. We complete the work to the satisfaction of the customer, we complete the workon time, and we complete the work within budget. Paulsen Construction is also knownfor safety. Our goal is to complete every job with zero injuries. Additionally, PaulsenConstruction is an environmentally friendly construction company, being one of the firstcompanies to adopt the LEED program.Finally, Paulsen Construction is known for innovation. No matter how unique ordemanding the project, we will find the best way to finish it. We are always on theforefront of the construction industry, using or developing the latest constructiontechnology. 3    
  • 4. Statement of NeedInterstate 430 crosses the Arkansas River between exits 9 and 12. This particularstretch of highway proves to be dangerous to motorists. The highway crosses theArkansas River, heading southwest. After crossing the river, the road enters a steepincline of 4.75% grade (Nilles). Approximately half way up the incline, the road enters asharp turn continuing the steep incline throughout the curve. Vehicles are prone tolosing control due to the incline and curve. During adverse weather conditions, thedanger increases significantly. Occasionally law enforcement closes the highway due tothe weather. This leaves motorists stranded on the highway for extensive periods oftime.Compounding the existing problem is the law enforcement’s inability to successfullyregulate the speed of motorists. The speed limit on I-430 is 65 miles per hour. However,motorists can drive at speeds greatly exceeding the limit. Law enforcement is unable toregulate the speed in this area, due to the layout of the road. Police cars cannot parksafely on the bridge, due to the excessively narrow shoulder. Similarly, squad carscannot park safely on either the straight or curved section of the incline. Police do notwant to risk a driver losing control of the vehicle and hitting the police car. Statisticaldata illustrating the commonality of speeders and the severity of speeding does notexist, due to the aforementioned inability to apprehend speeders.Regular vehicular failure presents a third source of danger. Similar to police cars,inoperable vehicles cannot be safely parked on the bridge or incline. Motorists whosecars become inoperable can choose to wait in the vehicle, risking being hit by traffic.The second option available to the motorist is to walk across the bridge or up the 4    
  • 5. incline, again risking being hit by traffic. Also, fixing an inoperable automobile on thehighway proves to be dangerous. Tow trucks cannot safely stop on the highway tomove vehicles. Reentering the highway with a vehicle in tow is extremely difficult.A final source of danger in the highway is the inability of large trucks to climb the steepgrade. Often times, trucks cannot climb the hill, and are forced to stop on the shoulder.These trucks must therefore be towed up the hill, which proves to be difficult anddangerous.Attached on page 7 of this proposal is a list of accidents occurring on the .82 mile spanof I-430 between Exit 9 and the bridge over the Arkansas River (Bonds, Nilles). Aseverity description code is displayed beneath the table. The accident list does notinclude accidents occurring on the bridge. The list includes accidents occurring in 2008.Similar lists were compiled for 2006 and 2007 (Bonds). Between 2006 and 2008, a totalof 153 traffic accidents occurred. The 153 accidents caused a total of 83 injuries. Twowere listed as incapacitating.The average daily traffic across this area is 74,900 vehicles (arkansashighways.com).Therefore, the annual number of accidents, per ten thousand vehicles average dailytraffic, per mile is approximately 8.304. The number of accidents per average dailytraffic per mile is much greater than typical numbers. A survey of 25 highways spanninga total of 243 miles found the average number of accidents, per ten thousand vehiclesaverage daily traffic, per mile to be 2.256 (Rentz). The largest value found was 6.881accidents. Therefore, the number of accidents is relatively large, being over three timesthe average. 5    
