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  1. 2. General Canadian History <ul><li>European contact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Vikings, Columbus…. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1604-1763 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>British control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1764-1867 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-Confederation Canada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1867-1914 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus Task: </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the previous discussion, what impact do you feel European colonialization had or has had on Canada? </li></ul><ul><li>In what way is Canadian history and US history similar? Different? </li></ul>
  2. 3. Canada Pre-war <ul><li>Canada participated in WWI, but fell into a massive recession after </li></ul><ul><li>Especially hit the west </li></ul><ul><li>Led to the formation of new political parties </li></ul><ul><li>Women were allowed to vote in 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>The depression hit Canada hard, but the US involvement pre-war meant millions of dollars </li></ul><ul><li>Sentiment towards the US was favorable….but not always consistent </li></ul>Chilliwack, Watcha Gonna Do
  3. 4. Canada’s Role in WWII <ul><li>Officially entered the war in 1939 </li></ul><ul><li>Around 45,000 lost their lives and another 55,000 were wounded </li></ul><ul><li>War issues helped develop the frustration between the French and English speaking inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>Liberals ruled during the war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning universal health care, pensions and social welfare </li></ul></ul>Paul Anka, Put Your Head on my Shoulders
  4. 5. Postwar Economic Boom <ul><li>Canadian economy boomed after the war was over </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer goods industry improved steadily </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standard of living improved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Baby Boom”—Canada saw a 30% increase in birth rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% decline in infant mortality rate due to… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over 1,200,000 immigrants came to Canada during the 1950’s….huge increase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>95% from Europe with 1/3 rd from British Isles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What did this increase mean??? </li></ul></ul>Bellamy Brothers, Kids of the Baby Boom
  5. 6. Industrial Growth <ul><li>Discovery of iron, oil, uranium and other minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped make Canada a leading industrial nation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foreign firms invested in Canada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Namely from the US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the 1960’s 75% of oil industry and 50% of mining and manufacturing controlled by foreign investors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The U.S. became Canada’s main trading partner </li></ul><ul><li>Trans-Canadian Highway-1970 </li></ul><ul><li>St. Lawrence Seaway-1959 </li></ul><ul><li>So what does this growth mean for the future?? </li></ul>Ronnie Hawkins, Mary Lou
  6. 7. Politics and Governmental Changes <ul><li>1948-McKensie King retires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The liberals keep control of the government in 1949 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Louis St Laurent-PM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The second French-Canadian PM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significance? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1951 established a pension plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$40 a month for 70 plus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1957-took the first step towards universal health care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospital Insurance and Diagnostic Service Act…what did it do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1972 plans extended to include….. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These programs led to problems due to decline in income. How did the doctors handle it? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1984 Canada Health Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped to limit the fees charged by private doctors </li></ul></ul>Ronnie Hawkins, Ruby Baby
  7. 8. Focus Task <ul><li>Please listen to the following clip taken from CBC in 1960 and answer the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What does the man cite as one reason for drafting such a document? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on what you know (or don’t know  ) of American history, why was our BOR drafted? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does the US law professor see as limitations to the CBOR? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He discusses the use of promptly, fair and arbitrary, do you agree that the use of those words can be problematic? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why does he feel the both the US and the Canadian are worthless and what makes them useable? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. The end of St. Laurent <ul><li>Over estimated his power in 1956 over the issue of pipeline building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1957 the Conservatives used the “pipeline debate” to push out the liberals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>John Diefenbaker becomes the new Prime Minister in 1957 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The conservatives took over the congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He advocated close ties to Britain and distancing from the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “One Canada” policy was disturbing to many </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A shift in immigration patterns ensued, Italians not the English became the largest immigrant population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The 1960 Canadian Bill of Rights was passed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Life, Liberty and the personal security” (religion, speech, assembly and the press as well) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Diefenbaker Continued <ul><li>His stance on the cold war hurt his domestic agenda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He did not want to appear to be a puppet of the U.S., but did not like the commies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NORAD and the Avro </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependence on the U.S. ensued which hurt standing with the public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He ignored the U.S. during the CMC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tried to assert independence by ignoring a 1959 agreement to instill nuclear warheads in Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment hit 11% in 1961 </li></ul><ul><li>Government did little to end the recession </li></ul><ul><li>Pearson is elected in 1963 and installs the warheads…would stay until 1984 </li></ul>The Four Lads, No Not Much
  10. 11. The Origins of nationalism <ul><li>The Asbestos minors strike of 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>The Maurice Richard Riot of 1955 </li></ul><ul><li>The CBC strike of 1958 </li></ul><ul><li>The dominance of the Roman Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>The media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio Canada, Le Devoir(newspaper), Cite’ Libre (journal), </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maurice Duplessis, conservative leader of the Union Nationale </li></ul><ul><li>His period in history is known as the “Dark Period” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known for corruption and incestuous ties with the Catholic Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Union Nationale members would exchange whiskey, food and appliances for votes </li></ul></ul>Gilles Vignealt, Mon Pays ( My Country)
  11. 12. Union Nationale <ul><li>The political party of Quebec </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed in Nationalism…very conservative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded in 1935, disbanded in 1989 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supported by most of the clergy of the Roman Catholic church </li></ul><ul><li>Used strong arm tactics, very anti-communism </li></ul><ul><li>Against labor unions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actually put an act forward which modeled the Taft-Hartley Act </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The slogan of the Union Nationale Le ciel est blue, l’enfer est rouge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heaven is blue(Nationale), hell is red(liberals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parish priests often quoted this </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Duplessis favored rural areas over industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>In 1948 he changed the Quebec flag </li></ul><ul><li>Duplessis died in 1959, his successor died as well </li></ul>
