Native rights in la, usa and canada


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Native rights in la, usa and canada

  1. 1. Aboriginal Rights Canada, the United States and Latin America from 1950-1980
  2. 2. General History <ul><li>First contact with natives in Canada, Latin America and the United States dates back to 1492 and the arrival of Columbus </li></ul><ul><li>Settlers from Europe, primarily from Portugal, Spain, England, France and the Netherlands arrived in search of new resources </li></ul><ul><li>They found indigenous inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>They carved up the territory and established trading outposts </li></ul>
  3. 3. Early Relations <ul><li>Well, basically NOT GOOD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epidemic disease (small pox, measles….and the list goes no) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enslavement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warfare throughout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermarriage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natives were used to verbal land dispute agreements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Settlers had written documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not fair and in many cases not upheld </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By the middle 1800’s most nations throughout the Americans had their independence </li></ul><ul><li>Some countries held on to their possessions longer </li></ul><ul><li>Relations between the indigenous population, settlers and “mestizos” were not always the best </li></ul>
  4. 4. Canada <ul><li>Settled by both the English and the French </li></ul><ul><li>There were several wars early on, but relations stabilized by the 1700’s </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists established families with natives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metis-term to describe a person of mixed heritage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushed for rights several times </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A multitude of treaties had been written throughout history </li></ul><ul><li>Some provisions were not upheld </li></ul><ul><li>1876-The Indian Act was passed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It allowed the Federal Government to facilitate the assimilation of the aboriginals into common culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But it included several discriminatory provisions including the lack of vote, not allowing the drinking of alcohol or leaving of reservation without permission </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. 1950-1980 <ul><li>The Universal Declaration of Human Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1948 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced Canada to look at their treatment of Aboriginals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1951-Indian Act altered to fix some discriminatory practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could now drink on their reservations and practice some cultural rituals once outlawed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1960-Dief the Chief granted voting rights to natives </li></ul><ul><li>1968-Trudeau issued the “White Paper” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically the Government of Canada would no longer negotiate with any non-sovereign nation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natives countered with “Red Paper”, completely rejecting the paper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A multitude of other issues, debates and cases came up which dealt with basic rights including the pipeline debate </li></ul><ul><li>1973-The Government of Canada formally recognized nation claims </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution Act of 1982 was signed guaranteeing rights for all aboriginals and inuits </li></ul>
  6. 6. The United States <ul><li>The Vikings came into contact with the natives first(@1000) </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus came in 1492 </li></ul><ul><li>Relations were pleasant at first, until they began to move west </li></ul><ul><li>Disease was common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small pox, measles… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1832 the Government issued a vaccination program </li></ul><ul><li>Many Natives took part in the Revolution…on both sides </li></ul><ul><li>1840-”Manifest Destiny” or Indian Removal”??? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over the course of the next 100 years Indians were killed or forced onto reservations </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 19 th /20 th Century US <ul><li>The Indian Removal Act of 1830 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All land East of the Mississippi could be exchanged for land west </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Trail of Tears—Some 4,000 Cherokee died due to relocation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resistance was significant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Little Bighorn 1876 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wounded Knee 1890 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many fought in the Civil War, WWI and WWII </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approx 44,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disrupted culture, land, a general disharmony </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some served as “code talkers” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learned and trained at Camp Pendleton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some 200 terms at first, as many as 600 at wars end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coding machines took 30 minutes, Navajo would take 20 seconds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital to the interests of the war </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Native American Rights Today <ul><li>There are some 550 plus federally recognized tribes in the US </li></ul><ul><li>Live in predominately 3 states (AZ, CA, OK) </li></ul><ul><li>Most NA have mixed cultural background, but there are 9 primary tribes </li></ul><ul><li>NA mascots have come under fire in the past 10 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NCAA has banned use of violent NA mascots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only one exception-FSU Seminoles </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Wounded Knee and AIM <ul><li>AIM-Began in 1968, by Dennis Banks, George Mitchell and Clyde Bellecourt as a main force in the push for NA CR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Began out of complaints over high unemployment, slum housing and racist treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Its goals are to increase awareness and secure CR </li></ul><ul><li>1973-Took over the town of Wounded Knee for 71 days over the conditions on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision on location was based on the massacre at the same location in 1890 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to two deaths in the standoff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The movie Thunderheart has some connections to the event in 1973 and 1890 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leonard Peltier—indicted for the murder of two federal officers on the reservation, he is a member of AIM and a main political activist </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Legislation <ul><li>Bureau of Indian Affairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established in 1824..oversees the management of the entire reservation system in the US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of the US Department of the Interior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1934-Indian Reorganization Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed management of tribal assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local self-government of tribes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1968-Indian Civil Rights Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic rights accorded to NA based on civil liberties and Bill of Rights issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1975-Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed government agencies to enter into contracts with tribes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave tribes greater control over funding </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Latin America <ul><li>Several countries have sizable populations of NA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia and Ecuador </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hundreds of languages are spoken in the LA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As mentioned, colonization brought a myriad of , diseases and lasting problems </li></ul><ul><li>Currently today there are still lasting issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty is pervasive and significant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abysmal living conditions and health problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlated parental educational issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Findings indicate that pay is under what non-indigenous counterparts make </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Throughout the last 50 years there has been a number of movements in a number of countries demanding equal treatment for the Indig. population </li></ul>
  12. 12. Case Study: Peru <ul><li>Spanish occupied and colonized Peru in the 16 th century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Of course they brought disease and social unrest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indigenous people make up between 31% to 45% of the population </li></ul><ul><li>Most occupy areas called communal reserves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predominately Quechua and Aymara from the Andean Highlands w/ more than 15 linguistic families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both terms insight potential racism and discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conflicts over territory has existed over time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many have lost territory in their historical areas or have had to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost 10 million hectares have been lost due to economic activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2009, a protest by indigenous populations led to the deaths of 33 people over the adoption of laws over the exploitation of natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conflicts in the 20 th century ranged from land disputes to elite abuses to crimes of violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigenous laws did not always protect all citizens leading to major rights disputes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall there was a serious inequality between natives and non-natives </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Case Study: Guatemala <ul><li>Some 40% of the population are of Maya ancestry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Westernized Mayans and Ladinos (mixed European and indigenous ancestry) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ladinos dominate indigenous Guatemalans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1960-1996 Guatemalan Civil War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led by middle class insurgents against the military takeover of state institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Along with frustrations over human and civil rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many insurgents were Maya and tired of economic and social discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Guerrilla Army of the Poor, the Revolutionary Organization of Armed People, the Rebel Armed Forces and the Guatemalan Labor Party against the Leftist </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish Constitutional Court declared the war a genocide </li></ul><ul><li>1996 Peace Accords found that 90% of the human rights violations were attributed to the Guatemalan Military </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A vast majority were Maya Indians </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Assessment/Focus Task <ul><li>Indigenous populations across the Americas have faced land redistribution, human rights violations and economic and social issues </li></ul><ul><li>You are a member of Amnesty International and are writing an assessment of Indigenous rights in Canada, Latin America and the US </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the similarities and differences in the three areas? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What area seems to have a better record and why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the limited amount if info what do you think is the future for the indigenous populations in the three areas? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Restoration of treaty making (ended by Congress in 1871). </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of a treaty commission to make new treaties (with sovereign Native Nations). </li></ul><ul><li>Indian leaders to address Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>Review of treaty commitments and violations. </li></ul><ul><li>Unratified treaties to go before the Senate. </li></ul><ul><li>All Indians to be governed by treaty relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Relief for Native Nations for treaty rights violations. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of the right of Indians to interpret treaties. </li></ul><ul><li>Joint Congressional Committee to be formed on reconstruction of Indian relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Restoration of 110 million acres of land taken away from Native Nations by the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Restoration of terminated rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeal of state jurisdiction on Native Nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Federal protection for offenses against Indians. </li></ul><ul><li>Abolishment of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of a new office of Federal Indian Relations. </li></ul><ul><li>New office to remedy breakdown in the constitutionally prescribed relationships between the United States and Native Nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Native Nations to be immune to commerce regulation, taxes, trade restrictions of states. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian religious freedom and cultural integrity protected. </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of national Indian voting with local options; free national Indian organizations from governmental controls </li></ul><ul><li>Reclaim and affirm health, housing, employment, economic development, and education for all Indian people </li></ul><ul><li>AIM-Claims put forth to the President in 1972 </li></ul>Primary Source Documents