  • 6. Due to the hazards listed, the section of highway between the Arkansas River and Exit9 is extremely dangerous. Validating this is statistical data for this stretch of highwayand other highways. This danger necessitates the renovation of Interstate 430. The pathand length of the highway will be altered. The grade of the slope will be decreased from4.75% to 3.5%. While the highway curves, the grade will be 1.5%. By decreasing theslope of the highway, vehicles will be able to more maintain control, even duringadverse conditions. Law enforcement will be able to safely park on the inclined sectionof the highway. By parking on either end of the bridge, officers will be able to patrol thebridge without parking on it. Drivers of inoperable vehicles will be able to park safelyand wait to be have their car fixed or towed. Finally, large trucks will be able to climb thehill.The solution detailed in this proposal is simpler and more economically feasible thanother solutions. The project does not require altering the bridge in any way. Any projectthat involves modifying the bridge or building a new bridge would be excessivelyexpensive. Also, the path detailed in this proposal is the best possible path. This pathdoes not require modifying any roads other than I-430. It decreases the slope the mostpossible without interfering with existing structures. Any path that goes over theridgeline (east of the curved section of highway), would increase the slope and requireexcessive removal of soil. Any path that heads farther west would interfere with existingstructure and make the highway longer than necessary. Finally, this solution onlyrequires modifying one off ramp and one onramp.On a given day, 74,900 vehicles cross the I-430 Bridge. Renovating the highway andensuring the safety of all the motorists is essential. It is the first step towards creating asafer highway system and a safer state. 6    
  • 7. 2008  Traffic  accidents  between  Exit  9  and  Arkansas  River   Date Time North/South Severity #Inj Type of Collision 04/04/2008 12:00 N 4 1 REAR END 12/09/2008 10:59 N 5 0 SIDESWIPE SAME DIRECTION 05/17/2008 11:55 N 5 0 REAR END 06/15/2008 03:20 N 5 0 SIDESWIPE SAME DIRECTION 04/03/2008 07:30 N 5 0 SINGLE VEHICLE CRASH 09/26/2008 15:42 N 5 0 SIDESWIPE SAME DIRECTION 01/04/2008 12:50 N 4 1 SIDESWIPE SAME DIRECTION 08/10/2008 15:54 N 5 0 SINGLE VEHICLE CRASH 01/08/2008 11:01 N 5 0 SINGLE VEHICLE CRASH 03/30/2008 14:58 S 5 0 SINGLE VEHICLE CRASH 07/16/2008 15:44 N 5 0 SIDESWIPE SAME DIRECTION 10/07/2008 07:30 N 5 0 ANGLE 12/11/2008 17:34 S 5 0 REAR END 09/03/2008 09:06 N 4 2 SINGLE VEHICLE CRASH 06/09/2008 18:03 N 5 0 SINGLE VEHICLE CRASH 06/12/2008 07:45 N 5 0 REAR END 09/13/2008 17:32 S 5 0 SINGLE VEHICLE CRASH 04/22/2008 14:56 N 5 0 SINGLE VEHICLE CRASH 06/20/2008 21:10 S 3 1 SINGLE VEHICLE CRASH 07/13/2008 07:26 S 5 0 SINGLE VEHICLE CRASH 08/21/2008 18:21 N 4 1 SINGLE VEHICLE CRASH 07/29/2008 08:11 N 5 0 REAR END 05/07/2008 20:40 N 5 0 SINGLE VEHICLE CRASH 11/12/2008 12:42 N 4 1 REAR END 02/08/2008 16:25 S 5 0 REAR END 09/04/2008 01:04 S 3 3 SINGLE VEHICLE CRASH 02/12/2008 05:06 S 5 0 SINGLE VEHICLE CRASH 01/31/2008 08:55 S 5 0 SINGLE VEHICLE CRASH 03/03/2008 22:44 S 5 0 SINGLE VEHICLE CRASH 10/09/2008 17:19 S 4 1 REAR END 10/15/2008 16:24 N 5 0 REAR END 08/20/2008 06:06 N 3 1 ANGLE 09/19/2008 20:22 S 3 1 SINGLE VEHICLE CRASH 03/03/2008 23:20 S 5 0 SINGLE VEHICLE CRASH 09/02/2008 13:15 N 3 2 SINGLE VEHICLE CRASH 04/04/2008 00:00 S 5 0 SINGLE VEHICLE CRASH 08/02/2008 14:00 N 4 1 HEAD ONInjury Severity Code: 1=Fatal injury 2=Incapacitating injury 3=Non-incapacitating injury 4=Possible injury 5=No injury Statistics courtesy of Karen Bonds, records manager, Arkansas State Police 7    
  • 8. Project DescriptionObjectives:The goal of the renovation project is to make Interstate 430 safe for motorists. Toaccomplish this, the highway is to be lengthened, and will follow an altered path. Bylengthening the highway, I-430 can be reduced to a safe grade. Also, while the roadcurves, the road will have a significantly decreased grade of slope. Due to existingstructures, the highway path cannot be altered south of Exit 9 for Highway 10. Also,altering the bridge would be financially unfeasible. Therefore, the .82 mile stretch ofhighway between the bridge and Exit 9 will be the only section of road altered.On page 11 is an aerial photo of the highway and surrounding area. The current path ofInterstate 430 is marked in black. The proposed path is marked in red. The newhighway heads farther southwest before curving southeast. The original highway spansapproximately 4,330 feet. With a constant grade of 4.75%, the highway changes inelevation by 206 feet (Nilles). The new highway will span 6680 feet. It will travel 2,600feet southwest, at a constant grade of 3.5%. The road then curves southeast for 1,400feet. While curving, the highway will have a grade of 1.5%. After the curve is complete,the highway will span a final 1,100 feet. This section will again have a grade of 3.5%.In addition to renovating the highway, the Exit 9 onramps and off ramps will have to bealtered. The ramps being altered are highlighted in yellow on page 11. The new rampsare marked in blue. The current exit for southbound traffic heading west on Highway 10will be shortened, as can be seen in the picture. The new layout will never require adetour or closing of the exit, as traffic will be able to flow around the construction. Theonramp for eastbound Highway 10 traffic heading south of I-430 will also be altered.Due to the new direction of I-430, the space available for the onramp is decreased. The 8    
