Second Chronicles 7:14• If my people, who are called by my Name, will humble themselves and pray and seek my Face and turn from their wicked ways, then will I hear from heaven and will forgive their sins and will heal their land.
Post EDSA Revolutions• 1986 EDSA Yellow Revolution, Philippines People Power by withdrawing consent, civilian based defense Marcos vs. Aquino• 1992 EDSA II Estrada and Arroyo• 1991 preventing military coup, Russia• South Korea, people stormed streets to throw dictator out• Pakistan Nepal Bangla Desh Indonesia
Peaceful revolutions post 2000 are led by youth movement• 1. Serbia-Montenegro 2000-2001 (Yugoslavia)• Milosevic versus Youth Movement• 2. Rose Revolution in Georgia 2003• Soviet style regime versus youth movement• 3. Orange Revolution in Ukraine 2004• PM Yanokovich versus Pres. Yuchenco and youth movement• 4. Tulip Revolution in Kyrgyzstan 2005 marred by little violence because hardline government, but youth stormed President’s palace and soldiers did not stop them
Sharp’s Influence• Sharp influenced strategy of resistance organization in youth movements in Eastern Europe who used his handbook.• Otpor in Serbia• Kmara in republic of Georgia• Pora in Ukraine• Kelkel in Kyrgystan• Zubr in Belarus
Other Influences• Sharp may have influenced Orange Alternative movement fighting communism in People’s Republic of Poland, founded 1983, since it used methods mentioned by Sharp, although it is not clear whether founders knew his work• Sharp’s book Civilian based Defense used by Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian governments during separation from Soviet Union in 1991
Failed Revolutions• Cedar (tree) in Lebanon 2005 youth led change of government• Cornflower (Blue or Denim) Revolution in Belarus failed because lacked critical mass and youth was weak.• President Aleksandr Lukashenko, opposition leader Aleksandr Milinkevich, opposition youth group “Zubr” - and the unlikeliness of another color revolution, the “denim” one
West sponsored revolution• President Alyaksandr Lukashenka on 22 February accused the opposition of seeking Western economic sanctions against Minsk and denied the opposition the right to call Belarus its own country, Belarusian Television reported. He also blasted the West for sponsoring what he called a ―blue or cornflower revolution.‖ ―The West spares no money for [funding the Belarusian opposition],‖ Lukashenka said.
Spin• ―They consider that Belarus is ripe for some sort of an orange or, I’m [even] terrified to utter it out loud, some blue or cornflower — which is the same thing, I think — revolution. We have already had enough of that blueness!‖ In Belarusian poetry, blue cornflower stands for a popular symbol of the native country. Some Belarusian oppositionists have proposed the blue cornflower as a symbol for an anti- Lukashenka revolt.
Homosexual Rights• Lukashenka’s mentioning of ―blue‖ and ―blueness‖ appears to be a play on the semantic connotations of these words, which in the post- Soviet area denote homosexuality. –RFE/RL• Lukashenka is probably taking a not-so-subtle swipe at George Soros and his sinister “Open Society” front groups. Soros has been instrumental in fomenting pseudo-revolts throughout Eastern Europe, as well as pushing for “homosexual rights”
Colored Revolutions• So ―colored revolution‖ is once again in the air and in the press.• And if past narratives of its prospects are any indication, youth and youth organizations will play a prominent and decisive role.
Black and White• Black and White movement in Philippines 2006 lacked critical mass, military, church, business component and youth• December 15/17, 2006 Thanksgiving Rally led by Gaudencio Cardinal Rosales and CBCP President Arch. Angel N. Lagdameo of 50,000 people at Luneta. El Shaddai, Jesus is Lord, Iglesia ni Kristo, Protestants, Opposition, businessmen, stude nts, etc.• For the withdrawal of Pres. Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo’s support of Constituent Assembly (Con-Ass) and its archival by the House of Representatives led by Speaker Jose de Venecia
Youth Revolutions• How could anyone forget the scenes of Pora’s activists occupying the streets in the Ukraine?• Or Kmara’s street protests in Georgia?• Or KelKel’s organizing youths to vote in Kyrgyzstan?• In many ways colored revolutions are youth revolutions
Zubr• In fact, the Belarusian Opposition youth organization Zubr (Bison) coined the label ―Denim Revolution‖ from the blue denim that serves as its symbol. It is suspected that Zubr has connections to Pora and Kmara, thus, increasing the specter of colored revolution. Over the last several weeks Zubr activists have been subject to arrest, imprisonment, searches, expulsion from university, and physical attack.
