Dna structure notes

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    - Does this remind you of anything: fork…the area where the two chains seperate
  • Dna structure notes

    1. 1. I. DNA Structure This unit is about how DNA stores the code for making proteins and how the code is passed on to offspring (kids). DNA is the molecule that allows for genetic information to be passed on from parents.
    2. 2. DNA Structure and Function 1. DNA is made of smaller, repeating units, called nucleotides 2. Each nucleotide has three parts: a. Deoxyribose sugar b. phosphate group c. Nitrogen containing base
    3. 3. Nitrogen Bases:1 of 4 types Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine
    4. 4. 3. Bases always pair-up in the same way to form complimentary base pairs. Adenine - Thymine OR Thymine - Adenine A - T Guanine - Cytosine OR Cytosine - Guanine G - C
    5. 5. 4. Sides of DNA are alternating sugar and phosphate groups Sugar/phosphate backbone
    6. 6. 5. Nitrogen bases - in middle of molecule are held together by double or triple hydrogen bonds* A - T *Hydrogen bond = weak bond G - C
    7. 7. 6. Shape: Double helix or twisted ladder
    8. 8. First seen like this…by Rosalind Franklin
    9. 9. PRIZE TIME: DNA Replication If the nitrogen bases always pair with their compliment, then predict how DNA might replicate. Write it down on your notes.
    10. 10. DNA Replication: copying DNA - makes two identical molecules A - T G - C T C C G G T A A Helicase enzyme A C T C T A G G Polymerase 7. DNA is “unzipped” by helicase enzymes. Then polymerase attaches correct nucleotides to match the base pairs. 8. A mistake in just one base pair is a mutation.

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