  • 9. curve of the onramp must be sharpened. This requires decreasing the speed limit.During construction of the ramp, traffic will be detoured onto I-430 onramp fromeastbound Highway 10. This will slow traffic, but traffic will still flow safely.This project aims to not only make I-430 safe, but it aims to do so quickly with minimalimpact on current traffic flow. Therefore, the new sections of highway will be constructedin their entirety before construction will begin on the existing highway. When altering theexisting highway, only half the road will be constructed at a time. First, the southboundhighway will be removed, graded, and repaved. Northbound and southbound traffic willtravel on the northbound lanes. By reducing lane widths and using the shoulders, fourlanes will be available for northbound southbound traffic. After construction of thesouthbound highway is complete, construction on the northbound highway willcommence. Again, all traffic will be diverted onto the southbound highway.Methods:For each section of highway, a series of operations will be performed. To design theschedule and plan the implementation of the operations, this project was compared tosimilar projects designed by Paulsen Construction. Also, Jack Carter, an estimator forSkanska, was consulted due to his expertise in paving and excavating.For new sections of highway, the land will have to be cleared of trees and otherobstacles. For existing sections, an excavator crew will remove the existing asphalt andgravel. Approximately seven inches of the asphalt will be reusable, and three inches willbe unusable. Bull dozers will be used to plough the material into piles. Dump trucks willhaul the unusable material to a dump site. They will haul the usable material to severallocations on the job site. 9    
  • 10. After the land has been cleared or the old highway removed, the land can be graded forthe new highway. The bulldozers will be used to remove large rocks and debris. A motorgrader will grade the terrain to the desired slope. A roller will then compact and smooththe ground. All of the earth removed will have to be hauled away from the jobsite. Thedirt will be loaded into dump trucks by a track loader.After the land is graded, paving can begin. Asphalt pavers will be used to lay the newasphalt and gravel. Medians, signs, and barriers can be installed. Finally, the roadmarkings are painted.To minimize time lost due to weather, the project will commence in the first week ofMarch. The project will require 22 weeks. It will be completed the first week of August.The exact project timeline is listed on page 12. By choosing this timeline, delays tosnow or excessive heat will be limited, if present. Delays caused by excessive rain,thunderstorms, or tornadoes may occur during this time period. 10    
  • 11. Schedule of ActivitiesPhase 1: New highway Clear land: 1 week Grading: 2 weeks New stone: 3 weeks New asphalt: 1 week Total 7 weeksPhase 2: Southbound off ramp Grade: ½ week New stone and asphalt 1 week Total 1 ½ weeksPhase 3: Existing southbound highway Remove asphalt: 1 ½ weeks Remove gravel: ½ week Grading: 1 week New Stone: 1 ½ weeks New Asphalt ½ week Total: 5 weeksPhase 4: Existing northbound highway Remove asphalt: 1 ½ weeks Remove gravel: ½ week Grading: 1 week New Stone: 1 ½ weeks New Asphalt ½ week Total: 5 weeksPhase 5: Southbound onramp: Remove asphalt and gravel: 1 week Grading: ½ week New Stone and asphalt: 1 week Total: 2 ½ weeksPhase 6: Barriers, signage, markings 1 weekTotal: 22 weeks 11    
  • 12. Equipment RecommendationsListed below is the necessary equipment for the completion of this project. Also listedare the recommended make and model for each type of equipment. This list wascompiled using knowledge gained from previous Paulsen Construction projects. Whenchoosing equipment, Jack Carter, an estimator for Skanska, was consulted, due to hisfamiliarity with the type of work and equipment. Finally, the product specifications on theCaterpillar website were referenced, confirming that the equipment is suitable for thetasks required. Equipment Type Quantity Make Model Excavator 1 Caterpillar 330 Dump Truck 5 Caterpillar 772 Bull Dozer 2 Caterpillar D8 Motor Grader 1 Caterpillar 140M Roller 2 Caterpillar CS76 Track Loader 1 Caterpillar 963 Asphalt Paver 1 Barber Greene MTP1265 12    
