Latin American Populism Web
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  • 1. Populism and its impact on policy in Latin American Latino Americano: Bali de Gruppo
  • 2. What is Populism?
    • Stems from Peron’s “Third Position”, which was what???
      • It promised a great deal to the workers…very tough to actually fulfill
    • Populism traditionally has come in periods of turmoil not stability
    • As opposed to Marxism, Populism lacks a real clear identifiable doctrine
    • Based on the will of the majority against the will of the elite
    • It does not target the right or the left
    Sergio Mendes: Mas Que Nada
  • 3. Argentina
    • 1932-1943 Argentina was ruled by Concordancia
      • Critics called the period the Decada Infame or infamous Decade
      • The government was corrupt, they used violence and intimidation tactics to win elections
    • WWII caused shortages in Argentina and a lack of exports
    • Ramon Castillo became President in 1940
    • Support for the US would weaken Argentina
      • Due to frustration over grain and meat competition
      • Many Argentinean military officers were pro-German
      • Many believed that the US and GB helped to keep Argentina rural
      • So they stayed neutral in the hopes that A would gain control of trade w/Europe after the war
    Julio Iglesias: Me Olvide de Vivir
  • 4. Castillo
    • The lack of support for the war was a major issue
    • Argentina was the only country in the Americas to not participate in the war
    • Castillo’s actions meant no assistance for Argentina
      • Brazil received significant economic and military aid for their support
      • This led to fear over a powerful Brazil
    • Nationalists called for a stronger domestic arms program
    • Many feared continued repression by the gov.
      • Patron Costas was next in line
      • Many feared he would bring A into the war against the Axis powers
    • June 6, 1943—a coup against the regime
    Julio Iglesius: Baila Morena Baila
  • 5. US Involvement
    • General Pedro Ramirez became President
    • The US placed trade restrictions on A and gave money and military equipment to B
    • Ramirez agreed to break ties with the Axis powers
    • Nationalists forced Ramirez to resign and placed General Edelmiro Farrell as President
    • The military felt they needed a submissive work force to strengthen the economy
    • They attacked organized labor, took over the unions, suppressed newspapers and jailed the opposition
      • Had an interesting impact
      • … .Colonel Juan Peron felt that the military should take an active role in strengthening the economy and society
    Julio Iglesius Un Sentimental
  • 6. Juan Peron
    • Born in 1895 to a farmer, attended National Military School in 1911
    • Very well respected in the military and became the military attaché to fascist Italy
    • Peron became the VP, Minister of War and was in charge of the Labor Department
    • He looked to women, ethnic minorities and the working class for support
      • The populist movement---the masses
    Ivete Sangalo: Pais Tropical
  • 7. Populism
    • Instead of attacking labor, he felt the military should join forces
      • 1943– he convinced Gov to change policies towards labor
    • He created the Women’s Division of Labor and Assistance
      • Wanted to improve their conditions
    • Gave a pay raise to the Railway Union as they went on strike
    • He continued to give raises and settle disputes in favor of unions
    • He also created a state system of pensions and health benefits
    • Some did not agree…who? And why?
      • Led to Peron’s imprisonment in 1945
      • Masses came out in support…forced Farrell to reinstate him after only a few days
      • Farrell scheduled a national election
    • The “Blue Book”…what was its impact?
    • Peron won by 300,000 votes
    Ivete Sangalo: Como Se Fosse Flor
  • 8. Peron in Power
    • He used the military to stay in power
      • He increased spending and ended conscription
      • Officers were given control of key industries
    • He nationalized basic facilities
    • He established minimum wage and working condition regulations
    • The police broke up strikes by unrecognized unions
    • He disbanded the labor party and removed anyone that disagreed with him
    • And…he had “Evita”
      • She connected the descomisados and women
      • Suffrage, education, improved conditions and wages…
    Ivete Sangalo: Chorando Se Fui
  • 9. Evita
    • Women received the right to vote in 1947
    • 1941-1950 women admitted to universities doubled
    • 65% of women voted for Peron in 1951
    • 7 women senators and 24 deputies were elected
    • Partido Peronista emerged
    • Her death in 1952 greatly weakened Peron
    Madonna: Don’t Cry(Evita)
  • 10.
    • Peron took control of the Central Bank
    • He supported industrial investment and expansion
    • He increased steal production and weapons which kept the military happy
    • The economy was strong after the war and was able to pay back its debt in 1947
    • But in 1949 the programs started losing steam
      • Market strength diminished due to beef and wheat competition with the US and Europe
      • Industrial development became an issue
    • Instituto Argentino de Promocion del Intercambio…what was its impact?
  • 11. Peron’s Fall From Power
    • Recession hit in 1949
    • Marshall Plan supported Europe through loans….but
    • Exports decreased and real wages dropped by 20 percent
    • The government printed more money to deal with expenditures and bureaucracy… by how much??
    • Peron became more repressive
      • National Liberating Alliance….
      • He tried to make Eva a saint…the church did not agree so….
    • He lost the support of workers and the military..why?
    • 1953-Standard Oil got rights to drill and distribute
    • A military coup took place in 1955…he fled to Spain
      • He did not solve anything…including coal, electrical power, transportation, he did not meet the needs of the people and the power of the hacienda owners remained…
    Shakira: Antologio