Dictatorship to Democracy• Judging from Zubr’s website, the only documents that approach a program are an activist manual (available only in Russian) and a paper by Gene Sharp called ―From Dictatorship to Democracy.‖ The paper is available in both English and Belorussian.
Gene Sharp in Belarus• Sharp’s essay lays out a broad strategy for non-violent democratic political resistance.• Its central problematic is developing a strategy that stands firm against dictatorships to prevent cooptation• While at the same time developing democratic consciousness through activism.
Activist Manual• The activist manual is a fascinating document. It lays out the activist methodology and structure of Zubr. It gives precise instructions and examples on organizing protest actions.• Like many youth groups, Zubr’s political ideology is centered on a belief in the effectiveness of mass protest and organizing, strong ties to non-government organizations, the development of civil society, and networking and participating in broad coalitions.• These, according to the document, appear to be the seeds of a democratic society. However, in the meantime, their main concern is a Belarus without Lukashenko.
Problem• This is a general problem of many youth based organizations in the Former Soviet Union and in the anti-globalization movement.• Their politics are based in being reactive rather than proactive.• This is evident in the emphasis on protest and resistance.
What if we win?• This emphasis will eventually pose a question that seems to have appeared in the Ukraine and Georgia–what to do if they actually win?• For the most part the question has split the Ukraine’s Pora into two–a political party wing and a watchdog wing.• This is unlikely to be an immediate problem in Belarus since most doubt the Opposition will be able to unseat Lukashenko through electoral or extra-electoral means.
Mass Protest as Fetish• But the question is one that organizations must consider.• As anti-war and anti-globalization movements in the West have proved, mass protest has limits.• A perpetual reliance on it, let alone fetishizing it, can become rote, predictable, and eventually demoralizing.
Common Goals• Democratic• Secular• Human rights, civil liberties• Peaceful and non violent action• Lately the goal to spread democracy to the Middle East• Lately Pro Islamic
Pre 2000• Poland Solidarity Movement 1979• Velvet Revolution in Czech Republic, 1989• Yellow Revolution EDSA 1986Observations:• These revolutions cannot be repeated• Needed follow up, or recapitulation• Need vigilance of people and youth because a continuing process
History of Non Violent Action• India 1930-1931 Gandhi• Struggle against Nazi in Netherlands, Norway and Denmark, improvised• Norway 1942, teachers’ resistance• Berlin 1943, non Jewish wives of Jews• Latin America Civilian Insurrection• Guatemala 1944, silent paralysis• Czechoslovakia 1968, clandestine radio
Characteristics• Pro Democracy, hyped towards democracy, pro secular• Post communist or post Soviet except Lebanon• Former communist or Soviet states in Eastern Europe• Pro human rights, civil rights• Anti authoritarian• Same time frame
Youth Driven, age 16-25• Students in universities, studying business, economics, psychology• Young idealistic adults• Advocacy of Foundation of George Soros, born in former Eastern Europe, rich philanthropist of Institute of Leadership• Like an open university, studied leadership and network with each other, supports and monitors each other’s revolution
Non Violence Actionist• Abided and followed non violence movement of Mahatma Gandhi• Martin Luther King, Coretta Scott King• Gene Sharp
Gene Sharp, 1928-• 1949 Bachelor of Arts in Social Sciences Ohio State University• 1951 Master of Arts in Sociology• 1968 Doctor of Philosophy in political theory Oxford University• 1983 Honorary Doctor of Laws Manhattan College• 1996 Honorary Doctor of Humanitarian Service Rivier College
Life Context• Lived for ten years in England and Norway• Advanced studies at Oxford• Held positions University of Oslo and Institute for Social Research in Norway
Harvard and Einstein• From 1965 research appointments, Harvard University Center for International Affairs for thirty years• Harvard professor emeritus, original research• Senior Scholar and Founder of Albert Einstein Institution, Boston Massachusetts
University Research• Professor emeritus of Political science University of Massachusetts Darmouth• 1983 Called Clausewitz of nonviolent warfare• Promote research, policy studies, education on strategic uses of nonviolent struggle in face of dictatorship, war genocide and oppression
