Populism   and its impact on policy in Latin American  Latino Americano: Bali de Gruppo
What is Populism? <ul><li>Stems from Peron’s “Third Position”, which was what??? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It promised a great...
Argentina <ul><li>1932-1943 Argentina was ruled by Concordancia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critics called the period the Decada...
Castillo <ul><li>The lack of support for the war was a major issue </li></ul><ul><li>Argentina was the only country in the...
US Involvement <ul><li>General Pedro Ramirez became President </li></ul><ul><li>The US placed trade restrictions on A and ...
Juan Peron <ul><li>Born in 1895 to a farmer, attended National Military School in 1911 </li></ul><ul><li>Very well respect...
Populism <ul><li>Instead of attacking labor, he felt the military should join forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1943– he convin...
Peron in Power <ul><li>He used the military to stay in power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He increased spending and ended conscri...
Evita <ul><li>Women received the right to vote in 1947 </li></ul><ul><li>1941-1950 women admitted to universities doubled ...
<ul><li>Peron took control of the Central Bank </li></ul><ul><li>He supported industrial investment and expansion </li></u...
Peron’s Fall From Power <ul><li>Recession hit in 1949 </li></ul><ul><li>Marshall Plan supported Europe through loans….but ...
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Latin American Populism Web

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Latin American Populism Web

  1. 1. Populism and its impact on policy in Latin American Latino Americano: Bali de Gruppo
  2. 2. What is Populism? <ul><li>Stems from Peron’s “Third Position”, which was what??? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It promised a great deal to the workers…very tough to actually fulfill </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Populism traditionally has come in periods of turmoil not stability </li></ul><ul><li>As opposed to Marxism, Populism lacks a real clear identifiable doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the will of the majority against the will of the elite </li></ul><ul><li>It does not target the right or the left </li></ul>Sergio Mendes: Mas Que Nada
  3. 3. Argentina <ul><li>1932-1943 Argentina was ruled by Concordancia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critics called the period the Decada Infame or infamous Decade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The government was corrupt, they used violence and intimidation tactics to win elections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WWII caused shortages in Argentina and a lack of exports </li></ul><ul><li>Ramon Castillo became President in 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>Support for the US would weaken Argentina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to frustration over grain and meat competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Argentinean military officers were pro-German </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many believed that the US and GB helped to keep Argentina rural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So they stayed neutral in the hopes that A would gain control of trade w/Europe after the war </li></ul></ul>Julio Iglesias: Me Olvide de Vivir
  4. 4. Castillo <ul><li>The lack of support for the war was a major issue </li></ul><ul><li>Argentina was the only country in the Americas to not participate in the war </li></ul><ul><li>Castillo’s actions meant no assistance for Argentina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brazil received significant economic and military aid for their support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This led to fear over a powerful Brazil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nationalists called for a stronger domestic arms program </li></ul><ul><li>Many feared continued repression by the gov. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patron Costas was next in line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many feared he would bring A into the war against the Axis powers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>June 6, 1943—a coup against the regime </li></ul>Julio Iglesius: Baila Morena Baila
  5. 5. US Involvement <ul><li>General Pedro Ramirez became President </li></ul><ul><li>The US placed trade restrictions on A and gave money and military equipment to B </li></ul><ul><li>Ramirez agreed to break ties with the Axis powers </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalists forced Ramirez to resign and placed General Edelmiro Farrell as President </li></ul><ul><li>The military felt they needed a submissive work force to strengthen the economy </li></ul><ul><li>They attacked organized labor, took over the unions, suppressed newspapers and jailed the opposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had an interesting impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… .Colonel Juan Peron felt that the military should take an active role in strengthening the economy and society </li></ul></ul>Julio Iglesius Un Sentimental
  6. 6. Juan Peron <ul><li>Born in 1895 to a farmer, attended National Military School in 1911 </li></ul><ul><li>Very well respected in the military and became the military attaché to fascist Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Peron became the VP, Minister of War and was in charge of the Labor Department </li></ul><ul><li>He looked to women, ethnic minorities and the working class for support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The populist movement---the masses </li></ul></ul>Ivete Sangalo: Pais Tropical
  7. 7. Populism <ul><li>Instead of attacking labor, he felt the military should join forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1943– he convinced Gov to change policies towards labor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He created the Women’s Division of Labor and Assistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to improve their conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gave a pay raise to the Railway Union as they went on strike </li></ul><ul><li>He continued to give raises and settle disputes in favor of unions </li></ul><ul><li>He also created a state system of pensions and health benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Some did not agree…who? And why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to Peron’s imprisonment in 1945 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Masses came out in support…forced Farrell to reinstate him after only a few days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farrell scheduled a national election </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The “Blue Book”…what was its impact? </li></ul><ul><li>Peron won by 300,000 votes </li></ul>Ivete Sangalo: Como Se Fosse Flor
  8. 8. Peron in Power <ul><li>He used the military to stay in power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He increased spending and ended conscription </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Officers were given control of key industries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He nationalized basic facilities </li></ul><ul><li>He established minimum wage and working condition regulations </li></ul><ul><li>The police broke up strikes by unrecognized unions </li></ul><ul><li>He disbanded the labor party and removed anyone that disagreed with him </li></ul><ul><li>And…he had “Evita” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She connected the descomisados and women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffrage, education, improved conditions and wages… </li></ul></ul>Ivete Sangalo: Chorando Se Fui
  9. 9. Evita <ul><li>Women received the right to vote in 1947 </li></ul><ul><li>1941-1950 women admitted to universities doubled </li></ul><ul><li>65% of women voted for Peron in 1951 </li></ul><ul><li>7 women senators and 24 deputies were elected </li></ul><ul><li>Partido Peronista emerged </li></ul><ul><li>Her death in 1952 greatly weakened Peron </li></ul>Madonna: Don’t Cry(Evita)
  10. 10. <ul><li>Peron took control of the Central Bank </li></ul><ul><li>He supported industrial investment and expansion </li></ul><ul><li>He increased steal production and weapons which kept the military happy </li></ul><ul><li>The economy was strong after the war and was able to pay back its debt in 1947 </li></ul><ul><li>But in 1949 the programs started losing steam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Market strength diminished due to beef and wheat competition with the US and Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial development became an issue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instituto Argentino de Promocion del Intercambio…what was its impact? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Peron’s Fall From Power <ul><li>Recession hit in 1949 </li></ul><ul><li>Marshall Plan supported Europe through loans….but </li></ul><ul><li>Exports decreased and real wages dropped by 20 percent </li></ul><ul><li>The government printed more money to deal with expenditures and bureaucracy… by how much?? </li></ul><ul><li>Peron became more repressive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Liberating Alliance…. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He tried to make Eva a saint…the church did not agree so…. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He lost the support of workers and the military..why? </li></ul><ul><li>1953-Standard Oil got rights to drill and distribute </li></ul><ul><li>A military coup took place in 1955…he fled to Spain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He did not solve anything…including coal, electrical power, transportation, he did not meet the needs of the people and the power of the hacienda owners remained… </li></ul></ul>Shakira: Antologio
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