Cld War 07 Mc Carthyism Web


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Cld War 07 Mc Carthyism Web

  1. 1. McCarthyism & the Red Scare (Part I)
  2. 2. What do you think about Communists? <ul><li>It’s probably a question that no one has ever asked you before. You may think it is totally unimportant. In 1950s America it could not have been more different. How you answered that question could effect your whole life – your career and your future. The USA was in the grip of extreme anti-Communism, and if you thought Communism was good, you might be ‘black listed’, sacked or even attacked. </li></ul><ul><li>Why had this happened? </li></ul><ul><li>As you have learned, there had always been much anti-Communist feeling in the USA. Now there were some obvious factors making that feeling worse. Relations between the capitalist USA and the Communist USSR had turned sour; the Cold War had started; both sides were developing powerful new weapons. US agents were spying on the USSR – so it was reasonable for Americans to suppose that the USSR was doing the same. It was naturally a time of suspicion. </li></ul><ul><li>Against this background, however, various individuals and events helped to stir up this natural suspicion to the point of hysteria in what became known as the Red Scare (although Second Red Scare might be more appropriate). </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Federal Bureau of Investigation <ul><li>FBI had strong anti-Communist director: J. Edgar Hoover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Driving force behind post-WWI Red Scare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1947: Truman allowed him to set up … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federal Employee Loyalty Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed FBI to investigate fed employees for membership in Communist Party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1947-1950: 3 mil investigations, no charges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>212 believed security risks for sympathy toward Communists, forced out of jobs </li></ul></ul>‘ Justice is incidental to law and order.’ -J. Edgar Hoover X-Files theme
  4. 4. The House Un-American Activities Committee <ul><li>HUAC started in 1930s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to investigate un-American activity (i.e. Communism) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became big news in 1947 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1947: ‘Hollywood Ten’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FBI had evidence of prominent writers, producers & directors being Communists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not gov’t employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not illegal to be Communist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HUAC questioned them, ‘Are you now or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party?’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ten took 5 th Amendment protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each spent 1 year in jail for contempt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Blacklisted’, so most never worked in Hollywood again </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HUAC catapulted into front-page news </li></ul>Bill Mauldin cartoon, 1946 HUAC kept Mauldin’s (WWII vet) cartoon on file as possible ‘un-American’ activity. Ummm … free speech? That’s a right, right? Freeplay’s Haunted by Voices
  5. 5. The Hiss Case <ul><li>HUAC, 1948: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whittaker Chambers questioned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Admitted to be a Communist in 1930s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Said Alger Hiss, high-ranking member of US State Dept, was also a Communist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hiss accused Chambers of lying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truman dismissed case </li></ul></ul><ul><li>R. Nixon, HUAC member, pursued case </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found evidence that Hiss did know Chambers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circumstantial evidence Hiss passed info to USSR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hiss never tried for spying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1950: Hiss convicted of perjury; 5 years in jail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-HUAC public: ‘Hiss is guilty!’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-HUAC public: ‘Hiss victim of witch-hunt!’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>> Cold War USSR records revealed Hiss probably was Soviet agent but still argued about…big time!!! </li></ul>Excerpts of Chambers – Hiss testimonies narrated by Edward R. Murrow
  6. 6. The Rosenberg Case <ul><li>1949: USSR develops A-Bomb! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CIA sure it would take Soviets 4 more years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US gov’t strongly suspected spying </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1950: (E) physicist Klaus Fuchs a spy! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigation led to suspicions against Julius & Ethel Rosenberg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>March 1951: Found guilty; death sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>June 1953: executed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controversy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence appeared flimsy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many thought they were found guilty because of Red fears (they were Communists), and anti-Semitism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-Red Scare public: ‘Rosenbergs guilty!’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Red Scare public: ‘Rosenbergs victims of witch-hunt!’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>> Cold War USSR records revealed Julius was Soviet agent, Ethel almost certainly knew & supported husband’s efforts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Along w/ A-Bomb, they also stole info on missile fuse that helped shoot down Powers’ U-2 (you’ll learn later) </li></ul></ul>Freeplay’s Dark Nightmare
  7. 7. The McCarran Act <ul><li>Hiss & Rosenberg cases led to McCarran Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress passed against Truman’s wishes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provision of Internal Security Act (McCarran Act) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Communist organizations must register w/ US gov’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Communists could carry US passports or work in defense industries </li></ul></ul>Pat McCarran, chairman of Senate Internal Security Committee
  8. 8. Focus Activity: Fear’s Fertile Soil <ul><li>Work in pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Write a sentence for each of the following, explaining its role in the Red Scare: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Employee Loyalty Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HUAC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hiss Case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rosenbergs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McCarren Act </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Write one pro- and one con- sentence, alternatively explaining why each act or case helped the USA or hurt the USA </li></ul><ul><li>Choose whether each case mostly helped or mostly hurt the USA, and why </li></ul>