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Chapter 1 Student

  1. 1. Chapter 1 An Overview of the Juvenile Justice System in the United States
  2. 2. The Juvenile Justice System <ul><li>The Juvenile Justice System is an analog to the criminal justice system. </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of an __________ network of agencies, institutions, organizations, and personnel who process juvenile offenders. </li></ul><ul><li>This __________ is comprised of law enforcement, the courts, corrections, and probation/parole. </li></ul><ul><li>There is ______ national juvenile justice system, only local agencies and organizations. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Juvenile Justice System <ul><li>Core principles that distinguish juvenile courts from criminal courts include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>___________ jurisdiction (up to age 17 in most states) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>__________ legal proceedings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on ____________, not their crimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate _______________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>________________ of proceedings </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Criminal Justice System <ul><li>Legislatures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal laws originate as the result of legislative ______________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>__________________ is the power of courts to hear cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress ___________ criminal laws that are enforced by federal agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the community level, city and county governments determine laws </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Criminal Justice System <ul><li>Law Enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>2008—24,000 police and sheriff’s departments in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Over 1,500,000 officers with arrest ____________ </li></ul><ul><li>Law enforcement officers are most likely to have direct contact with juveniles </li></ul><ul><li>Police _______________ important in juvenile justice </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Criminal Justice System <ul><li>Prosecution and the Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>________________—obtaining descriptive information on those arrested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial appearance—advising defendants of charges against them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>______________—a surety in the form of money or property to ensure appearance of defendant at trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plea bargains—________-conviction agreements where defendants enter guilty pleas in exchange for concessions </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Juvenile and Criminal Courts Distinguished <ul><li>Juvenile courts are _____________ proceedings. </li></ul><ul><li>Juvenile proceedings are more informal. </li></ul><ul><li>In 39 states juveniles are __________ entitled to trial by jury. </li></ul><ul><li>_______________ are adversarial proceedings. </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal courts are courts of _____________. </li></ul><ul><li>Difference in standard of proof. </li></ul><ul><li>Range of penalties in juvenile court are ___________. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Parens Patriae <ul><li>Originated with the King of England in the 12 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Literally, it means the _________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Applied to juvenile matters, it means that the king is in charge of, makes decisions about, and has the responsibility for all matters involving juveniles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In English common law, parental authority was in the early upbringing of children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After age 7, children required some responsibility for their own actions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability to _______ was gradually shifted to the state. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Parens Patriae <ul><li>Chancellors for the various districts, in the name of the king, adjudicated matters involving juveniles. </li></ul><ul><li>Juveniles had _____ legal rights or standing in any court. </li></ul><ul><li>They were the sole ____________ of the king. </li></ul><ul><li>Children were therefore wards of the court and the court had the responsibility to safeguard their ____________________. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Modern Interpretations of Parens Patriae <ul><li>Since the mid-1960s, juveniles have acquired greater ___________________ rights similar to those enjoyed by adults in criminal courts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some believe that as juveniles acquire more constitutional rights, the juvenile court is transforming into one of greater criminalization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As juveniles obtain a greater range of constitutional rights, they become less subject to the influence of Parens patriae . </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Juvenile Delinquents and Delinquency <ul><li>Juvenile Delinquency: Any criminal act committed by an infant or someone who has ________ reached his/her age of majority. </li></ul><ul><li>Ages of majority vary among jurisdictions; many states use “under age 18” or “under age 21”; federal government defines juveniles as those who have committed crimes and have not reached their 18 th birthday. </li></ul><ul><li>Under common law, the minimum age of accountability is age __________. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Juvenile Delinquency and Status Offenses <ul><li>Juvenile Delinquents differ from status offenders. </li></ul><ul><li>Status offenders do ________ commit crimes. </li></ul><ul><li>Status offenses are acts committed by juveniles that would _________ be considered crimes if adults committed them. Examples are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Truancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runaway behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curfew violation </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Truancy <ul><li>Truancy is ___________ from school without permission or excuse. </li></ul><ul><li>There are _______________ or more truants in the United States each school day. </li></ul><ul><li>The actual number of truants is _______________, although that it is believed that truancy leads to more serious offending including drug and alcohol use/abuse. </li></ul><ul><li>School truant officers are responsible for locating truants and bringing them to school authorities for official action. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Runaways <ul><li>In 2008 there were at least 250,000 runaways in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer than ______ percent of all offenses charged against juveniles include runaway behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Runaways are those who leave home ____________ parental permission. </li></ul><ul><li>Runaway behavior is also associated with sexual exploitation, illicit drug use, and alcohol abuse. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Curfew Violators <ul><li>Curfews are imposed on juveniles in many jurisdictions. </li></ul><ul><li>Law enforcement officers enforce curfew laws and can arrest juveniles who violate curfews. </li></ul><ul><li>It is _________________ how many curfew violators there are. </li></ul><ul><li>Curfew laws are important because juveniles have a high likelihood of getting into ___________________ curfew hours. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Juvenile Court Interest in Status Offenders <ul><li>Courts are interested in chronic and persistent status offenders because of their potential for more ______________ criminality. </li></ul><ul><li>Chronicity of offending among youths seems to be related to ___________ contact with the courts. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater court contact is said to stigmatize youths and induce self-definitions as criminals. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenses (DSO) <ul><li>The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 (JJDPA) was established by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. </li></ul><ul><li>Courts are interested in status offenders because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Status offenders are believed to benefit more from treatment than punishment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater court contact stigmatizes youths and criminalizes their conduct. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-definitions of status offenders as criminals may lead to offense escalation, where juveniles may progress to more serious offenses. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenses <ul><li>The JJDPA has changed and modified its focus over the years toward status offenders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>_________: status offenders should be separated by sight and sound from adult offenders in jails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>_________: status offenders should be removed from jails and lockups and treated by social services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>_________: Congress withholds money from states unwilling to remove juveniles from secure confinement. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenses <ul><li>DSO has three general meanings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>_________________: removal of status offenders from jails and lockups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divestiture of jurisdiction, where juvenile court judges relinquish their control over status offenders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversion of status offenders to social services where they can be treated and ________ punished. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Potential Outcomes of DSO <ul><li>Reduction in number of status offenders held in adult jails and other secure confinement facilities </li></ul><ul><li>_______________-widening </li></ul><ul><li>_____________ impact of recidivism rates </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of service delivery problems </li></ul><ul><li>Public views of juvenile justice system as _____________ on crime </li></ul>
  21. 21. Ambiguity of Adolescence and Adulthood <ul><li>Police have broad __________________ power </li></ul><ul><li>Police arrest is main way for juvenile to _______________ juvenile justice system </li></ul><ul><li>________________ from parents, neighbors, and victims are other methods of entry </li></ul>
  22. 22. Taken Into Custody <ul><li>When youths are taken into custody they are __________ necessarily arrested. </li></ul><ul><li>Some youths are taken into custody as a _________________ measure. </li></ul><ul><li>Being arrested is a _____________ serious police action. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Juveniles Held in Jails <ul><li>2008—7,200 juveniles under 18 being held in jails </li></ul><ul><li>Many youth are jailed for ___________ time periods </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court authorized ________________ detention of juveniles ( Schall v. Martin , 1984) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Referrals <ul><li>__________________ made to juvenile court authorities that a juvenile requires the court’s attention </li></ul><ul><li>Referrals can be made by _______________ </li></ul><ul><li>Ninety percent are made by ___________________________ </li></ul>
  25. 25. Intake <ul><li>Screening procedure where one or more actions against a juvenile are recommended </li></ul><ul><li>Some jurisdictions require intake hearings </li></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>__________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remand youth to parental custody </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>_____________ youth to parental custody with provisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>____________ Divert youth to alternative dispute resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>___________ youth to juvenile prosecutor for further action </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Adjudicatory Proceedings <ul><li>______________ by jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 50 percent of juveniles in most jurisdictions have assistance of counsel </li></ul><ul><li>Most jurisdictions juvenile judges have absolute __________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Adjudication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judgment or action on the _______________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If hearing supports allegations in the petition, the judge disposes or punishes the juvenile </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Juvenile Court Dispositions <ul><li>Disposing equivalent to sentencing of adult offenders </li></ul><ul><li>____________________ dispositions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal warnings or reprimands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>____________________ dispositions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probationary options </li></ul></ul><ul><li>____________________ dispositions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonsecure custody or secure custody </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Juvenile Corrections <ul><li>2008—62,000 juveniles in residential and nonresidential correctional programs </li></ul><ul><li>Juvenile corrections range as _____________ as in adult system </li></ul><ul><li>Probations, intermediate punishments, incarceration </li></ul>
  29. 29. Juvenile Parole <ul><li>When portion of incarceration is served juveniles may be _____________________ </li></ul><ul><li>____________________ aftercare </li></ul><ul><li>2008—estimated 101,000 juveniles on parole </li></ul>