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    Chapter 1 Student Chapter 1 Student Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 1 An Overview of the Juvenile Justice System in the United States
    • The Juvenile Justice System
      • The Juvenile Justice System is an analog to the criminal justice system.
      • It consists of an __________ network of agencies, institutions, organizations, and personnel who process juvenile offenders.
      • This __________ is comprised of law enforcement, the courts, corrections, and probation/parole.
      • There is ______ national juvenile justice system, only local agencies and organizations.
    • The Juvenile Justice System
      • Core principles that distinguish juvenile courts from criminal courts include:
        • ___________ jurisdiction (up to age 17 in most states)
        • __________ legal proceedings
        • Focus on ____________, not their crimes
        • Intermediate _______________
        • ________________ of proceedings
    • The Criminal Justice System
      • Legislatures
        • Criminal laws originate as the result of legislative ______________
        • __________________ is the power of courts to hear cases
        • Congress ___________ criminal laws that are enforced by federal agencies
        • At the community level, city and county governments determine laws
    • The Criminal Justice System
      • Law Enforcement
      • 2008—24,000 police and sheriff’s departments in the United States
      • Over 1,500,000 officers with arrest ____________
      • Law enforcement officers are most likely to have direct contact with juveniles
      • Police _______________ important in juvenile justice
    • The Criminal Justice System
      • Prosecution and the Courts
        • ________________—obtaining descriptive information on those arrested
        • Initial appearance—advising defendants of charges against them
        • ______________—a surety in the form of money or property to ensure appearance of defendant at trial
        • Plea bargains—________-conviction agreements where defendants enter guilty pleas in exchange for concessions
    • Juvenile and Criminal Courts Distinguished
      • Juvenile courts are _____________ proceedings.
      • Juvenile proceedings are more informal.
      • In 39 states juveniles are __________ entitled to trial by jury.
      • _______________ are adversarial proceedings.
      • Criminal courts are courts of _____________.
      • Difference in standard of proof.
      • Range of penalties in juvenile court are ___________.
    • Parens Patriae
      • Originated with the King of England in the 12 th century.
      • Literally, it means the _________________________
      • Applied to juvenile matters, it means that the king is in charge of, makes decisions about, and has the responsibility for all matters involving juveniles
        • In English common law, parental authority was in the early upbringing of children.
        • After age 7, children required some responsibility for their own actions.
        • Accountability to _______ was gradually shifted to the state.
    • Parens Patriae
      • Chancellors for the various districts, in the name of the king, adjudicated matters involving juveniles.
      • Juveniles had _____ legal rights or standing in any court.
      • They were the sole ____________ of the king.
      • Children were therefore wards of the court and the court had the responsibility to safeguard their ____________________.
    • Modern Interpretations of Parens Patriae
      • Since the mid-1960s, juveniles have acquired greater ___________________ rights similar to those enjoyed by adults in criminal courts.
        • Some believe that as juveniles acquire more constitutional rights, the juvenile court is transforming into one of greater criminalization.
        • As juveniles obtain a greater range of constitutional rights, they become less subject to the influence of Parens patriae .
    • Juvenile Delinquents and Delinquency
      • Juvenile Delinquency: Any criminal act committed by an infant or someone who has ________ reached his/her age of majority.
      • Ages of majority vary among jurisdictions; many states use “under age 18” or “under age 21”; federal government defines juveniles as those who have committed crimes and have not reached their 18 th birthday.
      • Under common law, the minimum age of accountability is age __________.
    • Juvenile Delinquency and Status Offenses
      • Juvenile Delinquents differ from status offenders.
      • Status offenders do ________ commit crimes.
      • Status offenses are acts committed by juveniles that would _________ be considered crimes if adults committed them. Examples are:
        • Truancy
        • Runaway behavior
        • Curfew violation
    • Truancy
      • Truancy is ___________ from school without permission or excuse.
      • There are _______________ or more truants in the United States each school day.
      • The actual number of truants is _______________, although that it is believed that truancy leads to more serious offending including drug and alcohol use/abuse.
      • School truant officers are responsible for locating truants and bringing them to school authorities for official action.
    • Runaways
      • In 2008 there were at least 250,000 runaways in the United States.