Classic Book• 1960 Gandhi Wields the Weapon of Moral Power foreword by Albert Einstein, first book• 1973 The Politics of Non Violent Action, Introduction by Thomas C. Schelling, classic book, best seller, definitive study of nonviolent struggle• 1985 Making Europe Unconquerable, foreword by George F. Kennan, relevance of civilian based defense for Western Europe
Post Soviet• 1990 A Post-Military Weapons System, organized nonviolent noncooperation and defiance can deter and defeat internal takeover and invasion• Used in 1991 and 1992 by new independent governments of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in planning defense against Soviet efforts to regain control
Indian Edition• 1980 Social Power and Political Freedom, introduction by Senator Mark O. Hatfield, collection of political analysis• 1979 Gandhi as a Political Strategist with Essays on Ethics and Politics, introduction by Coretta Scott King• and 1999 Indian edition also foreword by Federico Mayor, then UNESCO director general
Co-Editor• Co-editor, 1986, Resistance, Politics and the American Struggle for Independence, 1765-1775• Co-editor, 1997, Non Violent Action: A Research Guide• Contributor to several encyclopedia
Extent of Influence• The Power and Practice of Non Violent Struggle, English translation in preparation• Earlier edition in Tibetan published with foreword by Dalai Lama• From Dictatorship to Democracy, shorter writing in English, Burmese, Spanish, Korean, Indon esian
Denounced• Burmese edition denounced by Burmese military dictators• Indonesian edition carried foreword by Abdurrahman Wahid, used to be president of Indonesia• Spanish translation circulates in Cuba• Workshops and consultations in several crisis situations
Author• Books on nonviolent struggle, power, political problems, dictatorship, defense policy• Published in English, and twenty seven languages, including Norwegian, German, French, Italian, Arabi c, Hebrew, Tamil, Burmese, Korean, Thai, Spanish, Chinese, Korean, Japanese
Simplify• Simplified presentation on nature of nonviolent struggle• Influenced strategy of resistance around the world• Non Violent fights against ―war, dictatorship, oppression, powerlessn ess‖
Quotation• Gene Sharp maintains that major unsolved political problems of our time – dictatorship, genocide, war, social oppression and popular powerlessness –• Require us to rethink politics in order to develop fresh strategies and programs for resolution.
Strategy• Gene Sharp is convinced that• pragmatic, strategically planned, nonviolent struggle• can be made highly effective• for application in conflicts to life oppression• and as a substitute for violence.
Core Ideas• World’s leading writer on non-violent action• Theory of power based on two ideas, e.i.• One: Division between rulers and subjects• Two: Withdrawing of consent as main avenue for effecting political change
Primary Sources• The Politics of Nonviolent Action, 1973, a classic book on strategy of political change• Social Power and Political Freedom, 1980• Gandhi as a Political Strategist, 1979• Making Europe Unconquerable, 1985
System• First, classified methods of non-violent action• and catalogued 198 different techniques• along with extensive array of historical examples• in conceptual order of cluttered and scattered experiences of and literature on non violent actions
Framework• Second, theory of power offers framework for understanding how non-violent action works• Theory, methods, techniques and dynamics
Core Idea I• People in society are divided into rulers and subject• The power of rulers derives from consent by the subjects• Nonviolent action is a process of withdrawing consent,• and way to challenge key modern problems of dictatorship, genocide, war and systems of oppression
Two Key Concepts• Ruler-subject classification. The ruler includes not only chief executives but also ruling groups and all bodies in command of the state structure (1980, p. 22)• State includes state bureaucracy, police and military, all under the command of the person or group which occupies the position of ruler at head of state (1980, p. 11)
Subjects• All others besides the rulers are subjects• Political power is one type of social power,• as totality of means, influences and pressures, including authority, rewards and sanctions available for use to achieve objectives of power holder• especially institutions of government, State and groups opposing either of them (1980, p. 27)
Monolithic versus Pluralistic• Power is monolithic entity residing in person or position of a ruler or ruling body• Instead power is pluralistic, residing with variety of groups and diversity of locations, called loci of power• Loci of power of ruler provide countervailing force against power of ruler, specially when numerous and widely distributed.
