Components of Scientific
Controls & Variables
Data & Analysis
Variables are factors that change during
Independent Variable (IV): variable
that is purposely changed during
Dependent Variable (DV): variable that
changes in response to purposeful change
Controls: Variable that all others will be
◦ Allows variables to be compared to something
Procedure: step by step instructions of
what you will do
Constant: Experimental aspect that is
kept the same for all trials
Title of Experiment:
◦ The Effect of (Insert Independent Variable
Here) on (Insert Dependent Variables Here).
Hypothesis of Experiment:
◦ If (planned change in independent variable),
then (predicted changed in dependent variable)
Or another way to look at it…
◦ If (I do this) , then (this) will happen.
Test your hypothesis by doing the
Example: Test insulation of
different materials on jar of water
Title: The Effect of Type of Insulation Wrap
on Temperature of Water in a Jar
Hypothesis: If jars of water in the sun are
wrapped with different types of insulation,
then the temperature of the water in the jars
will increase by different amounts.
IV: Type of insulation
DV: Change in temperature of water in jar
Control IV 1
Data & Results
Analyze your data:
◦ Qualitative (They’re hot!), Quantitative
(They’re a 10!)
◦ Create a graph/chart
◦ Briefly restate hypothesis
◦ Answer to your question
◦ Explain your results (How & Why)
◦ Describe any modifications and next steps.
Practice Science Method
1. What is the independent variable?
2. What is the dependent variable?
3. What would be an appropriate control?
4. What are some of the constants?
5. Set up a graph (Title & Labels) for data
A group of scientists want to measure the
effect of adding different types of nutrients to
the same plant species. They plan to add 3
different nutrients to the different species and
measure the effect on the plant’s growth.