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Populism Continued Vargas Web
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Populism Continued Vargas Web

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  • 1. Brazil
    • Originally called the United States of Brazil
      • Each state was sovereign, almost a confederation
    • Between 1889 and 1930, there was significant instability
      • Social, political and economic
    • Total dependency on their coffee industry
      • Created artificial demand through storing excess coffee
    • Plantations became violent because the workers lived in debt peonage
      • Hired thugs were used to keep workers in line
    • Brazil got into the war because U-boats sank B merchant ships
    • B basically got involved with supplies not military
      • Food production was neglected in favor of light industry and coffee…led to malnutrition, diseases and a lack of proper sanitation
      • Average lifespan in 1920 was 28…low huh?
  • 2. Brazil continued
    • 64% of the pop over the age of 15 were illiterate
    • 3% of the pop voted
      • Really meant nothing because elections were rigged anyway
    • Coronels ruled
      • The coronels of Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais cut a deal, between 1889 and 1930 6 presidents came from there
    • So what was the impact???
  • 3. Politics and Economics in the 30’s
    • But the GD had a huge impact on the industry
      • External debt in 1930 of 1.2 billion
      • 1/3 rd of national budget went to the debt
    • Coffee prices fell, how much??
      • What happened the demand?
    • In 1930 the outgoing President nominated a Paulista like himself…..
      • Ranchers from Minas Gerais wanted the next President to come from their region soooo….
    • Liberal Alliance was formed…what did it do?
    • Vargas became the President…how and what did it mean?
    • Getulio Vargas….
  • 4. Background
    • Was born in 1883
    • He first started with the military, then turned to law
    • He and his wife had 5 children
    • Came from a region called Rio Grande do Sul
    • He served various roles in the government, including Secretary of the Treasury
    • He was a wealthy nationalist and anti-communist
      • He favored a liberal, capitalist approach
    • He lost a 1930 election, running on a populist platform
    • He took part in the bloodless coup in 1930, installing Vargas as “provisional president”
  • 5. Vargas’ Hold on Power..
    • He ruled over a coalition that was frustrated at the power of Sao Paulo
      • Included growing middle class, intellectuals and tenant farmers, conservative landowners
      • Pressured by blacks and women for better rights
    • His first few years he challenged SP.
      • “ Interventers” were installed in every state except MG
      • Loyalty to country, not state
      • SP oligarchy led a revolt in 1932
    • The Constitutionalist Revolution was supported by all of SP
    • It was squashed, Vargas pardoned the leaders to gain support and the debt was excused
  • 6. Vargas Cont.
    • In 1932 he lowered the voting age from 21 to 18 and extended the vote to women
    • Still 95% remained ineligible to vote (illiterate)
    • But between 1930-1945 there were no national elections, only state
    • 1934-New Constitution drafted
      • Vargas was elected until 1938 by the national assembly
      • Nationalized energy, defense, fixed minimum wage, guaranteed the right to strike, fixed the 8-hour day and created social security
      • Strikes were repressed that weren’t supported by gov
  • 7. Estado Novo
    • The left led an armed uprising…squashed
      • 15,000 imprisoned and many tortured or put to dealth
    • 1937—Vargas cancelled 1938 elections, dissolved congress and assumed dictatorial status w/ new constitution
      • Modeled by European Fascism
      • Dissolved all political parties
      • Arrested anyone against Vargas
      • Strict censorship was established
    • The new regime was called the Estado Novo( New State)
    • They regulated the economy and industrialization became the focus
      • Vargas gave tax incentives, import quotas, lowered duties on imports needed for industrialization and low interest long term loans
  • 8. Impact
    • Industrial production doubled from 1931-1936
    • Increased trade with Germany
      • German for SA established 300 branches
    • By 1940 there was significant foreign capitol-especially with the US
    • US/B signed a secret agreement to build airstrips in B
      • B broke ties w/Germany in 1942
      • Led to G sinking B merchant ships
      • In August a B transport shop was sunk, 257 soldiers died
      • US sent anti-sub ships to B…finally declared war on 8/22/42
    • Vargas gave the US complete control over the B Navy and Air Force….why?
  • 9. WWII and Brazil
    • B became less strategic after front became Europe not N. Africa
    • B thought committing soldiers meant post-war reconstructing
    • In 44’ 25,344 troops were sent to Italy
      • Brazilian Expeditionary Force
      • All logistical support was supplied by the US
      • Sent a fighter squadron as well
    • Lost 1,889 soldiers
    • WWII led to rapid industrialization
      • The US needed supplies
      • The relationship with the US was mutually favorable…but how about fascism?
    • Vargas needed to acquire a façade of democracy
      • He game amnesty for political prisoners, allowed political parties and set a date for elections
      • Military thought he would not hold them….deposed him
  • 10. Vargas….again?
    • Ran in 1950 for President again in 1950
      • Ran on a platform of industrialization, nationalism (populism) and expansion of the social welfare program
      • He won with 48% of the vote…but he found that….
    • Inflation rose which hurt the middle class
      • He needed foreign investment…
    • After a series of labor strikes he proposed a doubling of the minimum wage
    • In 1954—The “Manifesto of Colonels”
    • Due to a failed assassination attempt of his opponent, he was forced to resign
    • The day he was to leave office he committed suicide at the age of 72
  • 11. Impact
    • Under the Estado Novo society was controlled by the government
      • Included all printed materials and radio programs
    • Vargas did nothing to improve status of women or minorities
    • The promises made to the MC were never a reality…such as…
    • When he died people were devastated….really?
      • The masses were saddened, he appealed to the common people
      • Education was not improved at all…in 1942 16% had completed more than three years of education
    • Over all, his rhetoric did not match his realty…populism 