  • 13. StaffingListed below is a list of the staff required for the project. This list was generated bycomparing this project with previous projects completed by Paulsen Construction.Again, Jack Carter, an estimator for Skanska, was consulted. • 1 project superintendent o 1 excavating crew foreman  1 excavator operator  1 semi-skilled worker o 1 grade foreman  4 semi-skilled workers o 1 motor grader foreman  1 motor grader operator  1 semi-skilled worker o asphalt crew supervisor  6 semi-skilled workers  2 roller operators o 9 truck drivers/operators 13    
  • 14. BudgetThe budget was calculated using knowledge from previous projects completed byPaulsen Construction. Also consulted were unit cost tables provided by the IndianaDepartment of Transportation. The estimated total cost is $4,749,590. The budget islisted below, divided by type of expense and divided by operation.  Type of expense: o Materials: $2,783,320 o Staffing: $1,104,920 o Equipment: $861,350  Operation o Pavement removal  I-430 $1,492,200  Onramp, off ramp $373,050  Total removal $1,865,250 o Paving  I-430 $1,617,480  Onramp, off ramp $462,140  Total paving $2,079,620 o Grading  I-430 $746,050  Onramp, off ramp $45,480  Total grading $791,530 o Land clearing $8,230 o Signage $3,830 o Road Markings $1,130 14    
  • 15. Summary of Advantages • Most efficient solution o Does not alter bridge o Does not interfere with existing roads o Does not interfere with existing structures o Budget of $4,749,590 • Increased safety for motorists o 3.5% grade of slope on straightway o 1.5% grade of slope during curve • Allows law enforcement to patrol I-430 incline and bridge • Maintains steady traffic flow o Four lanes of traffic will always be open o Onramps and off ramps will remain in operation • Most efficient construction process o Well organized schedule of activities o Sufficient, economical list of equipment o Concise list of staff o Total time of construction only 22 weeks 15    
  • 16. ConclusionRenovation of Interstate 430 is necessary to ensure the safety of motorists. Due to thesteep incline of 4.75% grade and sharp curve, vehicles are prone to losing control,especially during adverse weather conditions. The highway is actually closed downoccasionally due to weather. Also, law enforcement has difficulty safely patrolling thehighway. Statistically, the segment of highway between the bridge over the ArkansasRiver and Exit 9 has over three times as many accidents as expected. Therefore, thehighway must be lengthened by 2,350 feet. This decreases the grade to 3.5%. Theslope of the grade during the curve will only be 1.5%. This solution does not requirealtering the bridge, and does not interfere with existing roads or structures.The project will require 22 weeks, beginning in the first month of March and beingcompleted in the first week of August. The effect to traffic flow will be minimized. At alltimes, all of the onramps and off ramps will be functional. Additionally, at least fourlanes of highway will be open at all times. The total cost of the project will be$4,749,590. This project will be funded by the Arkansas state government and federalgovernment. This project will benefit every Pulaski County citizen and visitor thatcrosses the Arkansas River via I-430. The project benefits the drivers and passengersof the 74,900 vehicles that traverse this route every day.This project will be considered successful if it is completed on time and within budget.The project will be a success if it increases the safety of the highway. This can bemeasured by a decrease in the number of traffic accidents. 16    
  • 17. Works Citedarkansashighways.com. Daily Traffic Estimates. 2007. <http://www.arkansashighways.c om/Maps/TrafficCountyMaps/2007ADT/tpula.pdf>Bonds, Karen. Email correspondence. Records Manager. Arkansas State Police. April 28, 2009.Carter, Jack. Phone interview. Estimator. Skanska USA Civil Southeast. April 27, 2009Caterpillar. Products and Applications. April 30, 2009. <  http://www.cat.com/cda/layout?m=37400&x=7>Nilles, David. Email correspondence. Public Information Office. Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department. April 29, 2009.Retz, Henry. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis in Pavement Design. September 1998. US DOT. Federal Highway Administration. Publication No. FHWA-SA-98-079. <http://isddc.dot.gov/OLPFiles/FHWA/013017.pdf> 17    

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