Key Sources of Power• Power is not intrinsic to rulers, it must come from somewhere else• Key sources of power, e.i.• Authority• Human resources• Skills and knowledge• Intangible factors, material resources and sanctions (1973, pp 1112)
Core Idea 2 Consent• Sources of ruler’s power depend intimately upon obedience and cooperation of subjects (1973, p. 12)• Consent theory of power. Without consent of the subjects, either their active support or passive acquiescence, the ruler would have little power and basis for rule
Obedience is key• Power is contingent and precarious, requiring cultivation of cooperation and manipulation of potentially antagonistic loci.• Obedience is the key, the most important single quality of any government, without which it would not exist, -- the obedience and submission of its subjects
Heart of Power• Obedience is at the heart of political power (1973, p. 16)
Why do people obey?• Habit• Fear of sanctions• Moral obligation• Self interest, financial gains, prestige• Psychological identification with ruler• Zones of indifference• Absence of self confidence among subjects (1973, pp. 16-24)
Actionist/ Activist• Non violent action constitutes a refusal by subjects to obey• Power of ruler will collapse if consent is withdrawn in an active way• Active is vital• Ruler will not be threatened by grumbling, alienation and critical analysis alone, or passivity and submissiveness
Necessary• Activity• Challenge to authority• Struggle of resistance (1973, p. 65)
Methods of Action• Non violent methods of action include:• Laying groundwork for action• Making challenges• Building discipline• Building support• Redistributing power
Summary of Gene Sharp• Theory of power and practice• Waging a non violent struggle• Philosophy of how to work resistance against repression in a non violent means
Dictatorship• Dictatorial regime depends upon crucial sources and uses of power (SUPR):• Moral authority• Obedience• Cooperation from key people like army, police, business and economic system, bureaucracy, religions
Non Violent Actionists• Key to bring down a tyrant• Cut off sources and uses of power (SUPR)• Good feeling beneficial to groups, society• Effects of non violent education to take hold• Theory of peace: not merely a pacifist who is passive, but active
Methods of Non Violent Action• Protest and persuasion• Social, economic and political noncooperation• Nonviolent intervention
Political Jiu-jitsu• Strategy that uses strengths to attack opponents’ weaknesses• Phenomenon of political jui-jitsu, when too much brutality result in unity and support of opposition, while throwing ruler off balance and weakening regime• Example: creation of martyrs, sympathy of third parties like formerly neutral foreign countries and internal groups
People Power• Feeling of empowerment evolves• Within resisting groups during a campaign• That brings increased self-esteem and personal development
Conclusion• Use of non violence disperses power throughout society• In contrast, violent struggles tend to centralize power, creating callousness and de-humanization
Three Ways to Victory: One• One: Conversion of opponent to point of view, winning hearts and minds is the only true victory
Two: Accommodation• Two: Accommodation occurs when opponent does not agree with resisters, but decides it is too costly to continue the fight. Most common path to victory.
Three: Call to action• Third: Nonviolent coercion occurs when opposition is forced to make concessions against its will because power base has been dissolved.• Thus, even if nonviolent campaign is unable to change adversary’s way of thinking, it can wield power and influence course of events
Questions• Despite appearances to the contrary, rule of dictators and other elite groups is always weak and unstable• Political power is never absolute, as long as the dominated maintain their freedom of will and will to freedom• Even most ruthless leader depends on cooperation and voluntary submission of subjects
Mantra• All power relationships are interactive, mutually modulating, and reciprocal• When enough people withdraw support fpr a long time, the power of the ruler disintegrates.• Power is real and symbolic as well
Monolithic Model of Power•All powerresides at thetop•Stucture isunchanging•People have noinput•People mustobey•Peopledependent onruler
Pluralistic Model of Power •Skills and •Legitimacy Knowledge •Numbers •Intangible Factors •Material Wealth •Sanctions
Pillars of Support •Government •Political Party •Police •Military •Civil Servants •Workers •MediaOrganization •Other
Isolating from SUPR•Non violent strategies •Pillarspush and pull pillars ofsupport away from ruler •Opposition •Center •Core •Ruler •Pillars •Pillars
•Family Loyalty Pie •Extended Family •Religion •Work •Unions •Professional Organizations •Social Groups •Hobbies •Political Parties •Other•Diagrams adapted from Robert L.Helvey, On Strategic Non Violent Conflict:Thinking about the Fundamentals
Recommendation• David Hume, 18th century philosopher wrote about the same concept in Essay 4: Of the First Principles of Government• Noam Chomsky refers to this point of view as Hume’s paradox