      • Fewer than ______ percent of all offenses charged against juveniles include runaway behavior.
      • Runaways are those who leave home ____________ parental permission.
      • Runaway behavior is also associated with sexual exploitation, illicit drug use, and alcohol abuse.
    • Curfew Violators
      • Curfews are imposed on juveniles in many jurisdictions.
      • Law enforcement officers enforce curfew laws and can arrest juveniles who violate curfews.
      • It is _________________ how many curfew violators there are.
      • Curfew laws are important because juveniles have a high likelihood of getting into ___________________ curfew hours.
    • Juvenile Court Interest in Status Offenders
      • Courts are interested in chronic and persistent status offenders because of their potential for more ______________ criminality.
      • Chronicity of offending among youths seems to be related to ___________ contact with the courts.
      • Greater court contact is said to stigmatize youths and induce self-definitions as criminals.
    • Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenses (DSO)
      • The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 (JJDPA) was established by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
      • Courts are interested in status offenders because:
        • Status offenders are believed to benefit more from treatment than punishment.
        • Greater court contact stigmatizes youths and criminalizes their conduct.
        • Self-definitions of status offenders as criminals may lead to offense escalation, where juveniles may progress to more serious offenses.
    • Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenses
      • The JJDPA has changed and modified its focus over the years toward status offenders:
        • _________: status offenders should be separated by sight and sound from adult offenders in jails
        • _________: status offenders should be removed from jails and lockups and treated by social services
        • _________: Congress withholds money from states unwilling to remove juveniles from secure confinement.
    • Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenses
      • DSO has three general meanings:
        • _________________: removal of status offenders from jails and lockups
        • Divestiture of jurisdiction, where juvenile court judges relinquish their control over status offenders.
        • Diversion of status offenders to social services where they can be treated and ________ punished.
    • Potential Outcomes of DSO
      • Reduction in number of status offenders held in adult jails and other secure confinement facilities
      • _______________-widening
      • _____________ impact of recidivism rates
      • Creation of service delivery problems
      • Public views of juvenile justice system as _____________ on crime
    • Ambiguity of Adolescence and Adulthood
      • Police have broad __________________ power
      • Police arrest is main way for juvenile to _______________ juvenile justice system
      • ________________ from parents, neighbors, and victims are other methods of entry
    • Taken Into Custody
      • When youths are taken into custody they are __________ necessarily arrested.
      • Some youths are taken into custody as a _________________ measure.
      • Being arrested is a _____________ serious police action.
    • Juveniles Held in Jails
      • 2008—7,200 juveniles under 18 being held in jails
      • Many youth are jailed for ___________ time periods
      • Supreme Court authorized ________________ detention of juveniles ( Schall v. Martin , 1984)
    • Referrals
      • __________________ made to juvenile court authorities that a juvenile requires the court’s attention
      • Referrals can be made by _______________
      • Ninety percent are made by ___________________________
    • Intake
      • Screening procedure where one or more actions against a juvenile are recommended
      • Some jurisdictions require intake hearings
      • Results:
        • __________________
        • Remand youth to parental custody
        • _____________ youth to parental custody with provisions
        • ____________ Divert youth to alternative dispute resolution
        • ___________ youth to juvenile prosecutor for further action
    • Adjudicatory Proceedings
      • ______________ by jurisdiction
      • Less than 50 percent of juveniles in most jurisdictions have assistance of counsel
      • Most jurisdictions juvenile judges have absolute __________________
      • Adjudication
        • Judgment or action on the _______________
        • If hearing supports allegations in the petition, the judge disposes or punishes the juvenile
    • Juvenile Court Dispositions
      • Disposing equivalent to sentencing of adult offenders
      • ____________________ dispositions
        • Verbal warnings or reprimands
      • ____________________ dispositions
        • Probationary options
      • ____________________ dispositions
        • Nonsecure custody or secure custody
    • Juvenile Corrections
      • 2008—62,000 juveniles in residential and nonresidential correctional programs
      • Juvenile corrections range as _____________ as in adult system
      • Probations, intermediate punishments, incarceration
    • Juvenile Parole
      • When portion of incarceration is served juveniles may be _____________________
      • ____________________ aftercare
      • 2008—estimated 101,000 juveniles on parole