  12. 13. Quebec Nationalism <ul><li>The goals prior t to 1960 were to limit the presence of the government in the area </li></ul><ul><li>1961- the average Quebec French Canadian earned 40% less than English speaking inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>1960 Jean Lesage (the Quebec Premier) and the Quiet Revolution, or la revolution tranquille </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced the conservatives and had a profound impact on the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realized that education was key to the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needed federal money….but angered many </li></ul></ul>Faudel, Mon Pays
  13. 14. Lesage <ul><li>Welcomed federal programs but demanded a larger share of the revenue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Angered many FC because of the intrusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angered other provinces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In a short time, Quebec became an urban area, rather than a rural Catholic society </li></ul><ul><li>Many citizens in Quebec began to identify themselves as Quebecois…meaning? </li></ul>
  14. 15. The Origins continued <ul><li>Francophone Quebec workers were living below the poverty line </li></ul><ul><li>Voting rights became an issue, especially for the Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Diefenbaker permitted all “Status” Indians the right to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Quebec was recognized as a “nation within a nation” </li></ul><ul><li>A new flag was adopted in 1963 to try and connect the French and English </li></ul>Paul Anka, Put Your Head on my Shoulders
  15. 16. The Quiet Revolution <ul><li>Essentially this was a period of intense change, through a peaceful nationalist movement in Quebec </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman Catholic Church controlled health care and education </li></ul><ul><li>The revolution secularized society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools remained Catholic or Protestant in character </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jean Lesage established a liberal provincial government </li></ul><ul><li>It ended in 1970 when the October Crisis occurred </li></ul>
  16. 17. Violence <ul><li>1963-formation of the Front de Liberation du Quebec (FLQ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal was an independent socialist Quebec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bombings, bank robberies…murder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1970 James Cross was kidnapped </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The British trade commissioner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In return the FLQ would be permitted to read their manifesto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They kidnapped and killed the Quebec Minister of Labor a few days later </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trudeau invoked the War Measures act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent federal troops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many FLQ members fled to Cuba </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Quebecois were convinced violence did not work </li></ul></ul>La Bolduc, Cant really spell the title
  17. 18. Curtailing Quebec Nationalism <ul><li>1968 Pearson retires </li></ul><ul><li>Pierre E. Trudeau becomes the new PM and stays until 1984 (with a brief interlude in 1979) </li></ul><ul><li>Official Languages Act gets passed in 1969…impact?? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs billions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did help stop the rising separatist feelings </li></ul></ul>Rush, Limelight
  18. 19. Parti Quebecois(PQ) <ul><li>1974 a law was passed in Quebec which stated that French would be spoken in the workplace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-French speaking kids could only go to English schools if they demonstrated competency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The law had varied responses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PQ gained control of government in 1976 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are a separatist party and advocate secession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They want a social welfare state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The French Language Act was passed in 1977..what did it do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrants had to educate their children in French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also affected businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy and culture were effected a great deal </li></ul></ul>Loco Locass, Super Mario
  19. 20. Rene Levesque <ul><li>Founder of the PQ party in 1966 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Premier in 1980 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put forth a ballot measure to discuss Quebec sovereignty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had mixed results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trudeau (PM) tries to deal with seperatist movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution Act of 1982…what did it do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Levesque did not sign it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Liberals took over Quebec in 1985, only to gain lose control to the Conservatives in 1994 (PQ) </li></ul><ul><li>The Clarity Act was passed, what did that mean </li></ul><ul><li>Currently the issue of a separate Quebec has subsided </li></ul>Loverboy, Working for the Weekend
  20. 21. Canada and Vietnam <ul><li>Most Canadians favored supporting the U.S. in the war </li></ul><ul><li>Canada did not contribute troops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They did so in Korea, not now </li></ul></ul><ul><li>125,000 draft dodgers fled to Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Pearson suggested in a speech that the U.S. should stop bombing NV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LBJ privately threatened him  </li></ul></ul>Gordon Lightfoot, Sundown
  21. 22. The Late 20 th Century <ul><li>Trudeau retired in 1984….I don’t blame him </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment was at 11% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberals increased taxes leading to resounding Conservative victory in 1984 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elected Brian Mulroney </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1993 he signed the NAFTA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped to increase exports with the US </li></ul></ul>Alanis Morissette, Thank U
  22. 23. 20 th Century Continued <ul><li>Participated in Persian Gulf War but </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military became increasingly weak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worried they could not keep up with NATO obligations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kim Cambell took over in 1993 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only female leader in NA country </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1993 PM elections Jean Chretien (Liberal) won and so did the liberals in Parliament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The conservatives accused Chretien of talking out of both sides of his mouth…literally(he suffered from Bell’s Palsy) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conservatives came to power in 2006 and increased military spending </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How much are we talking…?? </li></ul></ul>Nickelback, How you Remind Me
  23. 24. Canada and Native Americans <ul><li>By 1982-about 4% claimed NA ancestry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed the Assembly of First Nations and lobbied for NA rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About ½ of Canada has never been formally ceded to Canada by natives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1975 Cree and Inui gave their land around James Bay for hunting and fishing rights along with money </li></ul><ul><li>1999 Nanuvat (“our land”) was established out of NW territories </li></ul><ul><li>Inuits make up about 85% of inhabitants </li></ul>Steppenwolf, Magic Carpet Ride